%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140930134628+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140930134628+01'00') /Title (Venice and the Cultural Imagination: ?This Strange Dream Upon the Water?) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3976 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Venice and the Cultural Imagination: ?This Strange Dream Upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(the Water?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the start of his brilliant essay ?Venice?, first published in 1882, Henry James famously commented that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there ?was nothing new? to be said about the city. An equally famous quotation is to be found in the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(edition of Murray?s Handbook for travellers in Northern Italy published forty years earlier: ?no one enters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Venice a stranger.? \(1842, p. 326\) Both Henry James and the mediaevalist and anthologist, Francis Palgrave, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responsible for the second observation, highlight how educated 19th-century men and women in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglophone world possessed an incredible familiarity with the former Serenissima, a familiarity that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extended even to the vast majority who would never visit Italy. For, from the fall of the Napoleonic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kingdom of Italy, Venice was encountered both directly by steadily increasing numbers of travellers and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tourists, and indirectly through legion representations in art, literature, travel writing and histories, and, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the century progressed, through photographic images. Such engagement with this most recognisable of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(urban spaces persisted into the 20th century and remains to this day. It is, alas, this very familiarity that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prompts so many authors with only the most passing knowledge of and acquaintance with this remarkable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(place to feel that they can pronounce upon it with authority. Yet Venice?s pivotal rle in western culture ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1282)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 5 July, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael O'Neill)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark Sandy)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sarah Wootton)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781848931664)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(224pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pickering and Chatto)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Laven)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7965 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one of the contributors to this book neatly describes is as ?the great intertextual echo chamber of Western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature? \(p. 143\) ? and its iconic status combine to make it an especially hard topic on which to be either )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting or original. On the one hand, even beginning to master the huge and polyglot literature on Venice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is both daunting and immensely time-consuming; penetrating and using its nonpareil archives can be even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more demanding. On the other hand, so pervasive are the clichs and topoi that it is only a most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conscientious scholar or genuinely original poet, painter, or film-maker who can free herself from them. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sadly, despite the editors? vaunting the novelty of their approach, most of the contributors to this volume )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appear to lack the originality and the knowledge to live up to their boasts. Based on a series of lectures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(delivered between October 2009 and March 2010 under the auspices of Durham University?s Institute of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Advanced Study, the chapters in this book will do little to enhance the reputation of the contributing authors.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Let me turn to the more worthwhile pieces in the collection first. Sarah Wootton and Rebecca White offer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(workmanlike, and clearly-argued, essays on literature and film. Wootton is especially sensitive to the way in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which paintings are referenced and evokedboth in both James?s novel The Wings of the Dove, and in Iain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Softley?s film adaptation. White focuses on the disturbing Daphne Du Maurier short story ?Don?t look )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(now?, and on Nicolas Roeg?s famed screen adaption, which, in its very attempt to emphasise the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?changeability? of the city, to escape conventional representation, has risked ?once more imprisoning Venice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within a clichd frame? \(p.171\). The best essays in the book are by Dinah Birch, Pamela Knight and Jason )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harding. Birch offers a thoughtful and nuanced discussion of the central place of Venice to transformations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Ruskin?s ideas. In particular she highlights how his understanding of the city impacted on ?changing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concepts of memory, in their broadest literary and cultural definitions?, and ?the shifting dynamic between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the urgent implications of history and those of the single life; more specifically his own life? \(p. 96\). One of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the especially interesting aspects of Birch?s analysis is her explanation of how Ruskin?s reading of Venice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was shaped, as he grew older, by his own sense of decay within the decaying city. There are shades of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much younger Byron here, who liked ?the evident decay?, which echoed his own moral and physical state. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Also impressive is Pamela Knights? study of Edith Wharton?s ?Venetian backgrounds?, which unpicks the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(novelist?s ?sense of deep interconnections between reading, writing, travelling and individual identity? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(117\). The essay is richly rewarding in its treatment of Wharton?s understanding of Italian contexts ? real and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imaginary ? and in suggesting how the ?insights of her travel writings infiltrate her American visions?. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her exploration of American engagement with Venice, she is at her most assured when dealing with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(female gaze, but, as a 19th-century specialist, I was particularly struck by her thoughtful unpicking of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work of the American consul in Venice, William Dean Howells, author of )] TJ ET BT 392.612 356.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Venetian Life)] TJ ET BT 456.944 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and biographer of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lincoln, as well as a much praised, although now little read, novelist. Knights points to Howells?s awareness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the way that, if one took the clichs away from representation of Venice, there was a risk that Venice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could not be represented at all. She is equally persuasive addressing the writer?s later portrayals of the city )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as uncomfortably plagued by transatlantic vulgarity and threatened by modernity, the gondola challenged by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?darting motor-boats?. This tension between modernity and the historic, which so unsettled Ruskin \(one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(need only think of his delight at the destruction of the rail causeway during the 1848?9 insurrection\), has led )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to bitter clashes amongst Venetians themselves; it is perhaps most exquisitely unpicked in Gabriele )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(d?Annunzio?s )] TJ ET BT 105.668 242.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Il Fuoco)] TJ ET BT 146.660 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, but was also manifest less artistically in debates between modernisers, such as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrialist Giuseppe Volpi, and traditionalists, typified by the historian and politician Pompeo Molmenti. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persists today, perhaps most fervently articulated in arguments between those who use motorised vessels and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those who see moto ondoso \(waves generated by such craft\) as one of the key challenges to the city?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environment and future survival. It is a shame that more of the authors could not have explicitly teased out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this conflict between the old and the new in an equally interesting fashion. One piece that does manage to do )] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so is Jason Harding?s elegantly written and cleverly constructed essay, which points to the way in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both Eliot and Pound ?advance a mythic narrative of Venice?s moral and cultural fall into decline which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serves to rebuke the perceived decadence of modern civilization? \(p. 142\). The essay serves too to remind )] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those of us who admire Pound for the beauty of his verses, quite how repellent were his politics.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(All the contributions I have so far discussed are scholarly, well-structured, and add something to discussions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the place of Venice in our cultural imagination without threatening to be especially innovative or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radical. I am far less convinced by the virtues of the other pieces in this volume. Anyone who has heard )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7586 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bernard Beatty lecture will know that it is an exhilarating experience. The problem with his essay is that it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(still reads like a brilliant lecture. It is the brio that one remembers after hearing Beatty speak rather than the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detail. But the devil is in the detail, and a published piece is open to closer scrutiny. Beatty here is cavalier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with footnotes and in his treatment of historical background; some of what he says about the latter is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tendentious. Moreover, his reliance on Eglin for an account of British attitudes to the fall of Venice leads )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(him into problems. Eglin confidently asserts, and Beatty repeats, that ?it was as the conqueror of Venice that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Napoleon Bonaparte [...] became generally known in Britain?. This was possibly true, but misses the point )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the overwhelming majority of Britons, even the well-educated and well-travelled, were both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unconcerned about the collapse of the ancient republic, and relied for their news principally on translations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the French press. Later, as Beatty is well aware, they would turn to Francophone apologists for their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical accounts. Few people took any notice of John Hinckley?s translation of Barzoni?s attack on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bonaparte, and it is striking that Eglin \(Beatty?s principal but not especially reliable source\) seems to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(utterly unaware of the original authorship. Elsewhere Beatty?s mention of the ?brief declaration of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([Venetian] independence? in 1848 is very misleading: the Venetian revolution was amongst the most durable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Europe, and was the longest lasting in Italy \(Manin surrendered only in late August 1849, a year and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(half after the Austrians had been ousted\). Similarly, it is simply untrue to say that the first Venetian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ambassadors arrived in England in 1603; Giovanni Michiel, for example, was reporting from the court of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Queen Mary in 1554. Frustratingly, there is no footnote to show the origin of this mistake.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I could point to other such confusions. But I have a bigger bone to pick with Beatty over his interpretation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Byron?s Venetian sojourn. Beatty like so many others rightly emphasises the lines in Canto IV of Childe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harold, in which Byron identifies ?Otway, Radcliffe, Schiller, Shakespeare?s art? as the origins of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Venice. But Beatty then, to my mind, makes two mistakes. First, he fails to emphasise that this was from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Byron?s perspective exactly how things should be. Four writers, who had never set foot in the place, had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actually created his picture of the ?greenest island of my imagination?. For Byron it was the literary picture )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Venice that mattered; this was what would endure even when the city was reclaimed by the seas. In his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narcissistic brilliance, Byron considered his poetry, albeit located within a broader intertextual framework, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of much greater value than the decaying former dominante. Second, contrary to what Beatty implies, Byron )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was not very interested in a ?real? Venice at all. Not only did Byron spend most of his time in the city \(when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not writing self-obsessed letters or wonderful poetry\) in a state of priapic drunkenness, but he quite clearly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had next to no appreciation for its urban fabric, its paintings and its architecture, or even its inhabitants. Bar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very occasional affectionate remarks about servants or sexual partners, Byron?s letters are remarkable for his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contempt for Venetians: the women were all ?whores? and even those with whom he had longer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationships were animalised ? they became antelopes or tigers, referred to with about as much esteem as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his dog Mutz. \(I would note here that this was not Byron?s usual way of describing women.\) Byron also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(singularly failed to understand or even reflect upon either Venice?s economic or political realities. His )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criticism of the relatively mild Austrian government as ?infernal tyranny? was absurd. The Austrians treated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Byron as an honoured guest; and the authorities only subjected him to police observation \(with good reason\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when he left Habsburg territory and started actively to conspire against Italy?s newly established political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stability. \(For what it is worth Paride Zajotti, the most articulate apologist for Habsburg rule in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Restoration period, was a dedicated admirer of Byron.\) The only substantive criticism Byron made of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Austrians while living in Venice was the \(false\) assertion that Austrian rule made it hard for him to acquire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English newspapers. While he would write that his having lived in Venice gave him the edge over earlier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literary figures who set plays in the city, there is no sustained sense that Byron much liked Venice beyond )] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the cheapness of living and the possibility of paying for copious amounts of sex; the few very general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comments about its aesthetic charms, to my mind, carry little conviction; when in Venice, Byron?s preferred )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(haunts were always on the fringes: the Armenian monastery, the Lido, the banks of the Brenta. Byron?s city, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unlike that of many British visitors \(for example, the Shelleys\), was an almost entirely literary construct.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark Sandy?s essay on ?reimagining? Venice offers a slightly hackneyed ramble through some well-known )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(texts. There would be little wrong with this, were his contribution not chequered by whole sentences that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make no sense at all. Let me offer just one example:)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 6446 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That the city?s ruinous state stems, partly, from political corruption is evident in Mary Shelley?s )] TJ ET BT 64.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invocation of Venice as ?the widowed daughter of ocean?, which, through an interwoven fabric )] TJ ET BT 64.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of allusion, recalls Wordsworth?s earlier sense of the city espoused to the sea, Byron?s later )] TJ ET BT 64.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reversal of gender, in Childe Harold, of how ?The spouseless Adriatic mourns her lord;/ And )] TJ ET BT 64.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(annual marriage now no more renewed?, and the end of the Doge?s ritualistic renewal of these )] TJ ET BT 64.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vows after the violation of Venice?s betrothal to the Adriatic and the end of the Republic. Here )] TJ ET BT 64.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the sea is also representative of the oceanic process of change, decay, memory and history. \(p. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(33\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 646.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I have re-read this passage repeatedly, and am still utterly baffled. Is some sort of elaborate game going on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 632.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(here at the reader?s expense? Elsewhere, Sandy is guilty of letting anachronistic free association run riot. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thus, we are told in a discussion of Shelley?s wonderful Maddalo that a reference to a solitary fisherman on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Lido should be read in the following fashion.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 565.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The figure of the ?lone fisher? underlines this sense of natural indifference, but also obliquely )] TJ ET BT 64.016 551.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recollects the atavistic fertility myth of the Fisher King \(who awaits the future restoration of his )] TJ ET BT 64.016 536.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(barren lands\) and finds a future affinity with T.S. Eliot?s urbanized version of this figure in The )] TJ ET BT 64.016 522.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Waste Land, who muses on death, decay and waste in less salubrious climes, ?While I was )] TJ ET BT 64.016 508.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fishing in the dull canal/On a winter evening round behind the gashouse? \(p. 30\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(My own temptation is to suggest that Shelley was simply offering an evocative description of the bleak and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 455.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deserted nature of the Lido, but there again I am a historian not a literary scholar. Yet if there is a deeper )] TJ ET BT 34.016 441.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(symbolic value here, why hit upon the Fisher King? Why should the ?lone fisher? not ?recollect? the Greek )] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fisherman god Glaukos, or one of Christ?s fishermen disciples, or even the devil, ?the great fisher of souls?? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As for the reference to T. S. Eliot, it is so arbitrary that it might as well be to the children?s nursery rhyme )] TJ ET BT 34.016 398.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Once I caught a fish alive? or the Geordie ?Thou shall hev a fishy?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 372.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael O?Neil?s references to Calvino and Scarpa are perhaps a legitimate ? although rather strained ? way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 358.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to try to frame the opening of the essay, but his allusions to modernists ? Eliot, Hart Crane, and Yeats ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(become increasingly forced and perplexing as he explores Dickens: ?"Its one will ? flow", Hart Crane?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 329.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(phrase about the Mississippi, tells us about one motive at work in Dickens?s tour de force [...]' \(p.80\); ?Little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 315.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dorrit has none of Yeats?s rage [...]? \(p. 85\). Probably the most absurd passage in the article comes when its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author treats us to a comparison between Dickens?s oneiric treatment of Venice in )] TJ ET BT 432.260 301.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Pictures from Italy)] TJ ET BT 522.920 301.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the )] TJ ET BT 51.680 287.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Communist Manifesto)] TJ ET BT 157.352 287.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. This is legitimated by the fact that they are ?roughly contemporaneous? \(for once )] TJ ET BT 34.016 272.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the author is not being anachronistic\) and both deal with the ?spectral?.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 234.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marx?s spectre asserts a life denied to the supposedly substantial structures of capitalism. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 220.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dickens?s chapter remains a fantastical trifle that lightly speaks of what is not be [sic] trifled )] TJ ET BT 64.016 206.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with, the imagination?s unexorcized, post-Romantic power. Marx?s metaphor thinks it describes )] TJ ET BT 64.016 191.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a truth; Dickens?s images know they are metaphors. \(p. 81\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 153.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrew Wilton?s essay is simply striking for saying almost nothing of any novelty. Again I suspect it would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have made for a delightful lecture for a general ? and not especially well-informed ? audience. Readers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 124.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wishing to know about Turner and Venice would be much better advised to look at Ian Warrell?s work in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 110.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(catalogue )] TJ ET BT 83.000 110.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Turner and Venice)] TJ ET BT 172.988 110.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( produced for the major Tate exhibition of 2003. As someone with very much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 96.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less knowledge of music than of literature or the visual arts, I was especially eager to read Jeremy Dibble?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(piece on Venice and opera. However, I rapidly became frustrated both by its rather hackneyed treatment of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 67.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the political rle of opera \(a topic which has been subject to much revision in Italian historiography\), and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 53.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author?s evident vagueness over 19th-century history. As I read I became irritated at a certain sparseness of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 8521 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(footnotes in some of the more interesting passages. Inspired to delve further into the subject, I returned to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Margaret Plant?s study of Venice since 1797 \(of which I have long been a qualified fan\), and to an academic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(article praised by Dibble, James Johnson?s ?The myth of Venice in nineteenth-century opera?. It soon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became clear how quite long passages of Dibble?s essay, often those without especially thorough footnotes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were rather dependent on both Plant and Johnson, occasionally seeming little more than prcis of their texts. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Had I encountered something similar in a first-year undergraduate essay, I would have been inclined to offer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some stern advice about appropriate academic practice. Especially strikingly was one quotation from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wagner, for which Dibble cites the Whittal translation of 1983; it is also cited by Margaret Plant. Dibble, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, gives the wrong page number in his footnote. He appears simply to have lifted the passage directly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from Plant, but to have copied the bibliographic details and page number from the previous Plant endnote. I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(am sure that many scholars are tempted to plunder the work of others for quotations, but surely it is more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(honest to acknowledge that this is what one is doing. If one is going to lift quotations, it would be wise at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(least to get the page numbers right.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dibble?s slightly sloppy attitude to dealing with footnotes strikes me as emblematic of the whole enterprise. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The essay ? and it should be pointed out that its author is a specialist in British and Irish music ? suggests )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the Dibble is splashing about more than slightly out of his depth. This is an impression that I am left )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with in general by the weaker pieces in this collection. It is an impression underlined by the authors? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supposed engagement with the Venetian historical context. The editors boast \(p. 3\) that they ?take account of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphases in recent historical studies of Venice?. Given this, it is slightly disturbing to see the works that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they consider of significance. At various points essays turn to John Julius Norwich?s extremely slight )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Paradise of Cities)] TJ ET BT 120.692 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(which announces in its preface that the history of 19th-century Venice is of no interest\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Ackroyd?s )] TJ ET BT 116.660 485.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Venice: Pure City)] TJ ET BT 202.640 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(well-written and entertaining, but scarcely a work of scholarship\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Margaret Doody, )] TJ ET BT 119.660 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tropic of Venice)] TJ ET BT 199.652 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(a classic case of highly articulate but fundamentally dilettante dabbling, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often marked by a the recycling of clichs\), and Andrea Di Robilant?s )] TJ ET BT 373.604 456.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lucia: a Venetian Life)] TJ ET BT 481.268 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(a good story, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well-told, but not a serious work\). These are all highly readable, but for the most part of no value for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarly understanding of life, culture, and politics in the Venice of the Romantic and post-Romantic era or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even of the reception of the idea of Venice in this period. In singling out out Iain Fenlon and Elisabeth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Crouzet-Pavan as key figures in the recent historiography, the editors further show how little they know of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the historiography. Both Crouzet-Pavan and Fenlon are fine scholars, but they offer next to nothing on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Venice after the Republic, which provides the context for the artists and writers, film makers and composers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who form the focus of this book. In the meantime, the contributors bizarrely ignore two key multi-volume )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(works ? the )] TJ ET BT 92.336 342.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Storia della Cultura Veneta)] TJ ET BT 225.344 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, edited by Arnalidi and Pastore Stocchi, and the more recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monumental volumes of the )] TJ ET BT 171.344 328.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Storia di Venezia)] TJ ET BT 254.012 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, edited by Mario Isnenghi \(champion of the study of Italian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(lieux de mmoire)] TJ ET BT 116.660 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) and Stuart Woolf, which I would suggest as a first point of call for anyone wanting to find )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out more about Venice in the 200 years after 1797. Given the focus of the original lecture series on water ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which periodically sneaks into the essays in a more-or-less contrived fashion ? it is worrying that Piero )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bevilacqua?s )] TJ ET BT 101.000 271.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Venezia e le acque. Una metafora planetaria)] TJ ET BT 316.640 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( appears nowhere either in the notes or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bibliography. Equally it is unfortunate that )] TJ ET BT 241.676 256.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Venise, un spectacle d?eau et de pierres)] TJ ET BT 434.636 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the brilliant thesis of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(young French scholar Laetitia Levantis on French travellers? engagement with Venice from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Enlightenment to the mid 19th century has yet to be published as the authors of these essays could have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(learned much from her work in both its breadth and interpretative frameworks.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The charitable explanation for such staggering omissions in contextualisation would be that the contributors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are linguistically challenged rather than simply indolent or ignorant. Given the bizarre manner in which the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Italian title of Tiziano Scarpa?s charming meditation on Venice, )] TJ ET BT 345.296 159.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Venezia un pesce)] TJ ET BT 436.268 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, is rendered in Italian by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael O?Neill \(the endnote significantly refers only to the English translation\) this would appear to be the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(case for at least one of the editorial team. Yet, even if an absence of a basic reading knowledge in Italian and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German means that key works by Adolfo Bernardello, Andreas Gottsman, Brigitte Mazohl-Wallnig, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Giandomenico Romanelli, Eva Cecchinato, Silvio Lanaro and Marino Zorzi are beyond the contributors? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comprehension, there is no excuse for an almost flamboyant failure to glance at the appropriate anglophone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography. Thus Alan Griffiths' and John Law?s collection on the Venice of Rawdon Brown, Paul )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ginsborg on 1848?9, my own work on Venice under the first Austrian domination, and in the years )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R 27 0 R 29 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 5309 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1848?1915 are nowhere cited. Had the authors decided to play to their strengths and to examine literary and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(artistic matters as discrete studies in intertextuality this would have perhaps been less of a problem, although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the apparent ignorance of the transnational and the specifically Venetian context in which the likes of Byron )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or Ruskin or James operated has clearly imposed very real limitations on some of the contributors? capacity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to write creatively and interestingly. However, given the editors? statement of intent, and their perhaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surprising desire to deal with the ?realities? of post-Republican Venice, their failure to pop to the library \(or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even to ask the advice of someone who knows a bit about the subject\) is inexcusable. A brief engagement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the texts mentioned above would have provided the sort of historical background that would have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prevented some of the sillier errors creeping into this book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given straitened library budgets, it is hard to see this book rushing off the shelves, especially given the many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other excellent books that deal with similar material. Every time I turn to Tony Tanner?s outstanding )] TJ ET BT 521.624 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Venice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Desired)] TJ ET BT 72.008 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( I am struck by something new and brilliant. Despite my own reservations about some of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusions, John Pemble?s )] TJ ET BT 171.344 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Venice Rediscovered)] TJ ET BT 271.640 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( still offers the best wider introduction. Margaret Plant?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Venice: Fragile City)] TJ ET BT 132.668 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is the book to which I still return for its almost encyclopaedic coverage. Manfred )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pfister?s and Barbara Schaff?s )] TJ ET BT 183.968 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Venetian Views, Venetian Blinds: English Fantasies of Venice)] TJ ET BT 481.952 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( remains a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought-provoking collection that probably sets the bench-mark for how one can approach the Venetian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imaginary in an edited collection. Ian Warrell on Turner, and Robert Hewison on Ruskin will remain the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(definitive studies for decades to come. It is to these works that I would advise readers to turn first if they are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interested in Venice?s distinctive place in the Anglophone cultural imagination.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 416.636 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 416.636 526.467 m 430.628 526.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 492.963 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 462.346 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tony Tanner, )] TJ ET BT 132.332 462.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Venice Desired)] TJ ET BT 205.976 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1992\); John Pemble, )] TJ ET BT 355.628 462.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Venice Rediscovered)] TJ ET BT 455.924 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1995\); )] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Margaret Plant, )] TJ ET BT 141.668 448.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Venice: Fragile City 1797-1997 )] TJ ET BT 298.316 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New Haven, CT, 2003\); )] TJ ET BT 423.956 448.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Venetian Views, Venetian )] TJ ET BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Blinds: English Fantasies of Venice)] TJ ET BT 236.012 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Manfred Pfister, Barbara Schaff \(Amsterdam, 1999\); )] TJ ET BT 516.608 433.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Turner )] TJ ET BT 64.016 419.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and Venice)] TJ ET BT 117.668 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Ian Warrell \(London, 2003\); Robert Hewison, )] TJ ET BT 364.952 419.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ruskin on Venice: 'The Paradise of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 405.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cities')] TJ ET BT 94.592 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New Haven, CT, 2009\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 213.896 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 213.896 403.923 m 267.884 403.923 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 388.591 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 370.811 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 370.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1282)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 369.417 m 328.316 369.417 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 344.440 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.040 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/23703)] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 416.6357 526.7815 430.6277 538.6615 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 213.8957 404.2375 267.8837 416.1175 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 369.7315 328.3157 381.6115 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1282) >> endobj xref 0 31 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000589 00000 n 0000000671 00000 n 0000004699 00000 n 0000004808 00000 n 0000004918 00000 n 0000005027 00000 n 0000008588 00000 n 0000008716 00000 n 0000008800 00000 n 0000008865 00000 n 0000016883 00000 n 0000016948 00000 n 0000024587 00000 n 0000024652 00000 n 0000031151 00000 n 0000031216 00000 n 0000039790 00000 n 0000039888 00000 n 0000045250 00000 n 0000045280 00000 n 0000045408 00000 n 0000045444 00000 n 0000045572 00000 n 0000045627 00000 n 0000045755 00000 n trailer << /Size 31 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 45851 %%EOF