%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 22 0 R 27 0 R 59 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150830163959+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150830163959+01'00') /Title (The Swerve: How the Renaissance Began) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4318 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Swerve: How the Renaissance Began)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is an eccentric book. With grace and learning it tells the story of the discovery in Germany in 1417 of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the masterpiece of Epicureanism ? Lucretius? poem )] TJ ET BT 285.620 259.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(De Rerum)] TJ ET BT 337.604 259.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Natura)] TJ ET BT 371.612 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of more than 7,000 lines distributed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(across six books ? by the Italian Renaissance humanist Poggio Bracciolini with engrossing excursions into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sundry topics here and there for entertainment and instruction. As its subtitle states, it purports to tell us how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Renaissance began. Yet nowhere does it do so. More oddly still, the subject which supplies the very title )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the book, the swerve, the physical phenomenon excogitated by Epicurus to explain why atoms act )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(randomly and differently from each other, plays no significant role in the story. As best as I can tell, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dubious premise and an unwarranted assumption underlie Greenblatt?s strange procedure.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The questionable premise is his full-throated Burckhardtian, or, perhaps more accurately, Voltairean view of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Renaissance as an outburst of light after a long medieval darkness. This is nicely illustrated )] TJ ET BT 492.956 133.019 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(inter alia )] TJ ET BT 540.296 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Greenblatt?s description of the medieval mentality on pp. 14?6, ending: ?Identity came with a precise, well-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understood place in a chain of command and obedience?. He thus echoes Burckhardt?s equally sincere )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(caricature of the poor benighted medievals as incapable of conceiving of themselves other than as part of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some corporate structure \(as opposed to us liberated modern individualists\). It has been a while since I have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seen a scholar so self-assuredly speak of the Middle Ages as, to put it in Gibbonian terms, the triumph of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1283)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 5 July, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stephen Greenblatt)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780224078788)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(368pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bodley Head)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Monfasani)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8765 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(barbarism and religion \(cf. p. 94, where Greenblatt ends his discussion of the murder of Hypatia\). So )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whatever subverts the medieval regime is modern or leads to modernity. The atomism, the hedonism \(even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when correctly understood\), the identification of religion as superstition, and the rejection of purpose and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(providence in this world of Lucretius? )] TJ ET BT 220.652 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(De Rerum Natura)] TJ ET BT 306.644 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( could all be only profoundly subversive. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Consequently, the discovery of the )] TJ ET BT 203.996 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(De Rerum Natura)] TJ ET BT 289.988 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( made Poggio, its discoverer, ?a midwife to modernity? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 13\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The unwarranted assumption is that once the subversive poem of Lucretius was available it must have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worked its magic and contributed in a central way to do the undoing of the medieval worldview and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ushering in of modernity. The problem is that Greenblatt has virtually no evidence to justify this assumption, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while a massive amount exists for constructing a different story. Greenblatt acknowledges the paucity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence, but this fact seems not to have affected his belief in the amazing influence of Lucretius? poem. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lucretius exercised no demonstrable influence on Poggio nor on Niccol Niccoli, to whom Poggio had sent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his discovery and who seems to have been mainly responsible for the manuscript version that circulated in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Italy. Indeed, one is hard put to find significant influence in Quattrocento Italy, no small problem for a poem )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that is supposed to have started the Renaissance. Worse, we do have 15th-century Epicurean apologists, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(namely, Cosma Raimondi \(whom Greenblatt does not mention\) and Lorenzo Valla, both of whom )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expounded Epicureanism without reference to )] TJ ET BT 258.296 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(De Rerum Natura)] TJ ET BT 344.288 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. In fact, the main sources for knowledge of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classical Epicureanism in the 15th century were Cicero?s well-known dialogues )] TJ ET BT 420.608 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(De Finibus)] TJ ET BT 474.272 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 497.600 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(De Natura )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Deorum)] TJ ET BT 73.340 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, seconded by Lactantius? )] TJ ET BT 200.312 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Divine Institutes)] TJ ET BT 279.308 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and a new source, Diogenes Laertius? )] TJ ET BT 467.252 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lives of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Philosophers)] TJ ET BT 97.352 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, translated by the Camaldulensian monk Ambrogio Traversari \(d. 1439\). From Wolfgang )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bernard Fleischmann?s article on Lucretius in the )] TJ ET BT 276.308 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Catalogus Translationum et Commentariorum)] TJ ET BT 499.328 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(349?65\), which is not listed in Greenblatt?s bibliography, we know that the first commentary on Lucretius )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did not appear until 1511 and that up to 1600 28 editions were published in addition to two other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commentaries, sure signs of scholarly interest \(as are the 50 or so manuscripts\), but numbers nonetheless that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are totally dwarfed by the manuscripts, editions, and commentaries of other classical authors and texts in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Renaissance and in no way suggest the grand subversive influence posited by Greenblatt.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In this dearth of evidence, Greenblatt grasps at what come close to being straws \(as did Alison Brown in her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recent small book on Lucretius in Renaissance Florence )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 305.300 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 305.300 386.163 m 319.292 386.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 319.292 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). A lecture course by the second-rate humanist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marcello Virgilio Adriani in the 1490s, a transcription of the text of Lucretius by Machiavelli \(in his student )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years?\) without proof that the text influenced him, and occasional references and allusions by various )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authors, including the suspected neopagan poet Michael Tarchaniota Marullus \(d. 1500\), are all interesting, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and yet meagre indications for a classical author of such supposed significance as Lucretius if one is trying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to build a case for a subversive movement of Lucretian Epicureanism. In a way, things get worse in the 16th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century. Not only did the ultra-orthodox Thomas More make his Utopians Epicureans without the least )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obeisance to Lucretius, but the great Erasmus also added insult to injury by expressing several times his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appreciation of Epicureanism while ignoring Lucretius entirely \(it is not even clear that he, probably the best )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(read classical scholar of the day, even studied Lucretius, though he surely must have dipped into him\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Greenblatt is reduced to making Giordano Bruno, burned at the stake in Rome in 1600, the culminating hero )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the tale, even though much of Bruno?s physics coheres badly with Epicureanism \(e.g., Bruno rejected the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Epicurean void for a pervasive ether\) and even though we have known since 1942, from the summary of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inquisitional )] TJ ET BT 97.028 202.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(processo)] TJ ET BT 139.688 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( against Bruno published by Angelo Mercati, that he was executed for his religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heresies and not his scientific ideas.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 205.988 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 205.988 186.579 m 219.980 186.579 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 219.980 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Bruno is a martyr for the freedom of expression, not for science, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainly not for Epicureanism. It is true that in the case of Galileo there is evidence that at least one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inquisitor found his atomism suspicious, but, as Greenblatt himself admits \(p. 306 n.\), historians of science )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have not accepted Pietro Redondi?s argument that atomism was the cause of Galileo?s condemnation; nor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was it an original factor in Galileo?s break-through theory of inertia.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As already noted, the Epicurean swerve is strangely absent in Greenblatt?s narrative other than as a symbol )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Epicureanism \(exemplified by his chapter ten, entitled ?Swerves?, where he talks about Savonarola, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lorenzo Valla, Thomas More, Giordano Bruno, and others, but not )] TJ ET BT 359.300 76.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sensu stricto )] TJ ET BT 422.636 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the swerve\). Instead we get )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engrossing accounts of the horrific burning at the stake of Jerome of Prague at the Council of Constance, of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 305.2997 386.4775 319.2917 398.3575 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 205.9877 186.8935 219.9797 198.7735 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 8609 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the goings-on of Poggio and his associates in the Papal Curia, and of other topics that add nothing beyond )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(color to the thesis of the book. This is a pity because there is much Greenblatt should have, and could have, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(talked about which would have significantly enhanced his twin foci, the )] TJ ET BT 381.968 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(fortuna )] TJ ET BT 420.308 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Epicureanism in general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and of the )] TJ ET BT 85.004 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(De Rerum Natura)] TJ ET BT 170.996 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in particular, and the breakdown of the medieval worldview by the introduction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of subversive classical texts. I shall limit myself to two large omissions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nowhere does Greenblatt give us a discussion of classical Platonism and Neoplatonism. This omission ends )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up distorting his presentation of the declining fortunes of Epicureanism in late antiquity. What should have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been noted is that Platonism, or, more properly, Neoplatonism, swept the field in late antiquity. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Epicureanism and its texts fell out of favor and, consequently, into extinction, not just because of religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hostility, but as much or more because of the fact that virtually all pagan intellectuals of philosophic bent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had become Platonists and, for that reason, detested Epicureanism. These pagan Platonists were hardly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(friends of Christianity. One of them, Porphyry, wrote what seems to have been a devastatingly effective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debunking of Christianity, against which Church Fathers railed and which they eventually successfully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suppressed. In 529 the Emperor Justinian the Great closed the Neoplatonic Academy in Athens because of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its paganism. St. Augustine \(d. 430\), himself a leading Christian Neoplatonist, remarked on the virtual death )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Epicureanism and Stoicism in his day. In antiquity, texts not read, studied, or re-copied from generation to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generation inevitably suffered material death as their ignored exemplars suffered destruction one way or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another. Greenblatt implies \(pp. 81?2\) that at best only a portion of the literary output of the best known )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authors of antiquity survives. This is not quite true. We seem to have everything that Plato published, as well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as everything that the founder of Neoplatonism, Plotinus, published through the editorial work of Porphyry, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in addition to an impressive body of late antique Neoplatonic commentaries on Plato and Aristotle. Indeed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aristotle largely owes his survival to his appropriation by the Neoplatonists in their schools. Alexandria )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(housed one of the greatest schools of the Neoplatonists. It would have helped our historical understanding if, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in narrating the murder of Hypatia by a Christian mob, Greenblatt had mentioned that she was a notable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(member of the Neoplatonic school of Alexandria and therefore, by definition, no friend of Epicureanism. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The preferences and prejudices of pagan Neoplatonism played a mighty role in the choices late antiquity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made concerning which texts would survive into the Middle Ages. Nor did Christian texts fare much better )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the changing tastes of the times. In his well known )] TJ ET BT 292.664 399.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bibliotheca)] TJ ET BT 347.996 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the 9th-century )] TJ ET BT 429.980 399.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(erudit )] TJ ET BT 461.648 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Photius talks about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a great number of texts that he read, many of which have been lost since the 9th century. The majority of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these lost texts are Christian rather than pagan.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The other startling omission in Greenblatt?s book is any discussion of the Sceptics and scepticism. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sceptics were one of the three grand philosophic schools of the Hellenistic period. They revelled in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(destroying the dogmas of the Stoics and Epicureans. They, and not the Epicureans, were the arch-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subversives. And if at the end of antiquity Augustine considered the Stoics and Epicureans spent forces, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(still felt it worth his while to write a book in refutation of the Sceptics \()] TJ ET BT 376.328 287.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Contra Academicos)] TJ ET BT 471.320 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). In a sense, if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Greenblatt wanted to write about the subversion of medieval verities, he picked the wrong horse. He should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have written about the recovery of classical sceptical texts and the spread of scepticism in the Renaissance. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fortunately for us, someone has already done that, and brilliantly so, namely, Richard Popkin in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History of Scepticism from Savonarola to Bayle)] TJ ET BT 263.336 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(in the first edition the second part of the title ran: ?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(from Erasmus to Descartes)] TJ ET BT 165.008 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 177.332 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 177.332 215.091 m 191.324 215.091 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 191.324 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Popkin shows how the first enthusiastic students of Sextus Empiricus and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his compilations of sceptical arguments were fideistic Italians around the turn of the 16th century, who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wanted to confound what they viewed as the neopaganism of contemporary philosophers and scientists, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is, the Aristotelians. The popularity of scepticism really took off with the translation of Sextus into Latin in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the second half of the 16th century and his appropriation by the Catholic Counter-Reformation in France in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its battle against the Huguenots \(classical sceptical arguments easily expose and destroy the subjectivism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underpinning Protestantism\). But soon enough a weapon used in defence of Catholicism was turned against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholicism itself and against pretty much any other form of dogmatic certitude, including science. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popularization of scepticism in the later 16th and 17th centuries was a development in which Michel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Montaigne had a large hand because of the great influence of his )] TJ ET BT 347.264 88.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Apology for Raymond Sebond)] TJ ET BT 490.916 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(something )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unmentioned by Greenblatt when discussing Montaigne and his clear interest in Lucretius\). It would lead to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the famous )] TJ ET BT 90.008 59.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(crise pyrrhonienne )] TJ ET BT 183.992 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in intellectual circles in France and provide the background to Descartes? )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 177.3317 215.4055 191.3237 227.2855 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R 51 0 R 53 0 R 55 0 R 57 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 7439 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempt in mid-century to overcome the sceptical crisis, which is usually taken as the start of modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philosophy. How the story played out after Descartes is not our concern here, but it is worth noting that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cartesian settlement, as it were, rescued science and left religion dangling, setting up nicely the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Enlightenment worldview. In short, in showing how a set of classical texts undermined and transformed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditional educated opinion, Popkin achieved what Greenblatt promises. Popkin wrote a work of serious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical scholarship. In comparison, Greenblatt has penned an entertaining but wrong-headed belletristic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tale.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 676.035 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 645.418 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alison Brown, )] TJ ET BT 137.684 645.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Return of Lucretius to Renaissance Florence)] TJ ET BT 373.664 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 2010\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 470.984 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 470.984 644.019 m 524.972 644.019 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 631.162 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of the 30 headings under which he was questioned, only two were strictly scientific. One was on the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eternity of the world, an old chestnut from the Church?s centuries-old battle with Averroism. The )] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other was on the plurality of worlds, which involved a discussion not only of the eternity of the world )] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(again, but also of another traditional issue, the infinity of the world, a notion raised by Aristotle and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussed by his commentators. 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