%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R 36 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140728144557+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140728144557+01'00') /Title (Thomas Jefferson, the Classical World, and Early America) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3212 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Thomas Jefferson, the Classical World, and Early America)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Classical works formed the kernel of Thomas Jefferson's libraries. The third president read both Latin and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Greek. He wrote repeatedly of his fondness of classical literature and died, on 4 July 1826, with Seneca's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work open on his bedside table. Nonetheless, Jefferson in many ways doubted the classical world was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(original mold upon which the American experiment had to be built. He was sure the ancients knew all but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nothing about revolution and, more generally, that looking backward for precedents was not suitable to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American republican character. Among the founding generation, Jefferson was certainly not alone in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?dualistic? belief in the significance and insignificance of the classical world. The fact is that Jefferson both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(loved and distrusted the classics at the same time, and this ?inconsistency? necessarily triggers a series of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general questions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1285)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 12 July, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Onuf)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nicholas Cole)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780813931319)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(39.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(328pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Virginia Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charlottesville, VA)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maurizio Valsania)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7733 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Was the classical world, in the mind of the founding generation, a source of inspiration, a real influence, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pre-condition of their political experience, or did they refer to Roman and Greek antiquity just to find a )] TJ ET BT 532.268 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(post-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(hoc)] TJ ET BT 51.344 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( confirmation of their biases, thus providing some sort of ancestry to their pre-existing ideas? In other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(words, were the classics normative or illustrative? Were the founders, Jefferson in particular, keen on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(learning lessons from the classics, or did they simply intend to sport classical costumes?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The volume edited by Peter Onuf and Nicholas Cole collects essays presented at a conference on the role of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the classics held at the American Academy in Rome on 13-14 October 2008. Interdisciplinary in approach, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these essays do not aim to dissolve the dualism aforementioned. By looking directly at Thomas Jefferson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(?Part I: Jefferson's classical world?\), while moving well beyond this figure \(?Part II: classical influences?\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the essays convincingly show that such a dichotomy entered deeply into the mechanisms through which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American republicanism has been invented.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Resisting any simplified solution, )] TJ ET BT 198.368 603.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Thomas Jefferson, the Classical World, and Early America)] TJ ET BT 482.024 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( exhibits the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dualism of normative vs. illustrative \(or, if you prefer, foundational vs. window-dressing\) as a basic fact of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America's communal identity. In so doing, the volume steps out of two well-established historiographical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditions. Important historians, over the years, have sympathized with either sides of the dilemma. Bernard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bailyn )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 69.020 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 69.020 545.235 m 83.012 545.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 83.012 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was sure the revolutionary generation inherited almost nothing from the classical world \(their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources being contemporary\). Others )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 214.304 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 214.304 530.979 m 228.296 530.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 228.296 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( took on a more ?foundational? approach: the classics were, all in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all, normative. This volume gives readers more action and drama than previous scholarship has done, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leaving the scenario entirely open and undecided. Onuf's and Cole's volume serves an ?and/and? instead of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an ?either/or? dish, a very enticing experience for the senses.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The answer this volume provides is not entirely an answer. Founders, we discover, both learned lessons from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and in many ways played with classical authors. This means, stated otherwise, that the classics provided, at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(best, one of the several vocabularies that the founders recurred to, others being, for instance, 18th-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(science or the discourse on natural rights. They were at once serious and playful, historically aware and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acutely biased. They were sure they had found important lessons for contemporary politicians and, at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same time, they kept looking askance at the previous stages in the process of civilization.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the ?Prologue? Gordon Wood upholds a foundational approach. In this way, as we are about to see, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sets the template against which the ten following essays have to be gauged. Why did the rebellious provinces )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of British North America want to emulate the few existing examples of republics: the Dutch Provinces; some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Italian cities; a few Swiss cantons? The answer, according to Wood, is that they had before their eyes the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(majestic precedent of republican Rome. Fascinated by Latin literature, the 18th-century Enlightenment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wanted to emulate those virtues \(rejection of luxury, a sense of friendship, self-effacement, self-sacrifice, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participation in government, and a compelling idea of a communal duty\) that made ?old virtuous Rome? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible. Rome-inspired republican ideals were ?never a besieged underground ideology, confined to cellar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meetings and marginal intellectuals? \(p. 15\). Kings themselves were frequently taken by republicanism. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Those who voiced their love of freedom or simply criticized the spreading of corruption pronounced words )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taken from Cicero, Virgil, Sallust, Livy, Tacitus, the Greek Plutarch, or, more often, from their translators. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Wood argues, this practice was ?more than scholarly embellishment and window-dressing for educated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Englishmen on both sides of the Atlantic? \(p. 19\). Classics offered the ?principal source of their public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(morality and values? \(p. 19\). American revolutionaries ?exploited all of these classical ideas in their creation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the United States? \(p. 24\). The Revolution changed the scenario dramatically, but the role of the classics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did not dwindle. However, when more ?democratic? forces were unleashed ?ancient Rome lost much of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meaning for Americans? \(p. 27\). By the 1820s, the Roman spell disappeared, and ancient Greece, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tumultuous, wild, and free, became a better model.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Onuf's essay concentrates on Thomas Jefferson and takes a middle position between the foundational )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the illustrative canon. ?Jefferson deepest satisfaction?, Onuf writes, ?came from the ancients' languages, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not the wisdom of their philosophers? \(p. 35\). By looking back, Jefferson aimed at language and form, not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wisdom and content. Those erstwhile doctrines and ideas ? what the ancients thought and what they believed )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 69.0197 545.5495 83.0117 557.4295 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 214.3037 531.2935 228.2957 543.1735 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7794 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? ought not be taken as exemplary and normative. Jefferson was sure that ancient culture could not provide a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(model to be re-enacted. He insisted that Romans and Greeks knew nothing about natural rights or consensual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foundation of government. Similarly, their social theory was totally inadequate. It was rather the form, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language, that mattered to Jefferson, and this is the sole element that Americans should consider as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(normative and foundational. In Jefferson's view, Americans needed to revert to the classics for the sake of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(improving their expression and style. The importance of classical learning rested for Jefferson in the sole )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fact that they are a great boon for finding ?models of pure taste in writing? and ?a solid basis for most, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an ornament to all the sciences?. The art of )] TJ ET BT 243.296 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(expressing)] TJ ET BT 294.620 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the thought of the living generation might profit from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classical culture, but nothing more than that. This is certainly more than mimicking or window-dressing, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when we come to figuring out solutions and ideas functional to the modern world, however, the classics can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be of no avail.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Zuckert does not advocate a backward-looking Jefferson, not even in the very mild form admitted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Onuf \(the power of ancient language\). Zuckert sets out to challenge the assumption that moral sense )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would be for Jefferson essential to conduct a moral life. Furthermore, Jefferson's political theory seems to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearly ?selfish,? la Locke, in no sense molded upon some classical model. Zuckert's Jefferson was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thoroughly uncompromising as to his modernity. He always sought to protect the self-regarding rights of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individuals. Overlooking both the classics and the moral sense theory, this Jefferson searched for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exclusive examples of good )] TJ ET BT 170.660 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(living)] TJ ET BT 197.996 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( men ? Dr. Small, Mr. Wythe, or Peyton Randolph ? and for their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approbation. As Zuckert insists, Jefferson believed that human beings loved others, and cared for their good, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at least as much as they cared to be loved by them. Egotistic and altruistic motives, according to Zuckert, are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thus inextricably intertwined in Jefferson's philosophy. The momentous consequence is that no precise role )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is left to classical examples and ancient models. Albeit suspicious of the moral sense and thus, in a way, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critic of )] TJ ET BT 74.672 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(some)] TJ ET BT 99.332 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( modern visions, Jefferson was swept along by a vigorous modernity whose outcome was ?a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(progressive attenuation of the classical element? \(p. 75\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Caroline Winterer begins by reminding readers that ?Monticello was practically a museum of classical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(artifacts? \(p. 78\). Living in an age of ?expanding educational possibilities for women? \(p. 81\), Jefferson's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(daughters and granddaughterswere reared into a discerning classical taste that, in addition, helped to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preserve some of the Greco-Roman artifacts of Monticello well into the 19th century. Classicism became a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feat of female education. Pressing his young daughter Patsy to read Livy, for example, Jefferson wanted to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make sure she had the right chance to properly shape her character. Reading the classics may be an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important boon for female education, but was Jefferson ready to admit a universal utility, beyond gender and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(age? Did Jefferson consider ancient authors as suitable to American citizens? To the American leader? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Winterer, understandably, does not offer a definitive answer about the classics' foundational import. They )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may be of some avail for )] TJ ET BT 156.656 302.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(some)] TJ ET BT 181.316 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( persons, during a )] TJ ET BT 269.636 302.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(particular)] TJ ET BT 318.308 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( stage of their lives. As a matter of fact, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grandsons and granddaughters kept receiving advice to further their education into Greek and Roman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authors.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(All the buildings Jefferson designed during his life, or contributed to, Guy Wilson argues, ?display his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge and his inventiveness with the forms and details of classical architecture? \(p. 102\). Buildings for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early republicans were functional structures but, additionally, they conveyed identity. While Greek )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(architecture had little impact on Jefferson, most of his knowledge was based upon Rome as reinterpreted in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?modern? period. Symmetry and balance were other important features of classical architecture that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jefferson normally followed. The Vitruvian man and the concept of equality ? or balance ? and a center line )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? or axis ? dominated Jefferson?s designs. Another element of classicism was hierarchy, ?with a focus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(always in the center of a compositional whole? \(p. 112\). Jefferson sought to improve American architecture, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?and the employment of classicism furthered that goal? \(p. 118\). Wilson wants to make sure the reader gets )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the sense that the employment of classicism was not a passive reenactment of classical models, but rather a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dialogue between ancients and moderns. The voice of the moderns, their inventiveness, seems to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preeminent. To some extent modern inventiveness overwhelmed historical accuracy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Did Washington take as his model Cincinnatus, the citizen-general-farmer, or Marcus Aurelius, the great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military leader? This is the question Maurie McInnis asks in her essay. The character of Marcus Aurelius, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 7555 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McInnis contends, seems more appropriate to the taste and style of Virginia leaders of the middle of the 19th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century. However, an association between Washington and Cincinnatus, the Roman general relinquishing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power and pursuing pastoral virtue, began to circulate right after the General bid his farewell to the army. By )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1850s a new urge to represent Washington on a monumental scale held sway, and Cincinnatus yielded to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marcus Aurelius. The image of a militaristic Washington was invented. Ancients and moderns are, once )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(again, in a dialogue led and perhaps dominated by those who came second.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?The suspicion?, Nicholas Cole writes, ?that Jefferson?s well-attested classical reading reflected his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aesthetic sense far more than it contributed to the formation of his ideas is difficult to avoid? \(p. 172\). Cole )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sides with Bailyn or Rahe in arguing that Jefferson's generation, in the battle for republicanism, owed more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Machiavelli and modern authors than to the ancient world. 18th-century Americans chose to draw on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(antiquity in their political discourse, but the question of ?utility? was ?central to eighteenth-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussions of the value of classical learning, and that utility was given a distinct political significance in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these discussions? \(p. 175\). Early republicans harnessed antiquity almost fearlessly. A sincere interest in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bygone world did not deter Jefferson and his peers from projecting their agendas on classical sources. Early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(republicans read back to find precedents for the natural dictates of ?uncorrupted reason?, for ideas of natural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(law, and for the principle that all men were created equal. After the rupture with British monarchy, however, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classical republicanism took on a more exemplary role. That ?precedent? became almost inspirational and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foundational. As Cole says, ?a widespread acceptance of the notion that American republics were in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important respects qualitatively similar to the republics of the ancient world? \(p. 187\) worked as a spur to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understand the real historical motives why ancient republics had failed. After the Revolution, Americans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perceived they had to better understand the ancient world, to let it speak its own language. A higher degree )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of historical awareness was needed to avoid previous mistakes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That Jefferson challenged the prevalent cyclical view of history \(that societies unavoidably follow a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biological life-cycle\) is the premise of Peter Thompson's chapter. Jefferson understood the material context )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of human development, namely, demography. ?The claim that the earth belongs in usufruct to the living )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generation has often been studied without reference to Jefferson?s interests in the classical and Anglo-Saxon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(past ... At the same time, Jefferson?s interest in the classical and Anglo- Saxon past has generally been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studied in isolation from the concerns of his political demography? \(p. 195\). Actually, Jefferson was fatally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anxious about \(white\) demographic growth. Consequently, heeding Anglo-Saxon precedents, according to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jefferson, was much more important to the living people than growing familiar with Greek or Roman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultures. The tenet of being in some sort of continuity with an Anglo-Saxon past gave ex-colonists the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impression they were elements of a linearly-expanding people pursuing liberty. Anglo-Saxonism, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jefferson, was more than a dead patrimony to be bequeathed intact from fathers to sons. His Virginia, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chattel slavery and several other problematic habits, could not be the final stage to be preserved and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transmitted. Jefferson needed to differentiate the future from the past. He needed to represent the course of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time as the Anglo-Saxon's seed extending temporally, evolving qualitatively, and growing demographically, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideally without interruption and death. Anglo-Saxonism served Jefferson's desire to break biological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unavoidable cycles.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(During the years leading to independence, as Eran Shalev writes, ?Jefferson practically ignored Greece and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rome? \(p. 220\). For him, classics did not speak to the present, nor did they speak of the present. Jefferson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a good historian, in a way. He knew that particular ?spaces of experience? were not transferrable or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(applicable to other spaces of human experience. ?The classics surely did )] TJ ET BT 384.596 175.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(not )] TJ ET BT 402.932 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serve Jefferson as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paradigmatic reference point that they were for numerous of his contemporaries ... For Jefferson, the classics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remained a venue of cultural escapism? \(p. 237\). The underlying reason for Jefferson's silence, as Shalev )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convincingly argues, was that classical authors' channeled the belief in historical time as necessarily cyclical, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centered on the idea of destiny, of rise and ensuing fall. Especially southern leaders were sensitive to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspect of the movement toward decline and degeneration in the cyclical pattern. ?Jefferson did not keep )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(silent because he knew not what or how to 'speak classically'? \(p. 237\). Like other figures of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Enlightenment, Jefferson thought of history in terms of a linear and ascending process that admitted of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decline as avoidable. Keenly aware that the danger of decline looms large when ?corruption? is not cleverly )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 7455 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shunned, Jefferson desired to conceive of history as an alternative to a stage for repetition and destiny. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Consequently, classical antiquity )] TJ ET BT 195.344 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(must)] TJ ET BT 218.012 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( be irrelevant. It )] TJ ET BT 297.656 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(must not)] TJ ET BT 338.660 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( be a mold to be repeated.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Rahe presents an essay on the ?influence? of Marcus Tullius Cicero on the American founding. Cicero )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was the most prominent defender of Roman republicanism. Did the founders refer to Cicero for window-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dressing or to deepen their understanding of the actual political situation unfolding before their eyes? Rahe's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(answer is that neither of these options apply. Cicero was widely cited and referred to by early republicans. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nonetheless, Cicero, together with Aristotle, Livy, Tacitus, Suetonius, Plutarch, and the like, were not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strictly speaking foundational. They did ?play a critical role as writers in keeping alive the memory of self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government through a long epoch in which despotism was the norm? \(p. 256\), but ?as writers? means that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their example could not be followed as a template. Their precedent could not be transferred and applied to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different situation. Ancients did not hand over any tool that helped republicans to tackle their problems. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Their example, and only their example, should be remembered.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jennifer Roberts' chapter works as a helpful conclusion to the volume. Dealing with the images of Pericles in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America from the 18th to the 21st century, Roberts pinpoints that ?the classics ... played a significant role in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the thought of the founding era, but they did not put the founders in a straightjacket that cut off all freedom )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of movement? \(p. 265\) Founders' imagination prompted selective reading and preferences. Was Pericles a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(corrupt and imperialist despot and demagogue? Did he bring on the Peloponnesian War to distract the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Athenians? An ?anti-Periclean tradition,? Roberts argues, ?made its way into the thinking of Americans of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the founding generation? \(p. 278\). Not long after the new nation was founded, however, perceptions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pericles and the uses made of his image changed. After the Constitution was adopted, Pericles was singled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out ? by Hamilton, for example ? to buttress the argument that the United States, like Periclean Athens, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(needed to become an imperial power. Plutarch's dim portrait of Pericles's character was slowly but steadily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dismissed. The conclusion sounds almost unavoidable: ?The fluidity of Pericles' image strongly discourages )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(placing too much emphasis on classical influence in American political rhetoric? \(p. 293\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Concluding by referring to ?fluidity? and the pivotal role played by imagination was probably unavoidable. I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feel I should end this review the same way: the meaning of the classics at the beginning of American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independence is still to be determined, and always will be. Even though the authors of the essays, singularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considered, may accept some version of the foundational approach \(or some version of the illustrative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach\), reading the volume right through to the end conveys a different impression. This volume instructs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the reader about the impossibility of arriving at any clear-cut and simplistic answer. The volume's multiple )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(voices and different methodological approachesmay be criticized by some. Nonetheless, )] TJ ET BT 463.592 332.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Thomas Jefferson, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the Classical World, and Early America)] TJ ET BT 226.676 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( has the big merit of channelling an undecided drama, still open, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(still unfolding before our eyes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As we approach Jefferson and his world more closely, we find confirmation that the founders believed that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classical authors had both failed and succeeded, in many senses. Since human beings always return to their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imaginations, classics )] TJ ET BT 141.680 249.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(had)] TJ ET BT 159.680 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to be both emulated \(which includes mimicking them for amusement\) and cast off.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.611 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 183.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 183.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bernard Bailyn, )] TJ ET BT 143.672 183.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution)] TJ ET BT 393.656 183.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, MS, 1967\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 514.316 183.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 514.316 182.595 m 554.312 182.595 l S BT 64.016 169.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 168.339 m 78.008 168.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 155.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 155.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Gummere, )] TJ ET BT 158.996 155.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The American Colonial Mind and the Classical Tradition)] TJ ET BT 434.684 155.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Harvard, MS,1963\); )] TJ ET BT 64.016 141.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gordon Wood, )] TJ ET BT 139.004 141.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Creation of the American Republic)] TJ ET BT 327.992 141.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Chapel Hill, NC, 1969\); Carl Richard, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 126.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Founders and the Classics)] TJ ET BT 212.684 126.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Harvard, MS,1994\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 316.328 126.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 316.328 125.571 m 370.316 125.571 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 110.239 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 92.459 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 92.459 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1285)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 91.065 m 328.316 91.065 l S endstream endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 514.3157 182.9095 554.3117 194.7895 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 168.6535 78.0077 180.5335 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 316.3277 125.8855 370.3157 137.7655 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 91.3795 328.3157 103.2595 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1285) >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 37 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Length 226 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 784.354 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 769.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/24524)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 38 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000573 00000 n 0000000655 00000 n 0000003919 00000 n 0000004028 00000 n 0000004138 00000 n 0000004247 00000 n 0000007808 00000 n 0000007936 00000 n 0000008020 00000 n 0000008111 00000 n 0000015897 00000 n 0000015927 00000 n 0000016053 00000 n 0000016089 00000 n 0000016119 00000 n 0000016247 00000 n 0000016283 00000 n 0000016348 00000 n 0000024195 00000 n 0000024260 00000 n 0000031868 00000 n 0000031973 00000 n 0000039481 00000 n 0000039609 00000 n 0000039664 00000 n 0000039790 00000 n 0000039845 00000 n 0000039973 00000 n 0000040028 00000 n 0000040155 00000 n 0000040251 00000 n 0000040316 00000 n trailer << /Size 38 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 40594 %%EOF