%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 46 0 R 66 0 R 83 0 R 140 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818120020+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818120020+01'00') /Title (Ashoka: The Search for India?s Lost Emperor) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4387 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Ashoka: The Search for India?s Lost Emperor)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the year 321 BC a powerful chieftain, known to history as Chandragupta Maurya, came to the throne of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Magadha, one of the many north Indian states, in a part of India that is now known as Bihar. By the time his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reign ended in c.299 BC he had not only established the supremacy of Magadha among all the rival states )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but had also defeated a Greek general, Selucus Nicator, who claimed large parts of Northwest India for his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Selucid empire that emerged from the Greek control there originally established by Alexander the Great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during his invasion of that region in 327 BC. Chandragupta?s territories were consolidated under his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grandson, Ashoka, into a great empire, traditionally known as the Mauryan Empire, which included )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practically the whole of the Indian subcontinent and eastern Afghanistan.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 385.280 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 385.280 172.137 m 399.272 172.137 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ashoka, the third Mauryan, ruled between 269 BC and 233 BC. Like many an egocentric and despotic rulers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then and now, his main interest at first was to secure by force complete domination over the entire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subcontinent. He inflicted a most savage and cruel defeat on the peoples of an eastern region, Kalinga )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(modern Indian state of Orissa\), which had escaped Mauryan control. Yet, remarkably, after having seen so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much death and destruction on the battlefield, he felt acute remorse and yearned to achieve inner self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purification by following the twin principles of Buddhism: non-violence and compassion. Buddhism was, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(around this period of time, beginning to challenge the orthodoxies of Vedic Brahmanic Hinduism.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 504.968 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 504.968 60.345 m 518.960 60.345 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 518.960 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( While )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1286)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 12 July, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles Allen)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781408701966)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(480pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Little Brown)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Burjor Avari)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 385.2797 172.4515 399.2717 184.3315 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 504.9677 60.6595 518.9597 72.5395 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R 26 0 R 29 0 R 32 0 R 35 0 R 38 0 R 41 0 R 44 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 9600 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not completely abandoning his role as a strong Mauryan ruler, Ashoka decided on establishing throughout )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his empire a )] TJ ET BT 95.672 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dhamma)] TJ ET BT 139.664 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or a universal moral law based upon the Buddha?s teachings. His method of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(propagating these teachings was by inscribing major and minor edicts on the faces of cliffs, huge weather-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worn rocks and pillars. The language of the edicts was Prakrit, a non-standard vernacular language of north )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(India at that time, written in two of the earliest Indic scripts: )] TJ ET BT 325.652 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Brahmi )] TJ ET BT 364.652 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and )] TJ ET BT 384.980 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kharoshti)] TJ ET BT 432.992 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. The edicts emphasise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the virtues of tolerance, non-violence and togetherness; they preach to the people the importance of such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humane practices as looking after and comforting sick humans and animals, building roads and wells, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(planting trees, showing hospitality to strangers and foreigners. Ashoka refused to spare himself from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rigorous introspection and self-analysis; and in one of the pillar edicts he admitted that he had himself not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been free from evil.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 128.648 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 128.648 666.771 m 142.640 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 142.640 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( He further spread the message of the Buddha by sending missionaries to places like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sri Lanka, supporting Buddhist monks along with the Brahman priests and convening a great Buddhist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Council of monks.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 123.020 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 123.020 638.259 m 137.012 638.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One would justifiably presume that a king such as Ashoka, who idealised compassion not conflict \(albeit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after his Kalinga war\) and humane values rather than authoritarianism, would be a celebrated figure in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of India. 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Through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their efforts the British Empire of India became more than a tool of economic exploitation; it also became an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empire of knowledge. Their most profound contribution to India was in the field of history, unearthing and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revealing her past through their manifold skills. This story of exploration was concisely narrated by John )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Keay over a decade ago in his accessible )] TJ ET BT 232.616 88.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(India Discovered: the Recovery of a Lost Civilization)] TJ ET BT 488.924 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 491.924 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 491.924 86.787 m 511.916 86.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 511.916 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Charles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Allen?s remarkable study, )] TJ ET BT 162.656 73.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ashoka)] TJ ET BT 197.984 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, reviewed here, is a more detailed study of the ancient Indian monarch. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 128.6477 667.0855 142.6397 678.9655 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 123.0197 638.5735 137.0117 650.4535 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 89.6597 484.0135 103.6517 495.8935 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 77.6717 412.7335 91.6637 424.6135 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 213.3197 270.1735 227.3117 282.0535 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 37 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 537.8957 186.8935 551.8877 198.7735 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 40 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 258.3317 158.3815 272.3237 170.2615 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 43 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 491.9237 87.1015 511.9157 98.9815 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 49 0 R 52 0 R 55 0 R 58 0 R 61 0 R 64 0 R ] /Contents 47 0 R >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Length 9380 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(All of Charles Allen?s books reflect his great passion for the British Raj in all its glory. His early )] TJ ET BT 502.640 784.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Plain Tales )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(from the Raj)] TJ ET BT 94.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( became world famous, and he has been a master story teller of the great historical dramas of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British India. In all his works there is to be found that sense of wonder and astonishment at what the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achieved in India. With six generations of his family having served the Raj, his admiration and hero-worship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of British characters in India is palpable. The story of the discovery of Ashoka has indeed given him further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scope to bring to the attention of the world the achievements of British scholarship in India. The story )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(becomes more exciting when one considers that progress in the discovery of Ashoka went hand in hand with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that for the discovery of the historical Buddha himself. The uncovering of the true figures of both the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Buddha and Ashoka out of a mass of traditions and narratives owed to the same literary or archaeological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources worked upon by the same British orientalists. Allen?s )] TJ ET BT 333.320 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ashoka)] TJ ET BT 368.648 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is therefore best considered as a sequel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to his equally enthralling earlier work, )] TJ ET BT 220.988 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Buddha and the Sahibs)] TJ ET BT 352.988 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 355.988 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 355.988 640.515 m 375.980 640.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 375.980 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In both these works Allen displays a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formidable range of research, forensic skills and clear articulation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reading Allen?s graphic account, one is struck by an amazing range of qualities that the early orientalists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brought to their formidable task. None knew the languages of India before they arrived, but the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assiduous of them, like William Jones, lost no time in searching out the learned Brahmin )] TJ ET BT 462.992 572.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(pandits )] TJ ET BT 501.332 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language tuition.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 114.680 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 114.680 557.235 m 134.672 557.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 134.672 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Travelling long distances and observing the landscape, fauna, flora and the people, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(orientalists kept detailed notes in diaries and log books; they took enormous physical risks to search out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remote rocks and pillars that carried Ashoka?s inscriptions. They were also collectors of ancient accounts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from abroad, whether from Sri Lanka or China, and studied them with diligence. Since many of them had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(originally trained as army engineers or draughtsmen, their first instinct on coming across any inscription was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to prepare a meticulous line drawing; and the vast collection of these line drawings are a fundamental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primary data of Indian history of the period. The science of archaeology was quite rudimentary in the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19th century, yet the explorers worked efficiently with simple tools, taking great care. They were up against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other British administrators devoid of historical sensitivity or Indian developers and looters who helped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves to bricks and stones for their own benefit, yet they somehow managed to safeguard essential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ruins and artefacts. They were not devoid of personal jealousies and competitiveness and, despite Professor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edward Said?s negative characterisation of European orientalists in general )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 399.596 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 399.596 400.419 m 419.588 400.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 419.588 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, those working in India in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the late 18th and early 19th centuries were dedicated men whose efforts gave the Indians something to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proud about: a meaningful sense of their history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of the many remarkable orientalists introduced to the reader the first and the most illustrious one was Sir )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William Jones \(1749?95\), the great linguist and polymath. He was one of the earliest scholars to articulate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the idea of an Indo-European family of languages, after discovering striking affinities between Sanskrit, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Greek and Latin, all of which he considered might have ?sprung from some common source which, perhaps, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no longer exists?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 118.340 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 118.340 288.627 m 138.332 288.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 138.332 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( His knowledge of Sanskrit facilitated for him the study of many texts in that language, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly the)] TJ ET BT 107.000 275.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Puranas)] TJ ET BT 150.668 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( that provide long lists of kings and dynasties of ancient India. Linking the Puranic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(data with that found in Greek texts, Jones was able to establish a synchronology between the dates of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alexander the Great?s invasion of India and the rise to power of Chandragupta, Ashoka?s grandfather, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thereby greatly clarifying the chronology of the Mauryan empire in general.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 398.264 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 398.264 231.603 m 418.256 231.603 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 418.256 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Jones?s other seminal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution lay in his ability to bring together a cadre of orientalists to work under the umbrella of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Asiatic Society of Bengal which he was instrumental in founding and which became the conduit for ideas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and publications. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The early 19th century was to witness some extraordinary developments that eventually led to a unique )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(breakthrough by another iconic figure in Allen?s story, James Prinsep \(1798?1839\), a gifted engineer, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(draughtsman and collector who broke the code of the )] TJ ET BT 292.292 135.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Brahmi)] TJ ET BT 328.292 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( script and thus helped to de-mystify Ashoka. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This became possible by his careful study of the similarities of characters in the )] TJ ET BT 419.288 121.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Brahmi)] TJ ET BT 455.288 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( alphabet of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inscriptions on rock faces, such as at Girnar in Gujarat or Dhauli in Orissa, on the Asoka pillars in Delhi and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lauriya Nandangarh in Bihar, and on the gateways of the great )] TJ ET BT 339.272 92.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(stupa)] TJ ET BT 365.276 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( at Sanchi. The Mauryan coins that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were being discovered at this time were also to prove useful in establishing some pattern in the inscriptions.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(16\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 62.787 m 54.008 62.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 54.008 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The diverse data collected thus far was then coordinated with the huge amount of information from Sri )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lanka that became available after the translation of a major Buddhist text, the )] TJ ET BT 410.612 49.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mahavamsa)] TJ ET BT 469.268 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or the Great )] TJ ET endstream endobj 48 0 obj [46 0 R /Fit] endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 355.9877 640.8295 375.9797 652.7095 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 51 0 obj [46 0 R /Fit] endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 114.6797 557.5495 134.6717 569.4295 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 54 0 obj [46 0 R /Fit] endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 56 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 399.5957 400.7335 419.5877 412.6135 ] >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 57 0 obj [46 0 R /Fit] endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 59 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 118.3397 288.9415 138.3317 300.8215 ] >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 60 0 obj [46 0 R /Fit] endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 62 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 398.2637 231.9175 418.2557 243.7975 ] >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 63 0 obj [46 0 R /Fit] endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 65 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 63.1015 54.0077 74.9815 ] >> endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 66 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 69 0 R 72 0 R 75 0 R 78 0 R 81 0 R ] /Contents 67 0 R >> endobj 67 0 obj << /Length 8475 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dynastic Chronicle, by George Turnour in the early 1830s. The final deciphering of the script in 1837 was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not only Prinsep?s crowning glory but it also set in train the coming of systematic Ashokan studies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The work that Jones had started and Prinsep had achieved was continued by Alexander Cunningham )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1814?93\), the third major hero of Allen?s book. It was Cunningham?s drive and systematic approach, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly in his capacity as the first Director General of the Archaeological service of India, that ensured )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the rock monuments, pillars and stupas became national treasures to be safeguarded and maintained with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government funding. His volume one ? )] TJ ET BT 224.996 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Inscriptions of Asoka ? )] TJ ET BT 338.996 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the )] TJ ET BT 368.996 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum)] TJ ET BT 527.660 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published in 1877, brought together all the Ashokan edicts then available. Today, there are in all 14 major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rock edicts, three minor rock edicts, two separate rock edicts and seven pillar edicts ? all listed in Allen?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book ? spread across nearly 30 sites across the subcontinent. The inscriptions were not all written during a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(single period of Ashoka?s reign, but the central Buddhist message was conveyed through a variety of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themes, as Ashoka?s reign of over three decades progressed. The propagation of good life, the idea of state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(welfare, the moral agonies caused by war, instructions to state officials, advice to Buddhist monks, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(king?s own confessions are the main contents of the edicts. As late as 1958 a minor rock edict in Greek and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aramaic scripts was discovered at Kandahar in Afghanistan; and it is highly likely that new sites will be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further discovered. The numerous 19th?century photographs and line drawings of sculptures and images )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interspersed throughout Allen?s book add to both the clarity and richness of the text. It is therefore )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regrettable that the one and only map provided in the book does not adequately or clearly name the sites.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cunningham?s dream of sustaining a systematic archaeological service in India was later fulfilled by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generous funding made available by the enigmatic Viceroy, Lord Curzon \(Viceroy 1898?1905\), who shared )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a similar passion and affection for the monuments of India.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 317.972 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(17\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 317.972 485.955 m 337.964 485.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 337.964 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Perhaps the Viceroy?s most critical decision )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was to put in 1902 a young and brilliant British archaeologist, John Marshall, in charge of Indian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archaeology. Marshall contributed immensely to Ashokan studies by his excavations of Indo-Greek sites )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(around the city of Taxila in the Northwest of India.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 279.308 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(18\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 279.308 443.187 m 299.300 443.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 299.300 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Far more consequential was his excavation in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ruins of Mohenjo Daro in Sind in the 1920s. The discoveries there and in Harappa in Punjab marked a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radically new understanding of the beginnings of Indian civilization.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 362.972 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(19\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 362.972 414.675 m 382.964 414.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 382.964 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( When the last British Director )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(General of Archaeology, Mortimer Wheeler, left India after independence he handed over to Indian and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pakistani specialists the fantastic archaeological legacy of 200 years of fruitful work by the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(orientalist scholars.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Allen brings out in his penultimate chapter some of the ambivalence in the attitude of modern Indians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towards Ashoka. On the one hand, a particularly xenophobic form of Hindu nationalism, currently known as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hindutva)] TJ ET BT 78.680 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, has downplayed the originality of the Buddhist message of Ashoka. Attempts are still made to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appropriate the Buddha in the service of the greater Hindu religious fold, reminding us of how authentic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Buddhism was eased out of India proper from the middle of the first millennium AD. A similar degree of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appropriation is also being attempted in the case of the Indus Valley Culture and its great cities of Mohenjo )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Daro and Harappa that are claimed, without proper evidence, as part of the Hindu Vedic civilization.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 517.232 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(20\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 517.232 260.115 m 537.224 260.115 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 537.224 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( On )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the other hand, Ashoka was hailed as a hero of nationalist India during the struggle for independence. His )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(message of tolerance and compassion became Nehru?s clarion call for the development of a secular India; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and an Ashokan lion capital was adopted as the emblem of the Indian state. A wide range of school history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(textbooks in India empathetically introduce Ashoka to the children there.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 384.632 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(21\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 384.632 203.091 m 404.624 203.091 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In multicultural and multi-ethnic Britain, at present, there is an ongoing debate about what should form the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contents of the History syllabus in schools; a vocal right wing lobby continues to press for more systematic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(teaching of the British historical narrative in the interest of national integration and identity. However, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British story is only part of the general history of the world, and an over-emphasis on that story will fail to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provide the children with a balanced understanding of the varieties of people who have shaped our world?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history. It is unfortunate that Ashoka does not at all figure as someone worth studying in the literature of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(four key stages of the national history curriculum. Allen?s story therefore needs to be made more accessible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the benefit of thousands of history teachers in Britain. One model that may be emulated but is now out of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(print appeared over three decades ago when Hemant and Helen Kanitkar produced their splendid little book )] TJ ET endstream endobj 68 0 obj [66 0 R /Fit] endobj 69 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 70 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 317.9717 486.2695 337.9637 498.1495 ] >> endobj 70 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 71 0 obj [66 0 R /Fit] endobj 72 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 73 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 279.3077 443.5015 299.2997 455.3815 ] >> endobj 73 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 74 0 obj [66 0 R /Fit] endobj 75 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 76 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 362.9717 414.9895 382.9637 426.8695 ] >> endobj 76 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 77 0 obj [66 0 R /Fit] endobj 78 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 79 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 517.2317 260.4295 537.2237 272.3095 ] >> endobj 79 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 80 0 obj [66 0 R /Fit] endobj 81 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 82 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 384.6317 203.4055 404.6237 215.2855 ] >> endobj 82 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 83 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 86 0 R 88 0 R 90 0 R 92 0 R 94 0 R 96 0 R 98 0 R 100 0 R 102 0 R 104 0 R 106 0 R 108 0 R 110 0 R 112 0 R 114 0 R 116 0 R 118 0 R 120 0 R 122 0 R 124 0 R 126 0 R 128 0 R 130 0 R 132 0 R 134 0 R 136 0 R 138 0 R ] /Contents 84 0 R >> endobj 84 0 obj << /Length 12525 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on Ashoka for the Harrap World History programme.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 290.624 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(22\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 290.624 795.075 m 310.616 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 310.616 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Allen?s intervention in the debate over history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(teaching may secure for Ashoka a thoroughly deserved slot in the national curriculum. Indeed the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative itself will gain in stature when children come to learn something about the unearthing of Indian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history by British scholars.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 718.803 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 688.186 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H. Raychaudhuri, )] TJ ET BT 152.000 688.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Political History of Ancient India)] TJ ET BT 312.668 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Delhi, 1996, 8th edition\), pp. 234?85.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 500.324 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 500.324 686.787 m 554.312 686.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 673.930 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(G. Omvedt, )] TJ ET BT 123.344 673.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Buddhism in India: Challenging Brahmanism and Caste)] TJ ET BT 394.016 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New Delhi, 2003\), pp. 117?48.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 658.275 m 118.004 658.275 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 645.418 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pillar Edict 3.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 130.352 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 130.352 644.019 m 184.340 644.019 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 631.162 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. Thapar, )] TJ ET BT 118.004 631.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Asoka and the Decline of the Mauryas)] TJ ET BT 301.976 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Delhi, 1997, 2nd edition\), pp. 41?5.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 480.296 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 480.296 629.763 m 534.284 629.763 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 616.906 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Omvedt, pp. 160?74.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 165.008 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 165.008 615.507 m 218.996 615.507 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 602.650 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A. Wink, )] TJ ET BT 111.344 602.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Al?Hind: The Making of the Indo?Islamic World, Vol. 2)] TJ ET BT 380.660 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Leiden, 1997\), pp. 147?8, 307?33.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 586.995 m 118.004 586.995 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 574.138 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For two positions on this, see R. Thapar, ?Historical traditions in Early India c. 1000 BC to AD 600? )] TJ ET BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in A. Feldherr and G. Hardy, )] TJ ET BT 205.652 559.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Oxford History of Historical Writing, Vol. 1, Beginnings to AD )] TJ ET BT 64.016 545.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(600)] TJ ET BT 82.016 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 2011\), pp. 553?76; and V. Lal, )] TJ ET BT 280.316 545.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The History of History: Politics and Scholarship in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 531.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Modern India)] TJ ET BT 130.340 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New Delhi, 2003\), pp. 14, 16, 39?40, 58?60.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 351.308 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 351.308 529.971 m 405.296 529.971 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 517.114 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. Rocher, ?British Orientalism in the Eighteenth Century: The Dialectics of Knowledge and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Government?, in C. A. Brekenridge and P. Van Der Veer, )] TJ ET BT 344.948 502.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Orientalism and the Post?Colonial )] TJ ET BT 64.016 488.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Predicament: Perspectives on South Asia )] TJ ET BT 265.652 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Philadelphia, PA, 1993\), pp. 215?49.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 447.308 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 447.308 487.203 m 501.296 487.203 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 474.346 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A. Mervyn Davies, )] TJ ET BT 158.996 474.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Warren Hastings: Maker of British India)] TJ ET BT 355.988 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1935\), pp. 420?7.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 490.640 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 490.640 472.947 m 544.628 472.947 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 460.090 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Keay, )] TJ ET BT 121.004 460.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(India Discovered: the recovery of a lost civilization)] TJ ET BT 368.636 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2001\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 449.960 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 449.960 458.691 m 509.948 458.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 445.834 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles Allen, )] TJ ET BT 136.340 445.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Buddha and the Sahibs)] TJ ET BT 268.340 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2002\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 349.664 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 349.664 444.435 m 409.652 444.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 431.578 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 431.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(B. Cohn, ?The command of language and the language of command?, in )] TJ ET BT 414.956 431.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Subaltern)] TJ ET BT 461.624 431.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Studies, Vol. 4, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 417.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Writings on South Asian History and Society)] TJ ET BT 278.684 417.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. R. Guha \(New Delhi, 1994\), pp. 276?329.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 503.648 417.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 503.648 415.923 m 543.644 415.923 l S BT 64.016 403.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 401.667 m 84.008 401.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 388.810 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 388.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(E. Said, )] TJ ET BT 104.684 388.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Culture and Imperialism)] TJ ET BT 223.352 388.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1994\), pp. 1?35, 73?95.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 387.332 388.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 387.332 387.411 m 447.320 387.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 374.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 374.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Quoted in J. P. Mallory, )] TJ ET BT 182.684 374.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(In Search of the Indo?Europeans)] TJ ET BT 341.996 374.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1989\), p. 12.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 453.320 374.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 453.320 373.155 m 513.308 373.155 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 360.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 360.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(C. Drekmeier, )] TJ ET BT 135.332 360.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kingship and Community in Early India)] TJ ET BT 328.340 360.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Stanford, CA, 1962\), p. 166; also see G. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 346.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Turnour, )] TJ ET BT 109.340 346.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The First Twenty Chapters of the Mahavanso etc)] TJ ET BT 344.336 346.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. \(Ceylon, 1836\), pp. xxi?xxix, cxiii?cxxvii.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 331.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 330.387 m 124.004 330.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 317.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(16.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 317.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Prinsep, )] TJ ET BT 116.684 317.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Essays on Indian Antiquities: Historic, Numismatic and Palaeographic )] TJ ET BT 461.684 317.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1858\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 303.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vol. 2, pp. 1?34, 55?101.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 183.008 303.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(16\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 183.008 301.875 m 242.996 301.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 289.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 289.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(D. Gilmour, )] TJ ET BT 125.348 289.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Curzon)] TJ ET BT 160.688 289.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1994\), pp. 178?81.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 301.340 289.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(17\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 301.340 287.619 m 361.328 287.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 274.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(18.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 274.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(F. R. Allchin, )] TJ ET BT 132.692 274.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Archaeology of Early Historic South Asia: The Emergence of Cities and States)] TJ ET BT 64.016 260.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 1995\), pp. 285?91; and D. Chakrabarti, )] TJ ET BT 318.644 260.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Archaeology of Ancient Indian Cities)] TJ ET BT 518.300 260.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New )] TJ ET BT 64.016 246.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Delhi, 1997\), pp. 174?81.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 187.004 246.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(18\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 187.004 244.851 m 246.992 244.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 231.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 231.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(B. Avari, )] TJ ET BT 111.344 231.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(India: The Ancient Past ? A History of the Indian subcontinent from c. 7000 BC to AD1200)] TJ ET BT 64.016 217.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 2007\), pp. 38?59.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 195.668 217.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(19\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 195.668 216.339 m 255.656 216.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 203.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 203.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ibid, pp. 38?40, 54?5, 64?6.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 198.332 203.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(20\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 198.332 202.083 m 258.320 202.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 189.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(21.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 189.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For example J. C. Aggarwal & A. Biswas, )] TJ ET BT 269.996 189.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ancient and Medieval History of India for Class XI: in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 174.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(accordance with the syllabus prescribed by the Central Board of Secondary Education, Delhi)] TJ ET BT 516.644 174.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(New )] TJ ET BT 64.016 160.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Delhi, 1998\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 127.676 160.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(21\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 127.676 159.315 m 187.664 159.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 146.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(22.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 146.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hemant and Helen Kanitkar, )] TJ ET BT 204.980 146.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Asoka and Indian Civilization)] TJ ET BT 348.656 146.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Malcolm Yapp and Margaret )] TJ ET BT 64.016 132.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Killingray \(London, 1978\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 194.672 132.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(22\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 194.672 130.803 m 254.660 130.803 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 105.941 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 91.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Guardian)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 77.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2012/mar/16/ashoka-india-emperor-charles-allen-review)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 76.035 m 470.264 76.035 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 473.264 77.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Independent)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 48.917 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/books/reviews/ashoka-the-search-for-indias-lost-emperor-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 47.523 m 552.908 47.523 l S BT 34.016 34.661 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by-charles-allen-7468480.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 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