%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141225050712+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141225050712+00'00') /Title (Secularisation and the Leiden Circle) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4377 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Secularisation and the Leiden Circle)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark Somos has written a challenging and fascinating book. )] TJ ET BT 327.980 287.579 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Secularisation and the Leiden Circle)] TJ ET BT 504.644 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commended for its topic \(the much maligned origins and process of secularisation\), for the author?s depth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and breadth of knowledge and for his impressive research and analysis of the source material. It is a )] TJ ET BT 516.236 259.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(tour de )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(force)] TJ ET BT 58.676 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( by any measure and as the book of a PhD thesis even more so. While I greatly enjoyed reading it, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would urge anyone interested in either secularisation in the early modern period, or the intellectual history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the University of Leiden in the first decades after its foundation, to read it, this recommendation comes with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a serious health warning. Reading Somos? book requires concentration and focus of sometimes epic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proportions. The problem is that it is not very well written and certainly not edited at all. As sophisticated as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the content is, this book is still very much a thesis. Stylistically it sways from the colloquial to the schematic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(there are many multiple pointed paragraphs\), it is rambling, far too long \(it could have been easily cut down )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by a third\) and its structure leaves much to be desired. By the end I felt literally bashed over the head by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author?s arguments and rather beaten into agreeing with him, which was not necessary as I was already )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sympathetic to his case. Brill?s editors should be asking themselves some serious questions about their copy-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(editing process. This is a real shame because the author has a great deal to teach us.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Somos begins his book by stating his research question: ?when, how and why did religious justifications )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fade out from mainstream legal, political, and scientific writings in the West?? \(p. 1\) This is an important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1288)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 19 July, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark Somos)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(65.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(544pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brill)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leiden)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Esther Mijers)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8202 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question to ask even if some of us suspect the answer is not as clear as the author suggests. Somos finds his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(answer in the Dutch Republic of the late 16th and early 17th centuries, at the University of Leiden. Recently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(founded in 1575, it played host to a circle of like-minded scholars, with the Frenchman Joseph Scaliger as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the central figure, who were closely connected and committed to a programme of secularisation by common )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiences and intellectual convictions. For the author, secularisation was a process and a model, though )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not an end in itself. Scaliger and his fellow scholars should not be seen as proto-atheists or forerunners of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Israel?s Radical )] TJ ET BT 113.324 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lumieres)] TJ ET BT 157.988 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, although there are many connections to be made between the two, but instead as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the protagonists of a necessary and, at times, seemingly inevitable development. Like Israel, Somos is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerned with Western modernity and sees secularisation is its essence. The line to the \(Radical\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Enlightenment is easily drawn. As Somos concedes: ?In Leiden, as in a microcosm, we see all the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(components of the Enlightenment present and prefigured? \(p. 90\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The case of secularisation is presented as a conscious step to be taken following the devastating effects of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Reformation and the ensuing European wars of religion. Emanating from its embers, secularisation was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therefore in the first place a pacifist idea as much as an ideal. Like-minded scholars and intellectuals became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convinced of the need to remove theology from all aspects of thought to avoid both violent and intellectual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflict in the future. Somos sees its history as marked by setbacks and interruptions and acknowledges that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its path is neither straight nor straightforward. Nevertheless he narrows its development down to three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contexts, which were all connected and contingent. Secularisation projects could be found first of all among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 16th century French )] TJ ET BT 151.328 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(politiques)] TJ ET BT 198.668 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; secondly within Scaliger?s Leiden Circle c. 1600; and finally among the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arminians in 17th?century England. The author explains his focus on Leiden, which provides, in his rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clunky expression, the illustration needed to prove his point. While other ?discourses or fields? could have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been chosen, ?the Dutch episode around the turn of the seventeenth century, from the opening of Leiden )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University in 1575 to the Synod of Dordt in 1618-19 [...] was a major turning-point in the broader history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secularisation [...]? \(p. 7\). When the French )] TJ ET BT 245.960 456.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(politique )] TJ ET BT 291.632 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(project ended in failure following the St )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bartholomew?s Day Massacre, the Dutch took over the baton of the project before passing it on to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English, making them the pivotal players in the story. Moreover, the history of the newly-established and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not-yet-consolidated Dutch Republic provides the perfect backdrop to place Somos? arguments into a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political context.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book discusses four of the key members of his Leiden Circle, who were united by historicisation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(irenicism. The first chapter is dedicated to the contributions of Joseph Scaliger. Born and educated in France, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he is presented as leading in the second stage of secularisation after the failure of the first stage, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Politiques? )] TJ ET BT 91.688 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(project. Following the work done by Anthony Grafton, Somos explains how in his work Scaliger )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rejected all privileged epistemic status, including biblical or revelatory, in favour of critical history. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elevating history to the ?master discipline', he put down the foundations for the work of the other members )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Leiden circle. With this, Leiden secularisation was born and his legacy was carried forward by his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many students who would continue this programme. Scaliger?s successor was his pupil Daniel Heinsius, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gifted scholar who is now mainly remembered for his biblical criticism or his literary influence. While his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drama theory and vernacular poetry influenced generations of poets and playwright across Europe, as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political thinker he is largely forgotten. Here he is placed in a new context, namely alongside his fellow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leiden thinkers. Somos also offers a new reading of one of his most important texts )] TJ ET BT 439.304 216.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(On the Constitution of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tragedy)] TJ ET BT 74.012 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1610\). In the early 17th century, the ethical role of tragedy in the formation of Christian citizens )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became an important topic of debate. The Leiden Circle now shifted its attention from history to drama: ?It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is interesting to note that while the first Leiden generation \(Dousa, Junius, Lipsius, Vulcanius, Scaliger\) did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not begin their academic careers with satirical, skeptical or stoical texts, they made sure that the second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generation did. It seems that the first generation of the Leiden Circle decided to thoroughly coach their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(students in satire and skepticism at the earliest possible opportunity? \(p. 285\). In all this, Heinsius? work set )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new standards which precluded religion. Moreover, writing against the backdrop of the emerging battle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between Arminians and Gomarists, his work also had political relevance. Three years after the publication of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(On the Constitution of Tragedy)] TJ ET BT 184.028 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, he confirmed his secularising ideas on assuming the Chair of History at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leiden in his inaugural text, )] TJ ET BT 172.004 73.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(On the Superiority and Dignity of History)] TJ ET BT 372.668 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Amongst other things, it explored )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alternatives to Christian immortality, a notion which would preoccupy Heinsius? later works. In a very )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 8266 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thorough and at times rather laboured reading of these texts, Somos concludes that, despite \(or even because )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of\) his devout Calvinism, Heinsius? preoccupation served a pacifist purpose, summing up his contribution as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?not mere humanistic exercises in rhetoric [...] but elements of a systematic attempt to minimise potential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(areas of religious conflict?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As important as Scaliger?s and Heinsius? contributions were, the key member of the Leiden Circle and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(programme of secularisation, and this book?s main protagonist, was Petrus Cunnaeus, another one of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scaliger?s students. He is best known for his work on the Hebrew Republic, entitled )] TJ ET BT 441.296 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(De Republica )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hebraeorum Libri Tres)] TJ ET BT 146.684 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, but Somos leaves this text to one side, briefly summarising its achievements as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(showing both discontinuity between the divine and the worldly republics as well as the potential for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparison, ?making the divine polity not special, but fully comparable with others? \(p. 202\) .Instead he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focuses his analysis on Cunnaeus' )] TJ ET BT 199.160 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sardi Venales )] TJ ET BT 269.156 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, a satire which 'marks a milestone in the progress of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secularisation in Leiden and in general?. He sees it as the culmination of the programme of the Leideners, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complimenting both his predecessor Heinsius and his successor Grotius, and anticipating Cunnaeus' own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(De Republica Hebraeorum.)] TJ ET BT 166.988 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Written as a Mennipean satire, the )] TJ ET BT 337.616 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sardi Venales )] TJ ET BT 407.612 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combined three discourses to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?prevent the mystical, scientific, or philosophical reassertion of Christianity?s normative monopoly? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(215\). Cynicism, Rabbinism and Christian minimalism provided the trio of approaches needed to achieve this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(goal. While the author is sensible in warning against reading secret codes and messages without good )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reason, he proceeds to analyse multiple layers of esoteric meaning in Mennipean satire in general and in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sardi Venales )] TJ ET BT 104.012 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in particular, running the risk of falling into this very trap. Yet largely he manages the multi-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(layered background of Cunneaus? masterpiece, which includes humanism, Kabbalism and other Jewish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditions with remarkable skill. The analysis is impressive and convincing because of the author?s erudition, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although too often the arguments are buried too deep under numerous layers. And when, after some 180 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pages, the reader finally gets to the reception and impact of the book, it feels as if not only the reader, but the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author as well, has run out of steam. A better balance between analysis and impact would have strengthened )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Somos? case.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final member of the Leiden Circle and the most famous of Scaliger?s students to be discussed is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legalist, Hugo Grotius. Cunneaus? )] TJ ET BT 202.004 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sardi Venales )] TJ ET BT 272.000 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a companion piece to his )] TJ ET BT 415.976 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ordinum Pietas)] TJ ET BT 492.308 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. But in other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work there was also contingence between Grotius, Cunnaeus and the other Leideners. Of particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance was Grotius' )] TJ ET BT 153.824 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(De Iure Praedae)] TJ ET BT 234.464 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the precursor to his more famous )] TJ ET BT 401.768 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(De Iure Belli ac Pacis.)] TJ ET BT 511.412 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Here the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader is again on more familiar ground. Grotius' ?removal of theology from law? \(p. 387\) is well known, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although, again, Somos? contextualisation and analysis do shed some new light. Interpreting Grotius? work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against a )] TJ ET BT 79.340 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(politique)] TJ ET BT 122.012 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( backdrop, it is argued that Grotius was already ?thinking in terms of the essentially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secular, new system of laws that we find in )] TJ ET BT 243.980 316.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(De Iure Belli ac Pacis)] TJ ET BT 350.624 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?, although the message comes across less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confidently here than in the analyses of the other members of the Leiden Circle. Somos struggles with his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument and appears on shaky ground when he discusses some of the New World elements in the book. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unfortunately, he does not appear to have consulted some of the most recent work on this text, most notably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that of Martine van Ittersum.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Somos concludes with an at times rather personal assessment of the process of secularisation. Summing up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his book, he identifies its dual focus: secularisation as a ?generic set of solutions to the generic problem of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repeatedly religious conflict? and the ?short yet seminal period of intense localized secularizing activity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undertaken by the Leiden Circle? \(p. 439\). This assessment then sums up both the book?s ambition as well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as its shortcoming. Somos? starting point is that of the process of secularisation as a model and the Leiden )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Circle is used as an example to illustrate this. The result is an analysis which, for all its erudition, feels )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manipulated and at times jars. Secularisation is presented as a conscious project and a coherent programme, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in which its contributors had a division of labour \(p. 51\). While this may not be entirely what the author )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(means to convey ? indeed he often adds qualifying comments to that effect ? the finished product does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appear to make this case. However, when reading this as a history of Leiden?s earliest scholars and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarship, the book succeeds and offers virtually unparalleled insights, reinstating some of the more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obscure figures and their work. For this reason alone, the book deserves great praise and despite my )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reservations regarding the premise and the editorial problems ? not least the incredibly frustrating use of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 893 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abbreviated titles in all footnotes, presumably to keep their length down, and the use of abbreviations for all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the key texts mentioned ? I not only enjoyed it very much but will return to it often, as I am sure others will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as well.)] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 751.231 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 733.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 733.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1288)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 732.057 m 328.316 732.057 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 707.080 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 692.680 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/25369)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 732.3715 328.3157 744.2515 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1288) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000539 00000 n 0000000621 00000 n 0000005050 00000 n 0000005159 00000 n 0000005269 00000 n 0000005378 00000 n 0000008939 00000 n 0000009067 00000 n 0000009151 00000 n 0000009216 00000 n 0000017471 00000 n 0000017536 00000 n 0000025855 00000 n 0000025939 00000 n 0000026884 00000 n 0000027012 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 27108 %%EOF