%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818102226+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818102226+01'00') /Title (Muscovy and the Mongols: Cross-cultural Influences on the Steppe Frontier, 1304-1589) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4695 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Muscovy and the Mongols: Cross-cultural Influences on the Steppe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Frontier, 1304-1589)] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ask most people, including Russians, who have a modest familiarity with European history what they know )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about medieval Russia and their answer will probably be brief, but will include something about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mongols, perhaps even 'the Tatar yoke' \(for a succinct statement of the difference between Mongols and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tatars see Ostrowski's preface, p. xiii\). This 'Tatar yoke', still often invoked, especially in Russian writing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(tatarskoe igo\) is one of those historical catchphrase categories, like 'the Dark Ages', which may be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occasionally convenient to teachers, popular writers and political ideologists, but more often serve to blur a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whole period or topic and discourage any further examination. In the case of the Mongols/Tatars their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invasion of Kievan Russia certainly happened \(the first Russian defeat at the hands of a marauding Tatar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(army was in 1223 and in the period 1237-1240 most of Russia was subjugated\) and could easily have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extended further west if circumstances had been just a little different. And the consequences of the invasion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were certainly profound and helped to shape Muscovite and modern Russia, perhaps even its role in recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world history. Exactly what the consequences were, however, has been a matter of debate ever since Russia's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first great historian Karamzin in the early nineteenth century \(his view was that 'the calamity was a blessing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in disguise' since it unified the Russian principalities\). While there has been no school of 'Tatar yoke denial', )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the sensitivities and propaganda of national pride and politics have certainly played their part in Russian and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Soviet attitudes to the period \(see Eisenstein's Alexander Nevskii\), just as some non-Russian historians, not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(least in the Cold War period, used the long period of Mongol overlordship to disparage Russia \('scratch a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russian, find a Tatar'\), and later, by implication, the Soviet Union. In most cases both Russian and non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russian historians have seen the Mongol invasion as a disaster for Russia, one over which the Russian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people heroically triumphed \(at one end of the historiographical spectrum\), or one which led to cultural and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(129)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 1 May, 2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Donald Ostrowski)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1998)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(329pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Will Ryan)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6017 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political backwardness and slavish oriental despotism \(a view shared by many non-Russian writers and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russian Marxists\). Soviet writing often managed to adopt both these attitudes at the same time.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The facts of the case have been difficult for a non-specialist and non-Russophone reader to assemble and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assess. It will now be a little easier. Donald Ostrowski has written an invaluable book which charts the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiographical debate and analyses the impact of the Mongols on Russia more fully than any other single )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work. Even better, it has that fast disappearing aid to scholarship: good, informative and argumentative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(footnotes. The title of the book, it must be said, is slightly misleading: the book is really about the origins of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Muscovite Russia and its institutions, and the 'cross-cultural influences', though looked at in a very broad )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context and in considerable depth, are examined primarily to that end the subtitles of the two parts of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book make this very clear:)] TJ ET BT 161.324 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Part 1 'Mongol influence: what's what and what's not'; Part 2 'Development of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(anti-Tatar ideology in the Muscovite Church')] TJ ET BT 251.576 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. 'Cross-cultural' does not mean you will find anything here on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russian influence on the Mongols.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ostrowski carefully defines his aims and terms in his preface, and in his Introduction outlines the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography of his subject. Perhaps fortunately for him, the subject has encouraged a good number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians into making succinct statements of their position, all of which are duly and readably quoted. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ostrowski is fairly even-handed here, apart from properly castigating those Russian historians who espouse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(virgin birth theories on all aspects of Russian culture. I would offer only one criticism in this context: one of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his two chosen examples of excessively local interpretation, the view of some Russian historians that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dragon-slaying figure on Muscovite seals is 'a mounted tsar', is more complicated than his argument and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quoted sources might suggest, and the alternative St George interpretation offered here is itself open to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenge; some consideration should be given to the literature on zmeevik amulets and the 'Thracian rider' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(motif, which would certainly strengthen the case for external influence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ostrowski then offers his own 'synthesis for the purpose of the further study of Muscovite culture' \(p. 13 ff.\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Essentially this is an identification of five models and an ecumenical plea not to denigrate the work of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholars who adhere to a view you disagree with, together with a chronological division of 'early', 'middle' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and 'late' Muscovy. 'Early' Muscovy is defined as covering the period 1304 to 1448, a period of competition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with other principalities of northern Rus', Byzantine in its high culture and religion, part Kievan and part )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mongol in its law, heavily Mongolized in its politics and warfare \(but why this starting date is chosen is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explained, and the preceding sixty years of Mongol domination in the principalities of Rus' are not much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(referred to in the argument about influences\); 'Middle' Muscovy is defined as the period from 1448 to 1589, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at the beginning of which the Muscovite Grand Prince was still paying tribute to the Qipchaq khan but was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more or less politically independent, the Church had begun to appoint its own metropolitan, and in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(course of which Muscovy began to absorb most of what is now European Russia, and began to claim to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the successor to the Byzantine Empire, as well as developing anti-Tatar propaganda. The 'late' Muscovy is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defined as the period of 1589 to 1722, from the establishment of the Moscow Patriarchate to the death of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter the Great, a time of increasing Westernization, the institutionalization of serfdom, and territorial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expansion into Siberia and the Ukraine. This is a contentious but defensible scheme, with the 'late' period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps most likely to provoke dissent the Polish intervention, beginning of the Romanov dynasty, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nikonian schism, the Ulozhenie code of law, and several episodes in Peter's reign can all be considered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(watershed points.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7083 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The introduction ends with a somewhat naive plea for the training of future historians of Muscovy in Slavic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and West European languages and history, together with Byzantine, Central Asian and Chinese languages )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and history. Even in Ostrowski's Harvard I suspect this will sound hopelessly unrealistic; from the remaining )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Slavists in the universities of Britain \(a book every five years for the Research Assessment Exercise please\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Continental Europe, with managerial strategies aped from MacDonalds, and the steady decline of Slavic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies in general, the most likely reaction will be a hollow laugh. Historians of early modern Russia with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(training or even minimal expertise in even half these disciplines may by some fortunate accident appear in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(future, perhaps even be given a university post on condition that they also teach something 'relevant' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\('Gendering the Great Dictators' perhaps?\) but who would bet a single euro on it? Which should make us all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the more grateful for Ostrowski's contribution.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part 1 of Ostrowski's book discusses the extent of Mongol influences. It's first chapter, 'Setting the scene', is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a brief but very useful overview of the political and cultural map of the Eurasian landmass from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fourteenth to the sixteenth century, and leads directly into chapters on the main areas in which Mongol )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence in Muscovy has been claimed: administration, political institutions, and the military; seclusion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women; oriental despotism; economic repression of the 'Tatar yoke'. Of these Ostrowski considers only the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first to be justified, and begins Ch. 2: 'The key to understanding the Muscovite administration is the dual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structure it adopted from the Qipchaq khanate', ultimately of Chinese inspiration. This claim is then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrated persuasively if not conclusively.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ch.3, on the seclusion of women among the Muscovite elite, gives a detailed and well supported analysis of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the status of women in Muscovite life and law, dismisses the claim of Mongol influence, mostly on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grounds that the Mongols did not in fact treat their women in this way, and prefers to see Byzantine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence, although this explanation raises difficult questions of another kind, as Ostrowski admits.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Ch. 4, on 'oriental despotism', we enter a contentious area of loaded terminology and political propaganda. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ostrowski covers a lot of comparative ground, much of it Chinese or Byzantine, but to my mind misses a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(few tricks in not paying enough to the increasing significance of Western Europe in his 'middle' period when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Muscovy was beginning to make imperial claims and political moves aimed westwards as well as eastwards. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Here, as earlier in his rather perfunctory discussion of the term tsar', perhaps a little more linguistic attention )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(here to comparative titulature might have strengthened his argument \(I am reminded that Isabel de )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Madariaga has observed more than once that the most appropriate translation of samoderzhets is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('autocrat' with its pejorative associations in modern English, but 'sovereign'\), or the whole topic could have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been referred forward to Ch. 8 where it is dealt with in far more satisfactory detail. It is also a little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surprising that Ostrowski does not mention that any historiographical discussion of 'oriental despotism' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should take into account that its use by Marx gave it a particular terminological skew in Marxist, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therefore Soviet Russian, historical writing. But Ostrowski is surely right to conclude that: 'the entire issue of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("oriental despotism" is a false one, concocted initially in the eighteenth century by critics of the French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarchy as a means of criticizing that government' \(p. 107\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ch. 5, on economic oppression, examines the conventional view that Muscovy suffered long- term economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(devastation under the ' Mongol yoke'. Ostrowski dryly observes: 'This view of economic destruction by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mongols and their reducing of Rus' to an almost purely agricultural economy has a metahistorical appeal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both to Russian nationalists and to Marxist historians', and having surveyed a substantial literature opts for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the not entirely new revisionist position that after an initial period of deprivation Muscovy for the most part )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flourished.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part 2 of the book \(chapters 6-11\) is devoted to the 'Development of an anti-Tatar ideology in the Muscovite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Church'. In Ch. 6 Ostrowski defines his concept of ideology, as distinct from mentalit, outlines the growth of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a more or less independent Muscovite Church and a new power balance between ruler and Church, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of 'an agreed-upon virtual past, and the setting-up of an interpretative framework by which to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("explain" Muscovite-Tatar relations' \(p. 143\). In Ch. 7 Ostrowski notes that the various Russian chronicles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have no anti-Tatar bias in the entries for the years 1252-1448, in which period the Russian Church followed )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7408 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the policy of the Byzantine Church in accommodating itself to the khanate as its overlord by the will of God. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The detailed textual argument here concludes that 'the Church-concocted virtual past of Rus' princes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(struggling to free the Rus' land from the Tatars is a post-1448 invention' \(p. 163\). I like this discussion of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manipulation of history by people one might not have thought of as historical sophisticates. Ostrowski does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not, however, discuss the various apocalyptic texts circulating in Russia, mostly from about the twelfth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, i.e. before the Muscovite period, and continuing into modern times, in which first the Pechenegs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and then the Tatars are identified as Gog and Magog, the unclean tribes locked up beyond the Caucasus, who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will be released to disastrous effect in the 'last days' of Antichrist. This does weaken Ostrowski's position a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(little, but his overall argument that there was an essential historical, ideological, and cultural tension between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Church and the Grand Prince/tsar' is well argued.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ch. 8, 'Fashioning the khan into a basileus', details in a rather dense flurry of historiographical and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(textological argument the main lines of the anti-Tatar myth-making propaganda of the Church \(e.g. the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legends of the ancient classical genealogy of the princes of Vladimir, the crown of Vladimir Monomakh sent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the Byzantine emperor\) and its political effect in defining the limits of secular power. It also discusses in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detail the development of the concept of the ruler and his title \(pp. 174-85\). Ch. 9 develops this theme )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further in showing how the clergy were able to use Byzantine ideas and precedents to try to shape a polity in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which the grand prince, later tsar', and his advisors, and the Church, were in an acceptable \(to them\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Ch. 10 'Third Rome: delimiting the ruler's power and authority' Ostrowski turns to that over-quoted notion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and discusses its origins and development. He comes down firmly for the view that it was originally a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concept employed in ecclesiastical polemic between Moscow and Novgorod, that it was generally rejected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the Church in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, and only in the mid-seventeenth century was it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associated with the Muscovite state. Not all will be entirely convinced that this was not a part of an attempt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at translatio imperii, given other evidence of a trend in that direction.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If the myth of the 'Third Rome' takes a knock in the previous chapter, the 'Tatar yoke' takes another in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(next and last chapter, which is also the author's peroration. The 'Third Rome', Ostrowski shows, came into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(use in use in the late sixteenth century as part of the anti-Tatar propaganda and has become a catchword in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mainstream of Russian historical writing thereafter. Ostrowski explains the apparent contradiction between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the actions of Muscovite rulers and the dominant ideology as evidenced in Old Russian literature, in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passage which summarizes the argument of his book : The main question of this book has been why )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Muscovite secular rulers seemed to be acting in ways that were inexplicable in terms of Church-based views. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In other words, why do the sources present such contradictory evidence about what was going on in early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and middle Muscovy? My answer has been that the ecclesiastical and secular establishments were affected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by two different outside influences -Byzantium and the Qipchaq Khanate, respectively. The traditions, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practices, doctrines, and values of the Byzantine Empire drew on those of the Christian Roman Empire \(the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(largest empire in the West in the ancient world\), developed them, and transmitted them through the Church )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Muscovy. The traditions, practices, doctrines, and values of the Qipchaq Khanate drew on those of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mongol Empire \(the largest land empire in world history\), developed them, and transmitted them through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the governmental apparatus to Muscovy. \(p. 247\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are weaknesses in this book, some of which have already been noted. Some of the claims are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contentious; some possible alternative arguments are passed over; the book is not quite what its title )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promises and one occasionally has the feeling that one is reading very detailed speculative or polemic essays )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(written at different times and not always well sewn together \(e.g. the two attempts at explaining tsar' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mentioned above\); it not infrequently mentions in passing quite important things without explanation or even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adequate footnote references \(see for example the first reference to the Oprichnina on p. 21, or any of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(references to the Judaizers under 'heresy, Novgorod-Moscow' in the index\). The balance of relevance is also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a little insecure. For example, the discussion of the 'Third Rome', though certainly an alleged part of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Muscovite political ideology, has little to do with 'cross- cultural influences on the steppe frontier', while at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the other extreme the emphasis on the two big ideas, Mongol influence in political matters and Byzantine in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ecclesiastical matters and the bookish tradition, almost excludes other possible additional dimensions - for )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 2018 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, the possible influence of Westerners and Jews in Muscovite ideological debate \(Judaizers again, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doctors, printers, ambassadors, Nicolaus of Lubeck, Muscovite familiarity with the 'Donation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Constantine'\), or the views of Ivan Peresvetov, or the Secretum secretorum; or the millenarian anxieties at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the end of the fifteenth century, or the interest in some quarters in the Spanish Inquisition.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Even with these caveats, this book is a major achievement. It raises the level of debate, and it brings together )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into a coherent argument a vast amount of disparate scholarship in many disciplines to illumine a difficult )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(area in history. In particular it reviews traditional and revisionist writing in a grand re-evaluation of those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clichs 'the Tatar yoke', 'Oriental despotism' and 'the Third Rome'. Future writing on this topic will have to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engage with Ostrowski's analysis one way or another.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 625.183 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 607.403 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 607.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/129)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 606.009 m 322.316 606.009 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 581.032 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 566.632 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/739)] TJ ET BT 34.016 552.232 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 606.3235 322.3157 618.2035 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/129) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000594 00000 n 0000000676 00000 n 0000005423 00000 n 0000005532 00000 n 0000005642 00000 n 0000005751 00000 n 0000009312 00000 n 0000009440 00000 n 0000009524 00000 n 0000009589 00000 n 0000015659 00000 n 0000015724 00000 n 0000022860 00000 n 0000022925 00000 n 0000030386 00000 n 0000030470 00000 n 0000032541 00000 n 0000032669 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 32764 %%EOF