%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 35 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141031181553+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141031181553+00'00') /Title (The Shock of the Ancient: Literature & History in Early Modern France) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4403 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Shock of the Ancient: Literature & History in Early Modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(France)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Playing on the title of Robert Hughes's popular history of modernist art, )] TJ ET BT 381.824 251.939 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Shock of the New)] TJ ET BT 485.816 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1980\), Larry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Norman recreates that moment in 17th- and 18th-century France when the classical literary texts that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Renaissance humanists had treated as timeless vehicles of cultural value, and so put at the core of European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(education, came to many to seem shockingly ?primitive,? even ?barbaric? ? superseded, in effect, by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(progress of polite and rational modernity. Those who professed most loudly to feel such shock, Charles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perrault and \(more wryly\) Bernard de Fontenelle, were the ?Moderns? in the famous )] TJ ET BT 443.252 180.659 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Querelle des anciens et )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(des modernes)] TJ ET BT 99.668 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(as it was named in 1859 by Hyppolite Rigault\) which exploded into prominence in the 1670s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and 1680s and soon engulfed all Europe. To Homer, declared Perrault, ?it suffices for a general to have valor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and swift feet?; his Achilles is ?unjust, brutal, pitiless, impious, and lawless? \(p. 114\). Homer would have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been a better poet had he lived in Louis XIV's enlightened age, since ? a modern methodical writer, even of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limited natural gifts, can surpass the most inspired geniiuses of the past, who relied on nothing but instinct? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 162\) \(and to prove the point, Perrault published in 1686 his devotional epic )] TJ ET BT 413.984 95.123 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Saint Paulin)] TJ ET BT 473.660 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Defenders of the remains of the classical past, from Boileau to the early 18th-century ?Ancients? Anne )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dacier and Jean Boivin \(combatants in the Battle's second phase, the so-called )] TJ ET BT 413.108 54.611 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Querelle d'Homre)] TJ ET BT 505.316 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) fought a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1290)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 20 July, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Larry Norman)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780226591483)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(29.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(296pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Chicago)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chicago, IL)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Douglas Lane Patey)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7862 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rear-guard action in the face of ever more recalcitrant Moderns, especially the relentlessly rationalist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?geometers? Jean Terrasson and Antoine Houdar de La Motte. In 1715 Terrason explained his view of both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literary composition and criticism:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The geometric approach is certainly quite as valuable as that of literary commentary ... There is )] TJ ET BT 64.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no topic or matter that should escape the most rigorous examination: the art of poetry has its )] TJ ET BT 64.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own axioms, its own theorems, corollaries, and demonstrations; and though its forms and terms )] TJ ET BT 64.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may appear in a different guise, it is always fundamentally the same steps of reasoning, the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same method, however adorned they be, that result in true proofs \(p. 156\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 634.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Terrasson would call the )] TJ ET BT 155.324 634.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Iliad)] TJ ET BT 177.992 634.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the first tale to celebrate an utterly vicious hero, one ?who never once )] TJ ET BT 34.016 620.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(voluntarily did good for anyone? \(p. 116\); La Motte would publish an altered and abridged version of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 605.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poem designed ?to correct its most shocking parts? \(p. 85\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 579.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The story of the battle of Ancients and Moderns has often been told, usually as the triumph of the Moderns, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 565.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and usually in an effort to locate the ?big ideas? behind what might otherwise seem a rather trivial literary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 551.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spat. After an initial phase in which combatants claimed either the superiority of ancient \(pre-medieval\) or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 536.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern \(post-medieval\) learning )] TJ ET BT 194.984 536.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(tout court)] TJ ET BT 241.988 536.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Modern theorists such as Fontenelle divided the prize between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 522.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those disciplines which proceed by method and cumulative progress and those which reach full flower )] TJ ET BT 34.016 508.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(almost immediately. The first came to be called ?sciences?, the second ?arts?, and in the process not only our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 494.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern division of the disciplines of knowledge but also modern notions of progress were born.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 495.632 494.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 495.632 492.723 m 509.624 492.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 509.624 494.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( At the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 479.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same time, a new periodization of antiquity emerged \(especially an understanding of Homer as pre-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 465.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classical\), and a new sense of the historicity of texts and relativity of the cultures that produced them. \(The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 451.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(loving care with which Renaissance humanists sought to understand the most intimate details of ancient )] TJ ET BT 34.016 437.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(texts had already, ironically, contributed to render them foreign, the products of a world radically different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 422.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from our own; Homer's Modern detractors could turn for ammunition not merely to Plato but also to Julius )] TJ ET BT 34.016 408.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Caesar Scaliger's 1561 commentary on Aristotle's )] TJ ET BT 275.636 408.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Poetics)] TJ ET BT 310.964 408.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.\) And, of course, Greek and Latin began their slow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recessional from the centre to the margins of the European educational curriculum.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 368.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Larry Norman touches deftly on all these big ideas while choosing instead to tell the story of the Quarrel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 353.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the inside, from the points of view \(often deeply divided\) of its participants. Luminously written and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 339.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argued)] TJ ET BT 66.668 339.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(, The)] TJ ET BT 93.668 339.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Shock of the New)] TJ ET BT 176.660 339.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is the work of that too-rare being, a literary scholar who writes always to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 325.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inform rather than simply to impress. He begins with mid-century proto-Moderns \(Desmarets de Saint-Sorlin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 311.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Corneille\) and proto-Ancients \(Hilaire-Bernard de Longepierre and Racine\) to show that nearly all the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 296.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(central ideas of the Quarrel were present even before Perrault and Fontenelle entered the fray, and he ends )] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with brief examinations of its aftermath in Voltaire, Diderot, and Rousseau \(the last of whom, in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approval of Geneva's ban on theatrical productions, comes off as the most radical Modern of all\). Though )] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Norman treats only France ? Vico makes brief appearances, but among English combatants, Jonathan Swift )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and William Wotton receive only fleeting mention, Sir William Temple appears not at all, and Alexander )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pope comes into the story only as his translation of Homer reflects French debates; the later 18th-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German reformulation of the Quarrel is entirely elided ? )] TJ ET BT 306.284 211.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Shock of the Ancient)] TJ ET BT 425.600 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is nonetheless the single )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(best, most nuanced account now available of what was at stake in the Quarrel, the one with which all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(students of the period \(and of the origins of modernity in literature\) should start. And if, as I have argued )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elsewhere, that strain in mid 18th-century British literature once called ?pre-romantic? ? the new poetry and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criticism pursued in the 1740s by Mark Akenside, William Collins, and the Wartons ? owes as much to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French Quarrel as to home-grown debates, )] TJ ET BT 241.628 139.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Shock of the Ancient)] TJ ET BT 360.944 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( will be as important for understanding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British as French literary history.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 193.004 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 193.004 124.323 m 206.996 124.323 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In striking contrast to earlier accounts, Norman tells a story of victory by the Ancients ? victory in the area )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that mattered most to them, ancient poetry, which was from the start the real nerve of the Quarrel. \(Today we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would say ?literature? rather than ?poetry,? but in the 1670s, our modern sense of ?literature? was still a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century away; its emergence in the later 18th century was, Norman suggests, one of the most important long-)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 495.6317 493.0375 509.6237 504.9175 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 193.0037 124.6375 206.9957 136.5175 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7570 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(term effects of the Quarrel.\) In one of this book's most original and informative moves, Norman finds the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commitments and motives of all the Quarrel's combatants to be deeply divided. Even the most devout )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ancients, he explains, relished modern progress in the sciences, religion, and social life, so that ?there are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ancient and Modern positions to be found in writings, but not pure and simple Ancients and Moderns )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among actual writers? \(p. 49\): nobody really wished to return to a Homeric world in which gentlefolk )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cooked their own supper and did their own laundry. All sides agreed on the improvement of natural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge, especially since Bacon and \(especially\) Descartes. Though he believed \(as he told his friend )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jean-Baptiste Rousseau\) that ?the philosophy of Descartes had cut poetry's throat? \(p. 157\), the arch-Ancient )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boileau could associate Ronsard's classical borrowing with pedantry, and the advances made by his hero )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Malherbe with Cartesian ?method? \(so much so that the poet Andr Chenier could later accuse Boileau ? of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all people! ? of being too much a Modern\). But still the Ancients wished to celebrate early poets such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Homer; how now to do so?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Ancients' predicament was made especially difficult by the demands that their Modern opponents placed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on poetry. Everyone accepted the Horatian maxim that poetry must balance the )] TJ ET BT 416.936 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(utile)] TJ ET BT 438.272 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 461.600 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(dulce)] TJ ET BT 487.592 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, but Modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critics pushed harder on the first than ever before. First of all, Norman explains, poetry was to meet the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standards as any other kind of discourse:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For Desmarets ? as for many of the Modern apologists to follow ? the choice is clear: either )] TJ ET BT 64.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literary works are important and reveal truth, in which case they must meet intense )] TJ ET BT 64.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philosophical, ideological, and theological scrutiny, or they are simply frivolous pastimes of no )] TJ ET BT 64.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectual or political value. As an ambitious epic poet, Desmarets of course clings to the first )] TJ ET BT 64.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opinion ? to the revelatory nature of literature ? and thus suggests that poetry be submitted to the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same expectations and constraints that rule in other domains of knowledge. There is no poetic )] TJ ET BT 64.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exception in regard to truth. The moderns alone have it; the ancients, only false ?fiction? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(102\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Second, poetry was to teach especially by embodying standards of decorum of the sort neoclassical critics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought they found prescribed in Aristotle's )] TJ ET BT 245.492 380.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Poetics)] TJ ET BT 280.820 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: kings must be kingly, heroes heroic \(or, in negative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examples, transparently the opposite\). Horace's )] TJ ET BT 263.792 365.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(utile)] TJ ET BT 285.128 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( became a didacticism that turned fictions into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dramatized conduct-books. On both counts, ancient poetry came up short: Homer might once have been ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(teacher of Greece?, but he could hardly play the same role in modern France. Nor ? for reasons Norman can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only sketch \(their full explanation would require a book in itself\) ? was allegory, that favorite Renaissance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(device for recuperating and even Christianizing the ancients, any longer a plausible interpretive option.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It was all very bracing to revel, with Madame Dacier, in the otherness of the Homeric past ? to pronounce )] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brashly, as she did in her 1711 preface to the )] TJ ET BT 251.636 268.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Iliad)] TJ ET BT 274.304 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ?As for me ... I find those ancient times all the more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beautiful in that they so little resemble our own? \(p. 1\). She tried gamely to argue that Homer's gods, even at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their seemingly most immoral, still embodied a ?noble simplicity? \(p. 144\) that could be a model for our age )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of luxury and artifice. But if ancient works were still to command respect, a more fully reasoned defense of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the shocking ancient was called for. Here the Ancients pursued two routes, both of which entailed new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thinking about the nature and purposes of poetry.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 170.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first, audible as early as Racine's defense of the un-)] TJ ET BT 301.772 170.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(galant)] TJ ET BT 332.444 170.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, even perverse behavior of the characters in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 156.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his tragedy )] TJ ET BT 90.008 156.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Andromaque)] TJ ET BT 152.000 156.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1667\), was to deny the didactic demands of decorum in favor of an incipient )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historicism and relativism of taste. For Dacier, ?The aim of poetry is to imitate, and its imitation can be [as] )] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vicious in regard to good politics, as it is excellent in regard to good poetry?; according to Jan Boivin's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Apologie d'Homre)] TJ ET BT 127.568 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1715\), ?It is not a matter of determining whether the manners and morals that Homer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depicts are good or bad, but simply of determining whether in his time, or in the time of the Trojan war, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manners and morals were as he depicted them? \(pp. 131, 210\). Armed with such an argument, Ancients )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could accuse their opponents of mere vanity and )] TJ ET BT 269.300 70.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(amour-propre)] TJ ET BT 337.292 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: of simply preferring the mores of their own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(times, based on a mistaken equation of the standards of modern France with the deliverances of universal )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 27 0 R 30 0 R 33 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 8183 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reason. This historicist argument would lead in the second half of the 18th century to important new thinking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about cultural difference; at the time of the Quarrel, though, it failed to meet the most serious Modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rejections of the shocking ancient: it failed to explain what the value of ancient poetry might be in a modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context \(beyond providing footnotes to history\). Some more positive defense of ancient poetry was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessary.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This positive defense, and with it the Ancients' victory, Norman provocatively but persuasively argues, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entailed denying the continuity of poetry with other forms of discourse and erecting instead a distinct )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(category with its own aims and standards: the category that would come to be called ?literature? and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(realm of the ?aesthetic? \(a new branch of philosophy, first named by Alexander Baumgarten in 1735, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would treat the sensory and imaginative apart from the understanding\). Norman does not trace the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consolidation of this new category in detail, but suggests that one of is most important early architects was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(none other than that supposedly slavish adherent of ancient rules: Boileau. In 1674, Boileau translated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Longinus' )] TJ ET BT 84.512 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Peri Hupsous)] TJ ET BT 150.176 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET BT 157.172 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(On the Sublime)] TJ ET BT 231.164 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) into French, transforming what had previously been understood )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simply as a local rhetorical effect into something much larger: an unanalyzable, non-rational quality of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poetry \(which therefore cannot be comprehended by critical rules\) that overpowers the imagination and can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be experienced only in individual responses of taste. ?Method? could produce serviceable prose, but not ?le )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beau dsordre? of the sublime.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 180.980 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 180.980 554.979 m 194.972 554.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The new category of the sublime would of course become central to 18th-century aesthetics \(one need think )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only of John Dennis, Edmund Burke, and Kant\); so important was it to the Ancient cause that just as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moderns could be depreciated as ?geometers?, the Ancients were dubbed the ?Cabale du Sublime?. To )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fnelon, the admitted primitivism of Homer's age rendered his sublimity all the more impressive: ?The more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([Greek] religion was monstrous and ridiculous, the more one must admire [Homer] for having raised it up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with so many magnificent images?; ?I do not say such customs are good?, Diderot would agree in 1758, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?only that they are poetic? \(pp. 211, 221\). Indeed, it began to appear that only a primitive age such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Homer's could produce such powerful poetry. ?Boileau, Racine, and Fnelon all believed in the continuing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potential of the sublime to erupt from modern works?, but it soon became a critical commonplace that, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Diderot's formulation, ?In general, the more a people are civilized and polite, the less their manners and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(morals are poetical?; as first edition of the )] TJ ET BT 239.312 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Encyclopedia Britannica)] TJ ET BT 358.964 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( could state bluntly in 1768, ?poetry has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been cultivated with most success in the earliest stages of society?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 354.968 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 354.968 371.907 m 368.960 371.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Norman is surely right to stress the role of the Quarrel, and especially of the Ancients, in helping to establish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new notions of the ?literary? and the ?aesthetic?. But he does not explore the huge cost of the Ancient )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?victory?: the way that the transformation of poetry into a distinct, autonomous, ?literary? realm resulted in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exactly the trivialization of literature that the Ancients had feared. That the best poetry should emerge from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the childhood of cultures and of the race simply confirmed what from the start had been the Modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complaint that ancient poetry \(indeed all poetry\) is childish. In an essay ?Sur la posie en gnrale,? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fontenelle explained what space was left for poetry in an advanced civilization: ?When men must conduct )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves with seriousness and weight, reason must be obeyed, and one does not indulge frivolity; but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when they can behave like children, reason itself can happily play along with them? \(p. 173\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Norman says, ?the Ancients construct an aesthetics that privileges the emotional impact of the work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(above its didactic message? \(p. 208\). In other words: for all that Boileau and his followers could celebrate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the power of the sublime, given the way the concept was constructed, they could not explain what it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(good for beyond engaging our feelings. The same problem would beset the new category of the aesthetic, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and in both cases, that failure in effect ceded to the Moderns their deepest criticism of ancient poetry: such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poetry might move us, but not longer has any intellectual or social function. As the Abb Du Bos ruefully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(admitted in what Norman calls ?his 1719 founding text of modern French aesthetics? \(p. 219\), )] TJ ET BT 489.620 121.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rflexions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(critiques sur la posie et sur la peinture)] TJ ET BT 225.680 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ?Today only professionals make a study of the poets. After leaving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(school one reads them only to pass the time agreeably ? not as one reads historians or philosophers, that is, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to learn?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 78.668 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 78.668 77.043 m 92.660 77.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 92.660 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( With the new, aesthetic theory of art pioneered by the Ancients, in other words, we are well on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(our way to Hegel's famous pronouncement in his )] TJ ET BT 272.144 64.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Aesthetic)] TJ ET BT 316.136 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1830\) that art ?no longer serves our highest )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 180.9797 555.2935 194.9717 567.1735 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 354.9677 372.2215 368.9597 384.1015 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 78.6677 77.3575 92.6597 89.2375 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R 56 0 R ] /Contents 36 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Length 7552 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(need? ? a sentiment that is really no more than a delicate reframing of what the Moderns had claimed from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the first. Rhetoric may once have had a political function, Fontenelle had proclaimed in his ?Digression sur )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(les anciens et les modernes? \(1688\), but ?Poetry ... was good for nothing, as it has always been under all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kinds of regimes; that failing is of the essence of poetry?; as the Abb de Pons argued against Madame )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dacier, ?L'Art de vers est un art frivole?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 230.444 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 230.444 738.051 m 244.436 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 244.436 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( No wonder that, because of the ?victory? of the Ancients in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(famous Quarrel, defenses of poetry become by 1800 both more pressing and more shrill than they had been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before the Quarrel began: Larry Norman does not draw this last, grim moral from his story, but he provides )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readers all they need to do so for themselves.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 661.779 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 631.162 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the redefinition of the terms ?art? and ?science,? see Patey, ?Ancients and moderns?, in )] TJ ET BT 504.572 631.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge History of Literary Criticism)] TJ ET BT 259.364 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, IV \(Cambridge, 1989\), pp. 34?46. Whereas for centuries )] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?method? had attached to the \(rule-governed\) ?arts?, not to ?science?, in the 17th century a new notion )] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of ?scientific method? emerges \(a phrase which previously would have made no sense\). The role of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Quarrel in fostering new notions of intellectual and cultural progress was recognized as early as )] TJ ET BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Auguste Javary's)] TJ ET BT 145.160 559.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( De l'ide du progrs)] TJ ET BT 246.380 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1851\) and Jules Dalavaille's )] TJ ET BT 390.848 559.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Essai sur l'histoire de l'ide du )] TJ ET BT 64.016 545.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(progrs jusqu' la fin du XVIIIe sicle)] TJ ET BT 247.232 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1910\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 285.224 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 285.224 544.227 m 339.212 544.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 531.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See Patey, ??Aesthetics? and the rise of lyric in the eighteenth century?, )] TJ ET BT 412.604 531.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Studies in English Literature)] TJ ET BT 550.952 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(33, 3 \(Summer 1993\), 587?608.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 217.004 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 217.004 515.715 m 270.992 515.715 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 502.858 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boileau introduced the phrase )] TJ ET BT 210.656 502.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(beau dsordre)] TJ ET BT 279.644 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in his )] TJ ET BT 311.984 502.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Art potique)] TJ ET BT 371.648 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1674\) in discussing not Homer but )] TJ ET BT 64.016 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ode. If )] TJ ET BT 119.000 488.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Shock of the Ancient)] TJ ET BT 238.316 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( has any fault, it is that in stressing the genres of epic and \(to a )] TJ ET BT 64.016 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lesser extent\) tragedy, Norman neglects the role in the Quarrel of what was usually thought the oldest )] TJ ET BT 64.016 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and ?most poetical? kind of poetry: lyric.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 261.656 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 261.656 458.691 m 315.644 458.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 445.834 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Norman, pp. 223, 222; )] TJ ET BT 175.676 445.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Encyclopedia Britannica)] TJ ET BT 295.328 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Edinburgh, 1768\), s.v. ?Ossian?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 458.972 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 458.972 444.435 m 512.960 444.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 431.578 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 431.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7th ed., I \(Paris, 1770\), , p. 303.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 216.668 431.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 216.668 430.179 m 270.656 430.179 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 417.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 417.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hegel, )] TJ ET BT 98.672 417.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Werke)] TJ ET BT 129.320 417.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. E. Moldenhauer and K. M. Michel, XIII \(Frankfurt, 1970?1\), p. 24; )] TJ ET BT 479.252 417.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fontenelle)] TJ ET BT 530.576 417.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 403.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trans. John Hughes, in Scott Elledge, )] TJ ET BT 244.340 403.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Continental Model )] TJ ET BT 358.676 403.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Ithaca, NY, 1970\), p. 364; Jean-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 388.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Franois de Pons, )] TJ ET BT 152.012 388.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dissertation sur le pome pique, contre la doctrine de M.D., Oeuvres)] TJ ET BT 490.628 388.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Paris, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 374.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1738\), p. 143.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 131.012 374.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 131.012 373.155 m 185.000 373.155 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 348.293 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H-France)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.h-france.net/forum/forumvol7/Norman5.pdf)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 318.387 m 303.644 318.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 306.644 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 305.525 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