%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 44 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140930010232+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140930010232+01'00') /Title (Winckelmann and the Vatican?s First Profane Museum) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3928 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Winckelmann and the Vatican?s First Profane Museum)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is not surprising that a professor of religious studies reading Carlo Pietrangeli?s wonderfully informative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 259.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Vatican Museums: Five Centuries of History)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 302.996 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 302.996 257.673 m 316.988 257.673 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 316.988 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, would become curious about how the Vatican )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Museums came to be separated from the Vatican Library, and in particular about how a Museo Profano )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could have been created within the thoroughly religious context of the Vatican. Louis A. Ruprecht, Jr. has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(done just that, and he has searched the Vatican Library, the Archives of the Vatican Museums, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Secret Archives of the Vatican Library for documents to support his growing conviction \(?hunch-turned-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quasi-certainty? \(p. xii\)\) that J. J. Winckelmann was responsible for the organization of the Museo Profano, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and in fact for the very idea of public art museums. Ruprecht plans to reveal how:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 135.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?the Profane was detached from the Sacred, the visual was detached from the textual, public )] TJ ET BT 64.016 121.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(museums were detached from private libraries, and as a result, Art was decisively detached from )] TJ ET BT 64.016 106.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Religion ? This is the hidden and secret history of how such a brave new world of seeing came )] TJ ET BT 64.016 92.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be.? \(p. 17\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ruprecht is clearly eager to make his arguments accessible to general audiences. His style is characterized )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1291)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 20 July, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Louis A. Ruprecht Jr.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780230110694)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(352pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palgrave Macmillan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York, NY)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carol C. Mattusch)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 302.9957 257.9875 316.9877 269.8675 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R 26 0 R 29 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 8332 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by frequent use of italics for added emphasis, as in ?Winckelmann?s )] TJ ET BT 365.948 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(domestication of the profane)] TJ ET BT 503.612 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? \(p. 14\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and colloquialisms employed to engage readers \(Winckelmann was ?waiting on a boat to take him ?? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15\)\). Repetitions of points made in previous chapters and allusions to topics yet to be covered are also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(typical of the writing. There are frequent references to Pietrangeli?s book and to Wolfgang Leppmann?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Winckelmann)] TJ ET BT 99.332 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 102.332 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 102.332 738.051 m 116.324 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 116.324 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Latin and Italian passages in the text and in the footnotes are provided with translations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although the text itself is only 135 pages long, there are eight appendices \(55 pages\), a 13-page )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bibliography, and 66 pages of notes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the introduction \(pp. 1?17\), Ruprecht lauds Winckelmann as the scholar who shifted the emphasis in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study of classical antiquity from text to sculpture. Cardinal Alessandro Albani \(1692?1779\) played a major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role in furthering the career of Winckelmann, whom he hired as his librarian and curator in 1758, three years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after Winckelmann had arrived in Rome, having just published his )] TJ ET BT 356.312 629.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gedanken )] TJ ET BT 407.960 629.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 413.960 629.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ber die Nachahmung der )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Griechischen Werke in der Mahlerey und Bildhauer-Kunst)] TJ ET BT 315.968 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Reflections on the Imitation of Greek Works in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Painting and Sculpture\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ruprecht believes that the Villa Albani, containing Albani?s personal collection of antiquities, under the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence of Winckelmann, who lived within its rooms, became the model for Clement XIII?s Museo )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Profano in the Vatican. What is needed here is a clear chronology of Albani?s activities from the 1720s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(onwards with regard to collecting and exhibiting classical art in Rome. The author?s discussion of the dcor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Villa Albani would have benefitted from illustrations of the \(ancient\) Antinos relief and of Anton )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Raphael Mengs?s ceiling painting of )] TJ ET BT 212.996 503.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Parnassus)] TJ ET BT 263.000 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; the commentary on the significance of that painting belongs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the text, not the notes \(fn. 25, pp. 199?200\). The catalogue of the Albani collection still housed in the villa )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is )] TJ ET BT 45.020 475.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Forschungen zur Villa Albani)] TJ ET BT 188.024 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 191.024 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 191.024 473.955 m 205.016 473.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is little documentation for the extent of an Albani/Winckelmann collaboration regarding the Vatican. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Albani secured for Winckelmann three appointments in the Vatican library. Ruprecht provides a complete )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(translation of Nello Vian?s article ?Winckelmann alla Biblioteca Vaticana? )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 398.936 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 398.936 419.187 m 412.928 419.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 412.928 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which will be of special )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(value to readers for providing a thorough and objective background to Ruprecht?s more speculative work. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Winckelmann?s conversion to Catholicism in 1754 is another important aspect of Ruprecht?s ?appreciative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(walking tour through the furniture of the Winckelmannian mind? \(p. 17\) and helps to explain his close )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connections with the Vatican, its libraries, and its museums.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In chapter one \(pp. 19?26\), Ruprecht notes the apparent contradictions between Winckelmann?s interest in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the classical past and in the Catholic present, between the secularizing Enlightenment and the spiritual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspects of Romanticism. And yet the Greek temple, the public art museum, and the man himself, obscured )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by ?all the later scribbling that has been done )] TJ ET BT 254.312 294.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(in)] TJ ET BT 263.648 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( his name and )] TJ ET BT 332.972 294.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(over)] TJ ET BT 354.296 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( his name? \(p. 26\) form the palimpsest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Ruprecht plans to explicate, thereby revealing Winckelmann?s ?revolutionary? but undocumented ideas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and plans.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter two \(pp. 27?43\) returns to the subject of ancient art in papal collections. Already in the 16th century, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?the Belvedere gardens were ? awash in a sea of pagan statues, most of whom were entirely nude!? \(p. 41\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Vatican library, with many antiquities among its contents, was of great interest to Winckelmann when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he arrived in Rome. He was especially moved by the beauty of the Laokon and the Belvedere Apollo. For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thorough treatment of the discovery and earlier reception of these and other ancient statues in Rome, readers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should consult works such as Francis Haskell and Nicholas Penny?s )] TJ ET BT 363.980 168.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Taste and the Antique)] TJ ET BT 468.980 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 471.980 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 471.980 167.091 m 485.972 167.091 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 142.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The chronological thread of the events covered in chapter three \(pp. 45?58\) is illuminating. ?)] TJ ET BT 479.924 142.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The age of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(papally sponsored public art museums)] TJ ET BT 219.344 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? \(47: Ruprecht?s italics\) was an idea of Clement XI \(r. 1699?1721\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who established the Museo Ecclesiastico within the Vatican in 1703. In 1734, Clement XII \(r. 1730?40\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opened the Capitoline Museum, the first public museum in Rome containing classical art, which had come )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(largely from Alessandro Albani?s first collection. In 1754, when Benedict XIV \(r. 1740?58\) opened the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Accademia del Nudo in the Capitoline Museum, where artists could study and sketch the ancient sculptures, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he made a distinction, as it were, between the Capitoline?s sacred and profane galleries. Three years later, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 102.3317 738.3655 116.3237 750.2455 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 191.0237 474.2695 205.0157 486.1495 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 398.9357 419.5015 412.9277 431.3815 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 471.9797 167.4055 485.9717 179.2855 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 32 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Length 7017 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Benedict XIV established a Museo Sacro inside the Vatican complex for papal collections of gems, medals, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(casts, and other small works, in part, Ruprecht states, to confirm the great antiquity of Catholicism. In 1761, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clement XIII \(r. 1758?69\) appointed Alessandro Albani to the post of Cardinal Librarian. Clement XIII also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(split the Vatican galleries into two sections, one sacred and one profane, as Benedict XIV had done in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Capitoline Museum. Ruprecht believes that Winckelmann had something to do with the display of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classical collections within the Vatican. Once that had been accomplished, the popes could ?display ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(virtually any culture, and virtually any artifact?, particularly their collections from Egypt and Etruria \(p. 57\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without regard to the Vatican?s religious role.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ruprecht makes much of how a visit paid by Clement XIII to the Villa Albani in 1765 might have affected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the creation of the Vatican?s Museo Profano, pointing out that Alessandro Albani was Clement XIII?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assistant, and arguing that Winckelmann too could well have been enlisted in the plan. The only evidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that might suggest this are Clement?s Moto Proprio \(decree\) of 1761 calling for completion of a catalogue of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Vatican collections \(appendix three, pp. 147?55\), and Winckelmann?s appointments in 1763 and 1764 at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Vatican, one of them as a Scrittore for Greek in the Library, which included both textual and visual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(holdings \(chapter four, 59?79\). By 1767, classical Greek was separated from sacred and scriptural Greek, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statues were separated from manuscripts, and the public museum was separated from the private library. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vatican receipts show that the Museo Profano was a separate entity, but documentation for the history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that separation is largely lacking: that is, in Ruprecht?s view, it is ?semi-secret? \(p. 77\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In chapter five \(pp. 81?93\), Ruprecht argues that Winckelmann was obsessed with religion and beauty, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sensuality, or with how alive statues seem to be. For Winckelmann, art history ?was all a soaring )] TJ ET BT 501.956 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(spiritual)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(edifice, and had precious little to do with sex? \(p. 93\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter six \(pp. 95?108\) is about the later reorganization and legitimization of classical art in the new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Museo Pio-Clementino under Clement XIV \(1769?74\) and Pius VI \(1775?99\). Ruprecht describes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Winckelmann?s and Albani?s original )] TJ ET BT 225.980 432.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Museo)] TJ ET BT 260.972 432.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Profano)] TJ ET BT 300.308 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? as a semiformal annex and essential point-of-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entry? \(p. 97\) to the classical collections. Ruprecht believes that ?Winckelmann?s untimely murder? \(p. 99\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1768 was why his contributions to the Vatican?s acquisition and display of classical art were not recorded.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In chapter seven \(109?17\), Ruprecht briefly enters a new arena, that of the classical/profane art that gained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new importance by Napoleon?s expropriation, including Winckelmann?s favorite sculptures, the Laokon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the Belvedere Apollo. Ruprecht sees the reclamation of works from France as providing a new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(justification for housing profane art in the Vatican. A question that might be raised here is whether the joy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associated with repatriation contributed more to solidifying the notion of eternal Rome than to justifying the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continued display of classical art within the Vatican complex. The public collections of the Louvre and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British Museum are to Ruprecht ?a somewhat borrowed idea? from Rome, where the display of classical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(antiquities began in the Capitoline, and was followed in the Vatican with its ?semi-secret? origins \(p. 116\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In chapter eight \(119?30\), Ruprecht argues that the Museo Profano represented Winckelmann?s way of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leading visitors from the sacred area of the Library to the profane part of the museum. With reference to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passage in one of Winckelmann?s letters about Cardinal Albani wanting the two Furietti centaurs placed in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(niches on either side of the entrance to the Museo Profano, Ruprecht deduces that Winckelmann agreed with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Albani. In the end, Clement XIII bought the centaurs, and they ended up in the Capitoline Museum. At some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point after Winckelmann?s death, two lion-headed Mithraic figures were placed in the two niches beside the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entrance, ?a complex ? curatorial decision? which is argued in the notes \(pp. 247-248, fnn 15?29\). In the text )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(itself readers learn that Winckelmann?s veneration of profane images gave privilege to: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?the Greek Classics, using them effectively as a way to sidestep the battles then raging between )] TJ ET BT 64.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protestants and Catholics. But he was the very first to decide consciously to make the visual )] TJ ET BT 64.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture of the classical world every bit as influential, and every bit as liberating, as their texts )] TJ ET BT 64.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had long been ? Winckelmann?s Profane Museum with these two Mithraic images at the door )] TJ ET endstream endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 36 0 R 39 0 R 42 0 R ] /Contents 34 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Length 6812 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secretly yet decisively trumped the sacred? \(pp. 129?30\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 758.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The contents of the Museo Profano are not discussed here, and readers will benefit from consulting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 743.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guidebooks on this subject, such as Wolfgang Helbig?s )] TJ ET BT 302.324 743.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Guide to the Public Collections of Classical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 729.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Antiquities in Rome)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 131.684 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 131.684 728.307 m 145.676 728.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 145.676 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, in which this room is still the ?So-called Museo Profano of the Vatican Library,? as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it is in Pietrangeli?s book \(pp. 44-47\). In )] TJ ET BT 232.004 715.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Roma: Guida d?Italia)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 341.000 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 341.000 714.051 m 354.992 714.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 354.992 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the two Mithraic divinities are simply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(described as being at either side of the exit from the Galleria Clementina, not at the entrance to the Museo )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Profano.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 660.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ruprecht?s arguments and claims tend to expand with each iteration, starting with the possible role of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 646.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Winckelmann in the separation of Vatican museums from libraries, ending with his certain involvement in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 632.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the birth of the modern public art museum. In chapter nine \(131?5\), Ruprecht recalls Winckelmann?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reference to ancient wax tablets as being palimpsests, and compares writing on top of older texts with ?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 603.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(reimagining)] TJ ET BT 92.684 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? the ancients? in the same way that ?later accretions?were soon attached to his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Winckelmann?s\) name? \(p. 134\).)] TJ ET BT 64.016 551.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Thus ?Museums in the Winckelmannian mode are designed to seduce us, providing forms of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 536.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(escape into other, presumably better, worlds. The Vatican museums came into being when the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 522.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decision was made simultaneously to )] TJ ET BT 245.672 522.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(juxtapose)] TJ ET BT 291.668 522.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( profane and Christian things, as well as to insist )] TJ ET BT 64.016 508.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on their emphatic spatial )] TJ ET BT 185.336 508.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(separation)] TJ ET BT 236.672 508.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? \(p. 134\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But what exactly was Winckelmann?s role?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 443.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Appendix one contains a bibliography of works by Winckelmann \(pp. 139?44\); and appendix two provides a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 429.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronology of the Vatican Museums from 1700 to 1926 \(p. 145\). Appendix three has Clement XIII?s Moto )] TJ ET BT 34.016 415.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Proprio \(decree\) regarding the creation of one museum that was both Christian and pagan, ?)] TJ ET BT 474.920 415.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(s)] TJ ET BT 479.588 415.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 482.924 415.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Cristiani, che )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gentili)] TJ ET BT 67.352 401.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?, in contrast to another one that was totally sacred and Christian, )] TJ ET BT 383.972 401.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(?tutto Sacro e Cristiano)] TJ ET BT 499.652 401.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? [p. 148: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 386.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ruprecht?s italics]\), and calling for a catalogue of the collections, with lengthy annotations and commentary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 372.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(pp. 147?55\); and appendix four contains construction accounts from 1761 and 1762 for the new museum )] TJ ET BT 34.016 358.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(pp. 157?60\). Appendix five \(161?77\) has the texts for Winckelmann?s three Vatican appointments, as Papal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Antiquarian, Curator of Teutonic library-holdings, and Curator of Greek materials in the library. Appendix )] TJ ET BT 34.016 329.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(six, already mentioned, is Ruprecht?s translation of Nello Vian?s succinct summary of ?Winckelmann at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 315.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vatican Library? \(pp. 179?86\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 289.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Appendix seven \(187?92\) contains lists of the sacred paintings and classical sculptures that were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appropriated by the French in 1796/7. Ruprecht contends that the list of sculptures confirms)] TJ ET BT 64.016 236.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?the long reach of Winckelmann?s ideas, an influence that is nowhere more evident than in the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 222.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(museums that his aesthetic and historical writings were so central in shaping, and the new tastes )] TJ ET BT 64.016 208.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he created that ironically so soon led to their looting and subsequent restoration. And that is )] TJ ET BT 64.016 194.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precisely the half-hidden influence that this book has attempted to bring to light.? \(p. 192\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 155.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although Ruprecht believes that Winckelmann?s writings brought fame to particular sculptures, these works )] TJ ET BT 34.016 141.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were already famous, many of them since the 16th century.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 318.284 141.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 318.284 140.115 m 332.276 140.115 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 115.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The supplemental appendix eight \(pp. 193?4\) contains a document that Ruprecht has invoked throughout the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 100.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book, linking Winckelmann to the Museo Profano; it is a receipt for payments to workers in the Museo )] TJ ET BT 34.016 86.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Profano: to a painter \(140 scudi\); an ironworker \(100 scudi\); a gilder \(40 scudi\); another painter \(20 scudi\); )] TJ ET BT 34.016 72.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and ? ?added in another hand? ? to Winckelmann, described in this document as Scholar of German in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 58.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Library \(12.50 scudi for 3 months? work in 1764\) \(p. 193\). What exactly did the Scholar of German do for )] TJ ET endstream endobj 35 0 obj [33 0 R /Fit] endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 131.6837 728.6215 145.6757 740.5015 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj [33 0 R /Fit] endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 340.9997 714.3655 354.9917 726.2455 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 41 0 obj [33 0 R /Fit] endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 318.2837 140.4295 332.2757 152.3095 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R 56 0 R 58 0 R 60 0 R 62 0 R 64 0 R ] /Contents 45 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Length 5854 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this relatively small sum?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the beginning of his book, Ruprecht claims that ?The emergence of the Vatican Museums, from out of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vatican Library, is arguably Winckelmann?s most important and enduring achievement? \(p. xiii\). Although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he acknowledges that the gaps in the preserved evidence ?are unbridgeable? \(p. 134\), Ruprecht has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduced an important topic. What role did Albani play in the formation of the Museo Profano? Did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Winckelmann play a ?semi-secret role? \(p. xv\) in its creation? And if the Museo Profano ?was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Winckelmann?s magnum opus? \(p. 22\), what was in it in his day? In what sense was the Museo Profano the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first public museum? And what has been its influence?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 649.779 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 619.162 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 619.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carlo Pietrangeli, )] TJ ET BT 151.676 619.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Vatican Museums: Five Centuries of History)] TJ ET BT 387.656 619.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, trans. Peter Spring \(Vatican City, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 604.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1993\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 604.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 603.507 m 149.000 603.507 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 590.650 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wolfgang Leppmann, )] TJ ET BT 172.328 590.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Winckelmann)] TJ ET BT 237.644 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, 1970, and London, 1971\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 425.612 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 425.612 589.251 m 479.600 589.251 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 576.394 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 576.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Forschungen zur Villa Albani)] TJ ET BT 207.020 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Peter C. Bol \(5 vols, Berlin, 1988- \).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 405.344 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 405.344 574.995 m 459.332 574.995 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 562.138 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Winckelmann alla Biblioteca Vaticana,? )] TJ ET BT 260.972 562.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Strenna dei Romanisti)] TJ ET BT 367.640 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 36 \(1976\), 432-442 \(Appendix 6, 179-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(186\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 89.012 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 89.012 546.483 m 143.000 546.483 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 533.626 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Francis Haskell and Nicholas Penny, )] TJ ET BT 243.992 533.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Taste and the Antique)] TJ ET BT 348.992 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New Haven, CT, 1981\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 471.296 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 471.296 532.227 m 525.284 532.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 519.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wolfgang Helbig, )] TJ ET BT 153.668 519.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Guide to the Public Collections of Classical Antiquities in Rome)] TJ ET BT 462.680 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(2 vols, Leipzig, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1895?6\), vol 2, pp. 185?7.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 190.004 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 190.004 503.715 m 243.992 503.715 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 490.858 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 490.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Roma: Guida d?Italia)] TJ ET BT 170.012 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(9th ed., Milan, 1999\), pp. 690?1.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 337.664 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 337.664 489.459 m 391.652 489.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 476.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See P. P. Bober and R. O. 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