%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 25 0 R 36 0 R 55 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818140434+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818140434+01'00') /Title (The De Re Militari of Vegetius: The Reception, Transmission and Legacy of a Roman Text in the Middle Ages) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 1966 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The De Re Militari of Vegetius: The Reception, Transmission and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Legacy of a Roman Text in the Middle Ages)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1293)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 26 July, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christopher Allmand)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781107000278)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(412pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Everett L. Wheeler)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R 23 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 9039 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In an age of crisis a late Roman bureaucrat offered a plan for reforming military recruitment and training to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an unnamed emperor, who requested the project?s continuation. Later additions on army organization \(book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2\), tactics and campaign operations \(book 3\), and siegecraft and naval warfare \(book 4\) yielded a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compendium of ancient military thought, the )] TJ ET BT 251.672 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Epitoma rei militaris )] TJ ET BT 355.352 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Flavius Vegetius Renatus. Over 200 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manuscripts and c.100 vernacular versions attest medieval interest in the work, which, still popular in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(18th century, became the most widely read western military text until Clausewitz?s )] TJ ET BT 436.964 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vom Kriege)] TJ ET BT 494.624 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1832\). If )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ancient historians have repeatedly mined this text for intricacies of the Roman army?s organization and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tactics and to speculate on the era of Vegetius? )] TJ ET BT 262.292 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(antiqua legio)] TJ ET BT 325.964 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or the )] TJ ET BT 359.624 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Realien)] TJ ET BT 396.284 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of the Late Roman army, as well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the identity of the unnamed emperor )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 224.984 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 224.984 669.027 m 238.976 669.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 238.976 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, medievalists have shown somewhat more reserve when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assessing Vegetius? work as a crusader?s manual, a handbook of chivalry, or a tactical guidebook. The full )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(story of Vegetius in the medieval era has not been told. Thus, building on the work of Charles R. Shrader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Philippe Richardot )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 147.680 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 147.680 626.259 m 161.672 626.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 161.672 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Christopher Allmand, Emeritus Professor of Medieval History at University of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liverpool, an esteemed scholar of medieval )] TJ ET BT 246.968 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(militaria)] TJ ET BT 288.980 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and especially medieval military texts, has perhaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capped his career with what is likely to be the definitive study of Vegetius in the Middle Ages for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreseeable future.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This work is quite literally the history of a book: who owned it, who read it, and readers? reactions to or use )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of its contents. Eschewing the nebulous, subjective approach of ?influence?, Allmand goes directly to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manuscripts to find medieval reactions. Appendix two \(pp. 354?66\) offers a complete list of Latin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manuscripts, collections of excerpts, and vernacular translations. In part one, after an initial chapter?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general remarks on the manuscripts, Allmand studies marginalia, found in two-thirds of the manuscripts but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often undatable, to assess which parts of the text aroused comment and why. Regrettably, here and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout the work, references to specific sections of Vegetius and other works can be vague.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 489.236 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 489.236 471.699 m 503.228 471.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 503.228 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( M. D. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reeve?s 2004 Oxford Classical Texts edition \(known to Allmand\), the first with sentence numbering, has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not been used, nor are statistics often documented. For example, ?the final statement in chapter 3? \(viz. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.3.5\) on the superiority of rural recruits \(p. 19\) attracted comment in over 50 manuscripts. But \(however )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pedantic it may seem\) which 50? Scholars would want to know, but perhaps editors of a press judge such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(data superfluous. Petrarch?s ownership of a codex containing Vegetius? text elicits a chapter of strained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguments \(pp. 52?5\) on Vegetius? influence on the )] TJ ET BT 285.632 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Africa)] TJ ET BT 315.632 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and the account of the Battle of Zama, but the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scipio of Veg. 3.21.31 could be Scipio Aemilianus \()] TJ ET BT 285.668 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(cf.)] TJ ET BT 297.332 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Veg. 1.16.54; 3.11.19-21\), not Africanus, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inspiration could be from Frontinus \()] TJ ET BT 211.676 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Strategemata)] TJ ET BT 275.672 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 2.6; 4.7.16\), found in the same codex. The diversity of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carthaginian army, which is thought to be from Veg. 2.2 \(pp. 54-55\), more probably derives from Livy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(30.33\). Subsequent chapters treat the combination of Vegetius with other texts in various codices and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(owners.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part two addresses the use of Vegetius by prominent intellectuals and political figures \(from John of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Salisbury to Machiavelli\), translations of Vegetius into vernacular tongues, drawings and illustrations in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manuscripts, Vegetius in collections of excerpts, and the early printed editions. The combination of Vegetius )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(the Latin text or a translation\) with Frontinus? )] TJ ET BT 262.664 247.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Strategemata)] TJ ET BT 326.660 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or other military texts does not surprise, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apart from the text?s military significance, Vegetius? tremendous influence on political thought also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerges. His emphasis on Roman training and reward for merit, besides loyalty to a sovereign from an army )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of non-nobles, undermined class and birth as criteria for command, laid the foundations for a centralized )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state whose ruler had sole legitimacy in using force in defence of the common good, and exposed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disadvantages of mercenaries. Citation and manipulation by John of Salisbury \()] TJ ET BT 415.640 175.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Policraticus)] TJ ET BT 474.308 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 1159\) and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially Giles of Rome in his influential )] TJ ET BT 239.672 161.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(De regimine principum)] TJ ET BT 351.656 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1275-77\) greatly increased Vegetius? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exposure in the 14th and 15th centuries, and thus Vegetius as an advocate of a centralized state assumes for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(western political theory a new and previously unrecognized importance, a twin pillar to his military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reputation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Further, Vegetius? stress on training, preparation, and rational calculation in war clashed with the chivalric )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tradition of personal glory and heroic feats, despite the translation and updating of Vegetius? text by Jean de )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Meun \(1284\) and others later, whereby the )] TJ ET BT 241.964 64.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(De re militari)] TJ ET BT 307.964 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( became a handbook of chivalry. Appendix one \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(348?53\), invaluable for future work, catalogues translators? efforts to find vernacular equivalents for )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 224.9837 669.3415 238.9757 681.2215 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 147.6797 626.5735 161.6717 638.4535 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 489.2357 472.0135 503.2277 483.8935 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 31 0 R 34 0 R ] /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 10292 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technical Latin military terms. The influx of classical ideas via Vegetius and Frontinus into the genre of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chivalric handbooks produced a more secular and rational knight, as might be found in the works of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christine de Pizan \(c.1364?c.1431\) rather than, for example, in Geoffroi de Charny?s )] TJ ET BT 446.588 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Livre de chevalerie)] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1352\). Allmand?s treatment of Christine \(pp. 121?7\), overly influenced by a recent conference paper )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 524.888 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 524.888 752.307 m 538.880 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 538.880 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(merits a fuller discussion of Vegetius and the notion of chivalry and its handbooks. Instructive, however, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how Vegetius? comment \(1.7.5\) on recruiting men of proper birth and morals for the lower ranks could be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(read centuries later as an endorsement of the chivalric code \(pp. 20, 103, 104, 227\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A long final chapter \(11\), which takes on the entirety of part three of the book, treats Vegetius? legacy and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pulls together previous isolated threads. Here, from an ancient historian?s perspective, the medievalist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Allmand?s relative neglect of Vegetius? late Roman context and the genre of ancient military literature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comes back to haunt him. The relatively brief attention paid to the historical late Roman Vegetius \(pp. 1?3\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offers a conventional view, including a date under Theodosius I \(r. 379?95\). If Vegetius was not a military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expert, he was also, however, not ignorant of the Roman army of his own time or deficient in discussing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earlier army of his sources. Vegetius did not treat infantry )] TJ ET BT 314.960 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(in extenso)] TJ ET BT 363.284 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and ignore cavalry because of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(infantry?s greater versatility \(p. 336\), but rather Vegetius tried to fix what was broken. Contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cavalry was sufficient \(Veg. 3.26.34; )] TJ ET BT 214.640 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(cf.)] TJ ET BT 226.304 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 1.20.2\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The earliest attestations of the text derive from Constantinople, and this, coupled with Vegetius? various )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(references to the Balkans and the Danube, suggests that he may well have been a native Latin-speaking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bureaucrat in the East ? a common phenomenon.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 267.968 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 267.968 514.467 m 281.960 514.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 281.960 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Conceivably, the text as transmitted owes more to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recension of Eutropius at Constantinople \(dated 450\) than often thought. The deletion of the name of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emperor, the work?s dedicatee, an attempt to universalize a theoretical work, could date to this point in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tradition and would fit the timeless aphorisms that rendered the treatise so appealing in later periods. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Omission of an imperial dedicatee?s name was not conventional in ancient military treatises \()] TJ ET BT 482.948 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(cf.)] TJ ET BT 494.612 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Aelianus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tacticus to Trajan, Polyaenus to Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Similarly, Allmand has no problem with 3.26, the ?general rules of war? \()] TJ ET BT 388.964 418.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(regulae bellorum generales)] TJ ET BT 521.612 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which enjoyed an immense medieval and renaissance popularity and in some ways foreshadowed the often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debated so-called ?principles of war?. Although Reeve?s 2004 edition accepts the )] TJ ET BT 429.260 389.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(regulae)] TJ ET BT 465.920 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as authentic, Carl )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lang bracketed them in his 1885 Teubner edition as an interpolation, citing the famous tenth-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manuscript of the Greek tacticians, )] TJ ET BT 204.644 361.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Laurentianus gr.)] TJ ET BT 285.320 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( LV-4 at folio 131, where the )] TJ ET BT 428.624 361.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(incipit)] TJ ET BT 459.296 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to the so-called )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Praecepta de re militari)] TJ ET BT 149.672 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, a version of Ps.-Maurice, )] TJ ET BT 279.644 347.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Strategikon)] TJ ET BT 334.976 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 8.2, closely recalls Veg. 3.26.1. The case for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or against the authenticity of Vegetius? )] TJ ET BT 225.320 332.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(regulae)] TJ ET BT 261.980 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( has never been argued in detail and cannot be here. Some of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the )] TJ ET BT 51.680 318.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(regulae)] TJ ET BT 88.340 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( recur in Ps.-Maur., )] TJ ET BT 184.652 318.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Strat.)] TJ ET BT 210.992 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 8.2, but not all and not in the same order as in Veg. 3.26. Indeed Ps.-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maur. )] TJ ET BT 66.008 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Strat.)] TJ ET BT 92.348 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 8.2 \(a collection of maxims\) may be an interpolation in that text.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 404.984 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 404.984 302.883 m 418.976 302.883 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 418.976 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( As aphoristic as Vegetius )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can be, composing lists does not belong to his repertoire, nor does )] TJ ET BT 353.984 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(De re militari)] TJ ET BT 419.984 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( contain internal references )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 275.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(regulae)] TJ ET BT 100.676 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Indeed the adjective )] TJ ET BT 206.312 275.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(generalis)] TJ ET BT 250.976 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( appears only in the chapter heading to 3.26 and )] TJ ET BT 483.932 275.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(regula)] TJ ET BT 515.264 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(twice: at 3.1.20 and 3.26.38 \()] TJ ET BT 174.332 261.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(regula proeliandi)] TJ ET BT 258.668 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: ?the rule of doing battle?\). The latter reference may have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggested insertion of the )] TJ ET BT 160.004 247.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(regulae)] TJ ET BT 196.664 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( at 3.26.1-32. Thus the original book three probably ended with the address )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the emperor at 3.26.35-38. Certainly insertion of the )] TJ ET BT 299.984 232.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(regulae)] TJ ET BT 336.644 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in Vegetius? tradition occurred at an early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point. Such a list of maxims existed independent of Vegetius, which the probable interpolator of the Ps.-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maurice also consulted, although Ps.-Maurice?s interpolator knew more of Vegetius than 3.26 \()] TJ ET BT 493.604 204.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(e.g.)] TJ ET BT 513.932 204.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Strat.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.2.60=Veg. 3 )] TJ ET BT 105.776 190.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(praef.)] TJ ET BT 134.108 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 8; )] TJ ET BT 149.444 190.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(cf.)] TJ ET BT 161.108 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( erroneously Allmand, p. 3\). In all likelihood the interpolation of 3.26 belongs to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the recension of Eutropius, who perhaps also deleted the emperor?s name.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The work?s greatest flaw, however, comes not from Allmand?s exhaustive research in the manuscripts and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expert handling of the medieval material, but from a lack of appreciation of the ancient theoretical genre in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which Vegetius wrote. We should not deny Vegetius any originality, but so much of that ?originality? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attributed to him actually belongs to the school of thought he followed. Waging war with foresight, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(calculation, avoidance of battle, and the exploitation of occasion, in short, the preference for brains over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brawn ? all these belong to the doctrine of stratagems, which became the dominant theme of ancient military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theory, subsequently copied and elaborated in Byzantine treatises \()] TJ ET BT 354.956 64.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(cf.)] TJ ET BT 366.620 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Allmand, pp. 311, 316, 330\). From its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(roots in the histories of Herodotus and Thucydides, a distinct genre developed in the fourth century B.C. in )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 524.8877 752.6215 538.8797 764.5015 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 267.9677 514.7815 281.9597 526.6615 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 404.9837 303.1975 418.9757 315.0775 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 39 0 R 42 0 R 45 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R 51 0 R 53 0 R ] /Contents 37 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Length 10543 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the )] TJ ET BT 51.680 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Strategika)] TJ ET BT 101.012 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of Aeneas Tacticus and various works of Xenophon. Collections of stratagems, of which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frontinus? )] TJ ET BT 88.352 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Strategemata)] TJ ET BT 152.348 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and Polyaenus? )] TJ ET BT 233.336 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Strategika)] TJ ET BT 282.668 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( illustrate extant examples, evolved as a sub-genre in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hellenistic era.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 106.664 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 106.664 766.563 m 120.656 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed Vegetius? rhetorical pretense \(1.8.9\) of distancing himself from Greek )] TJ ET BT 410.588 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tactica)] TJ ET BT 446.588 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( cannot be taken )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seriously. One of his sources, Frontinus, a noted philhellene, incorporated Greek theory into his own military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writings, the )] TJ ET BT 97.016 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Strategemata)] TJ ET BT 161.012 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( not least. As the )] TJ ET BT 244.340 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Strategemata)] TJ ET BT 308.336 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was appended to Frontinus? lost comprehensive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treatise on warfare ? more likely a )] TJ ET BT 200.960 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Scientia rei militaris)] TJ ET BT 299.636 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or perhaps a )] TJ ET BT 364.280 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(de officio legati)] TJ ET BT 439.616 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( than a )] TJ ET BT 474.608 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(De re militari ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correspondences between the two works can be assumed. Frontinus used Pyrrhus?)] TJ ET BT 428.936 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Tactica)] TJ ET BT 467.936 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(written in Greek\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and \(without acknowledgement\) the Greek Onasander?s)] TJ ET BT 303.608 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Strategikos)] TJ ET BT 360.608 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, from which many of Vegetius? ideas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(especially in book three\) on the good general ultimately derive. Comparisons of Vegetius on issues of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military psychology \()] TJ ET BT 137.348 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(e.g.)] TJ ET BT 154.676 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, readiness of soldiers to fight, battles from desperation, etc.\) with chapter titles in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the )] TJ ET BT 51.680 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Strategemata)] TJ ET BT 115.676 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( demonstrate Vegetius? close reliance on Frontinus? work.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 396.956 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 396.956 626.259 m 410.948 626.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For a medievalist Vegetius? legacy may well end with the printing press, but his )] TJ ET BT 422.312 601.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nachleben)] TJ ET BT 473.636 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( continued into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 18th, if not the 19th, century. Only an impression of the available material can be given. If technical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advances modified Vegetius? tactical application and the availability of other ancient military texts now )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eliminated his uniqueness, he continued to be read as a vital part of the early modern military ?cult of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(antiquity?, which the Chevalier de Folard?s )] TJ ET BT 246.320 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Histoire de Polybe)] TJ ET BT 336.308 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1727-30\) and other works perpetuated in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fomenting the column vs. line debate on infantry deployment. At least three new translations appeared, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including that in English of a ?lieutenant of Marines? John Clarke \(London, 1767\). Turpin de Criss?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Commentaires sur les institutions militaires de Vgce)] TJ ET BT 296.012 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1775\) used Vegetius as the vehicle for commentary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on contemporary affairs and ? somewhat like the medieval handbooks of chivalry ? found Roman inspiration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for advocacy of reserving all commissioned army officer posts in the French army for the French nobility. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Even Napoleon read Vegetius. In fact, the legacy extends into the 19th century. Antoine Henri de Jomini?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Prcis de l?art de la guerre)] TJ ET BT 167.000 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1838\), the 19th?century?s chief theoretical work on war until Clausewitz?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vom Kriege)] TJ ET BT 91.676 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( gained notoriety, betrays Vegetian influence in its conception and organization, and also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(features Jomini?s 12 orders of battle, the progeny of Vegetius? seven.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 368.612 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 368.612 414.675 m 382.604 414.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Allmand?s study of Vegetius in the Middle Ages, despite some flaws, will be a lasting contribution to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vegetius? tradition from the 5th to the 15th century. Escaping his medieval ?comfort zone? with more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention to Vegetius himself and the genre of ancient military treatises and extending the coverage another )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two or three centuries would have told Vegetius? story more completely.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 312.147 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 281.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 281.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Most recently, )] TJ ET BT 136.340 281.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(e.g.)] TJ ET BT 153.668 281.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, M. Charles, )] TJ ET BT 218.996 281.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vegetius in Context. Establishing the Date of the )] TJ ET BT 455.996 281.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Epitoma rei Militaris )] TJ ET BT 64.016 267.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Stuttgart, 2007\); S. Janniard, ?Vgce et les transformations de l?art de la guerre aux IVe et Ve )] TJ ET BT 64.016 253.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sicles aprs J.-C.?, )] TJ ET BT 161.324 253.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Antiquit tardive)] TJ ET BT 242.324 253.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 16 \(2008\), 19?36, although neither can be endorsed in detail.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 237.363 m 118.004 237.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 224.506 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(C. R. Shrader, ?A handlist of extant manuscripts containing the )] TJ ET BT 370.988 224.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(De re militari)] TJ ET BT 436.988 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of Flavius Vegetius )] TJ ET BT 64.016 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Renatus?, )] TJ ET BT 114.008 210.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Scriptorium)] TJ ET BT 171.344 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 33 \(1979\), 280?305; P. Richardot, )] TJ ET BT 341.000 210.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vgce et la culture militaire au Moyen ge )] TJ ET BT 64.016 195.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(\(Ve-Xve sicles\))] TJ ET BT 141.644 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Paris, 1998\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 209.636 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 209.636 194.595 m 263.624 194.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 181.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At p. 195 the reference to Max Jhns, omitted in n. 174, should be: )] TJ ET BT 387.980 181.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Geschichte der )] TJ ET BT 64.016 167.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kriegswissenschaften)] TJ ET BT 168.020 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Munich, 1889\), i, p. 245. Jhns, still a valuable reference tool despite its date, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also escaped the bibliography.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 209.324 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 209.324 151.827 m 263.312 151.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 138.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(F. Le Saux, ?War and knighthood in Christine de Pizan?s )] TJ ET BT 342.656 138.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Livre des faits d?armes et de chevallerie)] TJ ET BT 537.296 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?, in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 124.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Writing war: medieval responses to warfare)] TJ ET BT 276.344 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. C. Saunders )] TJ ET BT 360.668 124.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(et al.)] TJ ET BT 384.668 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 2004\), pp. 93?105, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who, with Allmand, seems unaware of the case for Christine?s )] TJ ET BT 367.292 110.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Livre)] TJ ET BT 392.624 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as perhaps the first secular )] TJ ET BT 64.016 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treatise on chivalry: E. L. Wheeler, ?Christine de Pizan?s )] TJ ET BT 341.960 96.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Livre des faits d?armes et de chevalerie)] TJ ET BT 533.264 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gender and the prefaces?, )] TJ ET BT 188.960 81.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nottingham medieval studies)] TJ ET BT 328.292 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 46 \(2002\) 119-61. The tale of Vegetius, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christine?s )] TJ ET BT 121.016 67.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Livre)] TJ ET BT 146.348 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and the early printed editions of Vrard and Le Noir is more complicated than )] TJ ET BT 64.016 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Allmand?s version \(pp. 246?7\) indicates: see Wheeler, pp. 119?36.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 385.952 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 385.952 52.035 m 439.940 52.035 l S endstream endobj 38 0 obj [36 0 R /Fit] endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 106.6637 766.8775 120.6557 778.7575 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 41 0 obj [36 0 R /Fit] endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 396.9557 626.5735 410.9477 638.4535 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 44 0 obj [36 0 R /Fit] endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 368.6117 414.9895 382.6037 426.8695 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 237.6775 118.0037 249.5575 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 209.6357 194.9095 263.6237 206.7895 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 52 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 209.3237 152.1415 263.3117 164.0215 ] >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 54 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 385.9517 52.3495 439.9397 64.2295 ] >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 27 0 R >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 57 0 R 59 0 R 61 0 R 63 0 R 65 0 R 67 0 R 69 0 R ] /Contents 56 0 R >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Length 5976 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 796.474 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See E. 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Campbell, ?Teach )] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(yourself how to be a general?,)] TJ ET BT 208.640 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Journal of Roman Studies)] TJ ET BT 335.972 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 77 \(1987\), 13?29.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 427.292 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 427.292 681.027 m 481.280 681.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 668.170 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Allmand treats Vegetius? debt to Frontinus somewhat more clearly in his ?A Roman text on war: the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Strategemata)] TJ ET BT 128.012 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of Frontinus in the Middle Ages?, in )] TJ ET BT 309.008 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Soldiers, Nobles and Gentlemen: Essays in Honour )] TJ ET BT 64.016 639.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of Maurice Keen)] TJ ET BT 144.668 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. P. Coss and C. 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