%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 29 0 R 49 0 R 81 0 R ] /Count 7 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140416121421+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140416121421+01'00') /Title (The Art of the Body: Antiquity and Its Legacy) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4430 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Art of the Body: Antiquity and Its Legacy)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As L. P. Hartley famously remarked in )] TJ ET BT 223.652 287.579 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Go-Between)] TJ ET BT 303.968 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1953\), ?The past is a foreign country: they do )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(things differently there?. This was more prescient than he knew, for most of the English-speaking world now )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seems to view the past not merely as foreign but as totally alien ? diverting at times, perhaps, but utterly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(irrelevant to them and their lives.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To quote its publisher and editor, this ?exciting new series? aspires to change all that: ?to show how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(antiquity is relevant to life today?. Aimed at ?students and general readers ... it seeks to engage, provoke, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and stimulate, and to show how, for large parts of the world, Graeco-Roman antiquity continues to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relevant to debates in culture, politics, and society? \(p. ix\). A Quixotic crusade. For in the United States at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(least, if a book of this kind doesn?t catch fire on Amazon or isn?t geared to a college course, one might as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well save the ink and paper.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Squire takes his charge ?to engage, provoke, and stimulate? seriously. Relentlessly jaunty, he tends to veer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from point to point as if writing for the attention-deficient, seeking ?to collapse history ... not just ?ancients )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and moderns?, but each )] TJ ET BT 150.320 92.507 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(through)] TJ ET BT 188.324 92.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 194.324 92.507 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(alongside)] TJ ET BT 240.992 92.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and )] TJ ET BT 267.320 92.507 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(in relation to)] TJ ET BT 329.996 92.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the other? \(p. 29; Squire?s italics\). He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(profusely peppers his narrative, British tabloid style, with puckish puns, jangling jingles, and artful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alliterations \(plus some exasperating exaggerations\), of which I offer a scanty sample: ?A pass past?? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(24\); ?V-ness? \(p. 71, on Aphrodite?s crotch\); ?turn this manmade manikin into mortal muff? \(p. 87: muff?\); )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1295)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 26 July, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Squire)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781845119300)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(256pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I. B. Tauris)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrew Stewart)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7070 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?ideal idol turns living idle doll? \(p. 88\); ?delightfully derrired? \(p. 90, Aphrodite again\); ?the nude portrait )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? a bare necessity? \(p. 126\); ?face-to-face value? \(p. 129\); and most egregiously, ?wholly holey holy lord? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 174\). Ouch.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book?s structure is straightforward. An introduction reasserts antiquity?s relevance; attacks the mutually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exclusive parochialism of many classical archaeologists and historians of more recent art; and articulates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(three guiding principles.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 674.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(First, that the ancient art of the body is to be found everywhere we look: like it or not?and there )] TJ ET BT 64.016 660.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been many reasons for not liking it?antiquity has supplied the mould for all subsequent )] TJ ET BT 64.016 646.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempts to figure and figure out the human body. Second, the book argues that the afterlife of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 632.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ancient images necessarily complicates our understanding of what they ?originally? meant: each )] TJ ET BT 64.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern re-appropriation of ancient models muddles the assumed distinction between antiquity )] TJ ET BT 64.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and modernity in the first place. Thirdly and finally, my objective has been to demonstrate, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through a series of diachronic case studies, how ancient and modern )] TJ ET BT 393.944 589.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(corpora)] TJ ET BT 432.608 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of images shed )] TJ ET BT 64.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(light on each other. When viewed comparatively, ancient and modern images of the body prove )] TJ ET BT 64.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at once familiar and strange: there follows a process of )] TJ ET BT 329.948 560.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(mutual)] TJ ET BT 363.284 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( illumination? \(pp. xi-xii; )] TJ ET BT 64.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Squire?s italics\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 508.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter one, ?Embodying the classical,? begins with Canova?s )] TJ ET BT 340.640 508.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Napoleon)] TJ ET BT 387.308 508.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and moves from its neo-classical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 494.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aesthetic and assumptions through Polykleitos?s )] TJ ET BT 269.012 494.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Doryphoros)] TJ ET BT 327.008 494.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Renaissance canons, ?body fascism? \(Sandow, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 479.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Breker, Thorak, and Riefenstahl\), and assorted modern anticlassical ?-isms?, to Dal and Marc Quinn?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 465.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Alison Lapper Pregnant)] TJ ET BT 150.020 465.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. A coda begs indulgence on grounds of space for downplaying painting, relief )] TJ ET BT 34.016 451.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sculpture, and other media, plus ?huge topics? \(p. 31\) such as desire and homoeroticism, images of Orientals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 437.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Others, the suffering body, hybrids, monsters, and the dead.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 410.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To these omissions add the baroque and its enormously influential icon, the )] TJ ET BT 399.656 410.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Laokoon)] TJ ET BT 441.656 410.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, mentioned \(without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 396.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illustration\) only on pp. 15, 51?3, and 118. Since Squire used it as a )] TJ ET BT 362.000 396.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Leitmotiv)] TJ ET BT 407.336 396.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in an earlier book, this is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 382.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(puzzling ? until the penny drops. Despite its inclusive title, this book is more about )] TJ ET BT 435.008 382.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(classicism)] TJ ET BT 484.340 382.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 368.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discontents than about ?the art of the body? as such.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 341.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter two tackles the ?Greek miracle? and its consequences, beginning with the ?textbook? case \(p. 33\) of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 327.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ernst Gombrich?s )] TJ ET BT 124.004 327.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Story of Art)] TJ ET BT 180.008 327.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1950\) and its classic narrative of Greek making and matching, from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Athenian Geometric stick men through )] TJ ET BT 224.324 313.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(kouroi)] TJ ET BT 255.656 313.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to the Kritios Boy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Proceeding via the Renaissance to Winckelmann, Squire disputes both the realist and democratic/liberal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 272.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretations of this ?Miracle? and then uses the )] TJ ET BT 275.972 272.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Doryphoros)] TJ ET BT 333.968 272.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Myron?s )] TJ ET BT 385.628 272.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Diskobolos)] TJ ET BT 439.628 272.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and others to argue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 258.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Renaissance and Enlightenment concerns have corrupted our eyes and minds, and that their real driving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(force is the search for clarity of articulation and ?continuity of convention? \(p. 60\). Thud. He concludes:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 206.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For my money, we are not dealing with \(what later writers would rationalize as\) ?naturalism? at )] TJ ET BT 64.016 191.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all ... rather, these changes in presentational mode are bound up with changing cultural, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 177.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectual, and theological ideas about figuration on the one hand, and about the individual )] TJ ET BT 64.016 163.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(viewing subject on the other. Above all ... it was challenges in \(re-\)presenting the gods that were )] TJ ET BT 64.016 148.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at issue ...? \(pp. 67?8\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 110.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Intriguing at first sight, this catch-all paragraph actually )] TJ ET BT 304.976 110.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(explains)] TJ ET BT 344.972 110.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( almost nothing, and the gods ? hitherto )] TJ ET BT 34.016 96.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(completely absent ? immediately vanish again. We shall revisit this chapter ? and the next ? below.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter three, the longest, discusses the female nude. After pondering the suffragette attack on Velzquez? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 55.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rokeby Venus)] TJ ET BT 101.660 55.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Squire focuses on Praxiteles? )] TJ ET BT 251.636 55.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Knidian Aphrodite)] TJ ET BT 341.312 55.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, mobilizing Berger, Clark, Mulvey, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 8640 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Laqueur, Botticelli, Drer, and Alma Tadema to unpack its tangled legacy. The resulting narrative of soft )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(porn, voyeurism, and prostitution is complicated, however, by the tales of the Judgment of Paris, Zeuxis and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the maidens of Kroton, Pygmalion, and Ruskin?s traumatic wedding night ? plus the )] TJ ET BT 442.328 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Venus de Milo)] TJ ET BT 511.652 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upshot: \(a\) ?No woman, it seems, could ever live up to Zeuxis? male imagination? \(p. 82\); \(b\) it reduces )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(??woman? ... to ... fetishized segments? \(p. 83\), minus pubic hair and even genitals; and \(c\) ?the ancient )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material )] TJ ET BT 76.340 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(matters)] TJ ET BT 112.340 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( within modern-day debates about gender, pornography, and representation? \(p. 88; Squire?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(italics\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Having thus entwined ancient and modern, Squire then disentangles them. He first reconstructs the Knidia in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her original setting; then unpicks these assorted reactions in order to re-establish some historical distance; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and finally stresses ? correctly ? that above all the statue represented a )] TJ ET BT 373.592 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(goddess)] TJ ET BT 412.256 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and that any historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretation )] TJ ET BT 101.672 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(must)] TJ ET BT 124.340 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( begin with this obvious but usually \(not ?)] TJ ET BT 326.348 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(always)] TJ ET BT 359.684 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?, p. 96; Squire?s italics\) overlooked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fact. ?Just what might it mean to encounter a [naked] godhead?? \(p. 102\). The last few pages ponder issues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of transgression, including Artemis and Actaeon, and the notorious ?Slipper-slapper? from Delos.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter four turns to Rome. A matron as Venus and \(again\) Canova?s )] TJ ET BT 374.288 587.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Napoleon)] TJ ET BT 420.956 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( spark a discussion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?nudity as a costume? \(Larisa Bonfante\) as an elevating device. Squire then examines the predominantly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(negative reactions, Napoleon?s included, to Canova?s colossus, Greenough?s )] TJ ET BT 408.944 558.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(George Washington)] TJ ET BT 505.268 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1841\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and finally Giorgio Gori?s wondrously kitschy )] TJ ET BT 261.332 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Genius of Fascism)] TJ ET BT 350.660 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1937\): a naked Mussolini perched )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uncomfortably astride a horse. Ancient precedents are invoked, including Perikles, the )] TJ ET BT 451.268 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tyrannicides)] TJ ET BT 513.932 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(see )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(below\), the Terme General, and the Pseudo-Athlete \(a Roman trader\) from Delos. Alternative formats are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investigated via a togate and a cuirassed Augustus \(the Primaporta one\), with a bizarre assessment of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supposed novelty and shock effect. For the muscle cuirass had been invented by 700 B.C. and had appeared )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in portraits in armor by 500. Conventionalized for half a millennium, how could the latter have appeared )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?ridiculous? \(p. 141\) to Romans, the Primaporta statue included? Moreover, Squire has forgotten that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Augustus?s wife Livia commissioned the statue )] TJ ET BT 266.000 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(for her own villa)] TJ ET BT 346.340 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? to ridicule him? Also, the Caesars could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not and did not aspire to ?absolute, totalitarian control? \(p. 141\). Happily for the Romans and unhappily for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(us, totalitarianism is a modern invention, abetted by the technological revolution of the 20th century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fortunately, Squire?s generally sensitive discussion of the later emperors eschews such hyperbole, ending )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with some interesting musings on corporeal hybridity and fragmentation, aided by a late Egyptian portrait )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mummy. Yet throughout, the fundamental Roman attitude to Greek portraiture eludes him ? especially the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Greek conviction that the )] TJ ET BT 158.660 347.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(whole)] TJ ET BT 187.328 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( body constituted the person, and the authoritative portrait conventions it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generated. For Romans focused above all on the face \()] TJ ET BT 295.280 332.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(facies)] TJ ET BT 323.276 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), which projected one?s )] TJ ET BT 443.576 332.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(persona)] TJ ET BT 482.240 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Bodies ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(naked, clothed, armored, and so on ? were vehicles, mere supplements, and thus \(in portraiture\) optional. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hence the often inchoate and/or almost invisible bodies beneath these togas; the Roman partiality for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bust; and contemporary physiognomers? increasing focus on the face, especially the eyes. None of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surfaces in Squire?s chapter.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter five, ?On gods made men made images?, concludes the book. It begins with Tommaso Laureti?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stunning )] TJ ET BT 78.356 235.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Triumph of Christianity)] TJ ET BT 192.380 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of 1585 in the Vatican, showing the crucified Christ in a vast Renaissance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(basilica presiding over a shattered antique marble nude. With heavy irony, Squire asks: ?Could the Vatican, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the largest modern-day collection of classical sculpture, really claim to have abandoned the ancient?? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 156\). Indeed it could, since in 1585 it no longer had such a collection. 19 years earlier, the newly elected, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hard-line Pius V had issued his momentous decree banishing all pagan sculpture from its halls, since ?it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not fitting that Peter?s successor keep idols in his house?. In the greatest giveaway of the Renaissance, many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(went to the Conservatori on the Capitoline and to Pius?s favorite cardinals, and the rest to Francesco I of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuscany, Albert V of Bavaria, and the Holy Roman Emperor, Maximilian II. Only the Laokoon, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Belvedere Torso and Apollo, and a few others remained in their eponymous )] TJ ET BT 401.612 121.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(cortile)] TJ ET BT 432.944 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, behind firmly locked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doors. Hence, presumably, Laureti?s fresco.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The rest of the chapter, otherwise perhaps the best of the book, addresses in a sophisticated and accessible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way the protocols and paradoxes of figuring the divine, ranging from Mark Wallinger?s gay icon )] TJ ET BT 502.592 66.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ecce Homo)] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Danish cartoons of Mohammed, to the well-known Greek conflation of divinity and image. The key )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 21 0 R 24 0 R 27 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 8723 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point, well taken, is that ?this cultic-cum-cultural background is crucial for understanding the history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early Christianity? \(p. 168\), especially since it conflicted head-on with the resolute aniconism of the Jewish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tradition. The result: the Christian cult of icons )] TJ ET BT 262.340 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and)] TJ ET BT 280.340 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( its bouts of iconoclasm; the ?word made flesh? )] TJ ET BT 511.976 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and)] TJ ET BT 529.976 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Trinity. And even \(by a bit of a stretch\), Hegel and the ?end of painting? with the 20th century?s increasing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dedication to abstraction, not to mention performance art and ?happenings?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To return to the ancient Greek male and female nudes, where our differences ? and Squire?s lacunae ? are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(greatest. Once again \(actually, thrice\), he simply hasn?t done his homework. Briefly, the evidence indicates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(and I would contend\) that the Greek gods were made in man?s image, not vice versa; that the Greek male )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nude is broadly )] TJ ET BT 111.008 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(political)] TJ ET BT 151.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, a construct of the independent )] TJ ET BT 304.652 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(polis)] TJ ET BT 327.992 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or city state )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 389.984 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 389.984 669.027 m 403.976 669.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 403.976 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; and that the female one ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more correctly, as Squire rightly emphasizes, Aphrodite and her ilk ? is historically and geographically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contingent too.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thus, the )] TJ ET BT 81.680 615.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(kouros)] TJ ET BT 114.344 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(pp. 32?42, figs. 17?20\), naked, youthful, beautiful, autonomous, and happy, bodies forth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Homer?s ?long-haired Achaeans? \()] TJ ET BT 202.952 601.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Iliad)] TJ ET BT 225.620 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 1.91, 2.44, 4.12, 3.43, etc.\). Representing ?the best of the Achaeans? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\()] TJ ET BT 38.012 587.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ibid)] TJ ET BT 56.684 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.\), it was conceived for their successors, the ruling elites of the emerging )] TJ ET BT 407.948 587.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(poleis)] TJ ET BT 436.616 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of archaic Greece, at a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time when the underprivileged, often led by upstart strongmen or ?tyrants? \()] TJ ET BT 399.956 572.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(tyrannoi)] TJ ET BT 440.624 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), had begun to threaten )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their monopoly on power. Egypt?s sudden receptivity to Greek commerce provided the catalyst, but the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(result, as Gombrich and Squire correctly note, is Greek through and through.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kouroi)] TJ ET BT 68.024 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, then, represented the gilded youth of this brazenly elitist society in all its shining splendor, brilliant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in peace and glorious in war, serving as models for Apollo and other gods. Though they staunchly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maintained their standardized format \(signaling the solidarity and stability of their elite patrons\) for a full )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(150 years, distinct local physiques ? that is, local styles of male beauty ? soon emerged. And when populist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tyrants and democrats began to prevail, they began to vanish.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The classical body that replaced them \(pp. 41?68, figs. 21?6\) is an artifact of the Persian wars. In its first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incarnation, which archaeologists label the Severe Style, its most obvious characteristics are simplicity, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strength, vigor, rationality, and intelligence, conveyed via simple proportions and clear-cut )] TJ ET BT 472.952 406.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(contrapposto)] TJ ET BT 536.288 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dynamic postures and robust modeling; and sober facial expressions. Late archaic works offer occasional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precedents \(for nothing comes out of nothing\), but as a coherent, integrated entity the Severe Style )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(materializes suddenly and in revealing circumstances. Whereas the debris left in 480/79 by the Persian and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(in Sicily\) Carthaginian invaders is purely archaic, the Tyrannicides by Kritios and Nesiotes \(p. 125\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commissioned by the Athenian democracy in 477 )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 274.988 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 274.988 333.651 m 288.980 333.651 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 288.980 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, prove that the Severe Style had indeed emerged by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that date. Indeed, this uniquely tight chronology suggests that the clich that they represent this style?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?official birthday? may be literally correct.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given this chronology and the style?s rapid spread, it can hardly be coincidental that the battles of 480-79 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had established Greek physical superiority over the barbarian invaders as a fact, and that simplicity, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rationality, pondered thought, and self control were precisely the qualities they prized above all and denied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to their ?barbarian? enemies. So, just like 1914, Hiroshima, and 9/11, these invasions were a ?tipping point?: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earthshaking events after which everything looks utterly different. Elated by their miraculous deliverance, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(basking in their dearly bought freedom, convinced of their military, physical, and cultural superiority, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spurning both archaic elitism and barbarian excess, after 479 the Greeks simply reinvented their own self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(image and their own body image too.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As for the Knidian Aphrodite \(pp. 72?114, figs. 34, 36\), Squire cites her cult title of )] TJ ET BT 438.968 154.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Euploia)] TJ ET BT 476.972 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ?Fair-Sailing? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 88\), lamenting )] TJ ET BT 123.008 139.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(inter alia)] TJ ET BT 167.348 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the ?remarkably little [bibliography] on [her] cultic stakes? \(p. 215\). Yet what of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the extensive literature on these maritime Aphrodite cults and their message of harmony between man and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sea \(and thus between the lands connected by the latter\)? Of Knidos?s history and maritime connections? Of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(key discoveries in the Euploia sanctuary? Not to mention other recent reconstructions of the statue and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responses it perhaps was meant to evoke.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 231.644 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 231.644 81.555 m 245.636 81.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 245.636 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( So )] TJ ET BT 264.308 82.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(faut de mieux)] TJ ET BT 328.964 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, here goes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It can hardly be coincidental that this pioneering work was commissioned by a Greek seaport under Persian )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj [18 0 R /Fit] endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 389.9837 669.3415 403.9757 681.2215 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 23 0 obj [18 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 274.9877 333.9655 288.9797 345.8455 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj [18 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 231.6437 81.8695 245.6357 93.7495 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 32 0 R 35 0 R 38 0 R 41 0 R 44 0 R 47 0 R ] /Contents 30 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Length 9347 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rule, located on the cusp between Greece and the Levant, and frequented by Greek and Phoenician sailors, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who presumably dedicated the dozens of terracotta figurines of the naked Astarte/Ashtart holding her breasts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(found in the sanctuary.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 143.996 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 143.996 766.563 m 157.988 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 157.988 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The city?s relocation around 370 from further east to its present site, generating an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immediate need for new shrines and cult statues, evidently prompted the commission. \(Pliny?s tale of )] TJ ET BT 524.300 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(two)] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aphrodites, one draped and one naked, offered speculatively for sale and bought by Kos and Knidos, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respectively, is a ?Just-So? story, as Squire \(p. 91\) sensibly recognizes.\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Knidia?s glance, ancient writers tell us \(but Squire does not\), was ?melting? and her smile was ?proud, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grin that just parts the lips?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 167.348 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 167.348 683.283 m 181.340 683.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 181.340 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Though the Roman copyists miss these subtleties, they do faithfully catch her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(averted head and sideways glance. All this was completely new in the genre \(compare Pheidias?s )] TJ ET BT 503.912 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Athena )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Parthenos)] TJ ET BT 83.348 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(pl. 12\)\), and is key to her meaning and impact. For while a nave spectator would see only a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beautiful, naked goddess, nonchalantly turning away from him, an astute one would sense a )] TJ ET BT 476.948 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(second)] TJ ET BT 510.272 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( visitor to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the shrine: someone off to his right at whom she looks and smiles. The drachma drops. Is this rival her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(irascible, implacable lover: the blood-soaked, man-slaughtering Ares?! \(?Run away! Run away!!?\) Hence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aphrodite?s \(presumably\) pre-coital bathing ritual, no mere ?fictional excuse? \(p. 94\) for her nudity, but an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(integral part of her erotic mythology and well attested textually.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 340.640 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(16\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 340.640 583.491 m 360.632 583.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A Hellenistic epigram mentioned by Squire \(p. 100\) indirectly confirms this reading, ending with the line )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that ?[Praxiteles?] chisel carved [her] just as Ares would have wanted her? \()] TJ ET BT 399.236 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Planudean Anthology)] TJ ET BT 503.564 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 160\). The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Slipper-Slapper \(pp. 110?14, pl. 8\), substituting Pan for Ares, confirms it too.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This teasing strategy of simultaneous invitation and rejection is precisely that of the love triangle. Like the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(goddess's sheer size and cultic setting, it affirms her independence from the viewer, even as her nakedness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and alluring posture dangle the possibility of a relationship. Such triangles were a specialty of ancient Greek )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(courtesans or)] TJ ET BT 97.664 461.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( hetairai)] TJ ET BT 138.668 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: those beautiful, independent, clever, and witty women of the world whose power and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notoriety were soaring exactly when Praxiteles took up his chisel. The Athenian comic poets show that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Knidos was a magnet for them, and as Squire notes \(pp. 100?1\), tradition held that one, Praxiteles' own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mistress Phryne \(or Kratine\), modeled for the statue.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, in this tradition, Phryne/Kratine and Aphrodite, and specifically she and the )] TJ ET BT 438.956 392.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Knidian)] TJ ET BT 477.632 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Aphrodite, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were indivisible: Phryne was the goddess?s earthly avatar and the Knidia was the archetypal )] TJ ET BT 479.924 377.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(hetaira)] TJ ET BT 514.592 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 517.592 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 517.592 376.419 m 531.584 376.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Knidos?s numerous )] TJ ET BT 132.008 363.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(hetairai)] TJ ET BT 170.012 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( surely paid her special attention. All this may even shed new light on her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(startling nakedness. For )] TJ ET BT 151.340 349.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(hetairai)] TJ ET BT 189.344 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( behaved more like men than women. Financially independent, educated, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(witty, and sexually aggressive, they imitated male behavior, using masculine body language, proud smiles, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gentle grins, and even masculine )] TJ ET BT 193.988 320.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(eros)] TJ ET BT 214.652 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(-magic to gain their ends.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 336.968 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 336.968 319.395 m 350.960 319.395 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 350.960 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( So in art, maybe their nakedness didn?t )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(signal vulnerability, as with ordinary women, but instead was quasi-masculine, a sign of autonomy and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So like the Euploia cult itself, was Praxiteles? statue also a product of this ?east-west drift of religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technology??)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 98.000 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 98.000 250.371 m 111.992 250.371 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 111.992 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( For she brilliantly revives the ancient Near Eastern concept of the naked love-goddess as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ultimate courtesan. Fostering tranquil commerce and harmony between the Levant and Greece, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(located physically between them and temporally between the age of the )] TJ ET BT 380.276 223.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(polis)] TJ ET BT 403.616 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and Alexander's conquest of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the East, she spoke eloquently to Greek and Easterner alike. Eloquently but not equally, for her form and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(setting were purely Greek.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And the language that she spoke was one of female power exercised through sexual choice. For Praxiteles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understood that when the spectator is conventionally gendered male, and femininity is synonymous with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passivity, the sovereign, independent female subjectivity that a goddess )] TJ ET BT 380.312 139.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(must)] TJ ET BT 402.980 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( possess may only be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constructed by moving outside convention. To the Greek mind, it could only transpire outside the ?normal? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(woman's strictly regulated social progression from virgin to wife, from)] TJ ET BT 374.132 111.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( parthenos)] TJ ET BT 425.132 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to )] TJ ET BT 440.468 111.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(gyn)] TJ ET BT 463.124 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. And that meant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turning to the demimonde: the world of the )] TJ ET BT 244.004 97.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(hetaira)] TJ ET BT 278.672 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and her near-Eastern counterparts, the )] TJ ET BT 466.940 97.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(halimet)] TJ ET BT 502.940 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(harimtu)] TJ ET BT 72.020 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. For like Aphrodite, Astart, and Ishtar, they too straddled the boundaries of the social matrix. They )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inhabited a liminal space that allowed them a modicum of social and sexual choice.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 31 0 obj [29 0 R /Fit] endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 143.9957 766.8775 157.9877 778.7575 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj [29 0 R /Fit] endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 167.3477 683.5975 181.3397 695.4775 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 37 0 obj [29 0 R /Fit] endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 340.6397 583.8055 360.6317 595.6855 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 40 0 obj [29 0 R /Fit] endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 517.5917 376.7335 531.5837 388.6135 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 43 0 obj [29 0 R /Fit] endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 336.9677 319.7095 350.9597 331.5895 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 46 0 obj [29 0 R /Fit] endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 97.9997 250.6855 111.9917 262.5655 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 51 0 R 53 0 R 55 0 R 57 0 R 59 0 R 61 0 R 63 0 R 65 0 R 67 0 R 69 0 R 71 0 R 73 0 R 75 0 R 77 0 R 79 0 R ] /Contents 50 0 R >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Length 11676 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The birth of the Western male and female nudes is truly a singular tale, still properly to be told.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 749.571 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 718.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 718.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See the reviewer?s )] TJ ET BT 156.980 718.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Greek Sculpture )] TJ ET BT 238.292 718.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(fn. 1\), pp. 109?10, 133?6; )] TJ ET BT 369.272 718.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Art, Desire, and the Body in Ancient )] TJ ET BT 64.016 704.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Greece)] TJ ET BT 98.660 704.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1997\), pp. 63?75; )] TJ ET BT 252.644 704.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Classical Greece and the Birth of Western Art)] TJ ET BT 474.296 704.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 690.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008\) pp. 28?33, 60?3; ?The Persian and Carthaginian invasions of 480 B.C.E. and the beginning of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 676.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the classical style?, )] TJ ET BT 159.332 676.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(American Journal of Archaeology)] TJ ET BT 322.976 676.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 112 \(2008\), 377?412, 581?615 \(<)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 661.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.ajaonline.org/article/240)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 660.531 m 239.336 660.531 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 242.336 661.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 256.328 661.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> [accessed 23 April 2012] and )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 647.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.ajaonline.org/article/256)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 646.275 m 239.336 646.275 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 242.336 647.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 256.328 647.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( [accessed 23 April 2012]\); with, for example, Marion Meyer )] TJ ET BT 64.016 633.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Nora Brggeman, )] TJ ET BT 173.324 633.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kore und Kouros: Weihgaben fr die Gtter)] TJ ET BT 386.648 633.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Vienna, 2007\), pp. 119?33; and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 619.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sheila Dillon?s ?Review of Richard Neer, )] TJ ET BT 268.976 619.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Emergence of the Classical Style in Greek Sculpture)] TJ ET BT 541.604 619.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 604.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Art Bulletin)] TJ ET BT 120.356 604.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 94 \(2012\), 130?3, at 133.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 247.340 604.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 247.340 603.507 m 301.328 603.507 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 590.650 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For illustrations of the )] TJ ET BT 174.020 590.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tyrannicides)] TJ ET BT 236.684 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, see, for example, )] TJ ET BT 327.656 590.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Greek Sculpture )] TJ ET BT 408.968 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figs)] TJ ET BT 426.968 590.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET BT 432.968 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(227?31; )] TJ ET BT 474.632 590.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Art, Desire, and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 576.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the Body )] TJ ET BT 109.340 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figs. 40?1; ?The Persian and Carthaginian Invasions? figs. 2, 20; and )] TJ ET BT 442.628 576.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Classical Greece )] TJ ET BT 527.948 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fig. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(34.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 79.016 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 79.016 560.739 m 133.004 560.739 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 547.882 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Euploia and related maritime cults: Elena Miranda, ?Osservazioni sul culto di Euploia?, )] TJ ET BT 488.624 547.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Miscellanei )] TJ ET BT 64.016 533.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(greci e romani)] TJ ET BT 134.672 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 14 \(1989\), 133?4 \(1989\), 133-3ulto di Euploia,n't know the word myself...7; Vinciane )] TJ ET BT 64.016 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pirenne-Delforge, )] TJ ET BT 153.320 519.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(L?Aphrodite grecque)] TJ ET BT 255.644 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Athens and Lige, 1994\) pp. 33 n. 98 \(bibliography\), 373, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(433?7; Mustafa Sahin, ?Terrakotten aus Knidos: Erste Ergebnisse. Die Kulte auf den )] TJ ET BT 64.016 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rundtempelterrasse?, )] TJ ET BT 170.660 490.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Istanbuler Mitteilungen)] TJ ET BT 284.324 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 55 \(2005\), 65?93; cf. Gabriela Pironti, )] TJ ET BT 477.296 490.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Entre ciel et )] TJ ET BT 64.016 476.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(guerre. Figures d?Aphrodite en Gr)] TJ ET BT 233.000 476.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 238.328 476.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ce ancienne)] TJ ET BT 295.304 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Lige, 2007\), pp. 245?7; and see now )] TJ ET BT 485.600 476.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Aphrodite and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 462.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the Gods of Love)] TJ ET BT 145.676 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Christine Kondoleon and Phoebe C. Segal \(exh. cat., Boston, MA, 2012\), esp. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pp. 47?51. Reconstructions and responses: Kristen Seaman, ?Retrieving the original Aphrodite of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Knidos?, )] TJ ET BT 110.012 433.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Atti della Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei)] TJ ET BT 313.004 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Anno 401. )] TJ ET BT 372.668 433.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Classe di scienze morali, storiche e )] TJ ET BT 64.016 419.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(filologiche)] TJ ET BT 115.352 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET BT 121.352 419.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rendiconti)] TJ ET BT 173.348 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 9.15.3 \(2004\), 531?94; cf. the reviewer?s )] TJ ET BT 379.964 419.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Art, Desire, and the Body)] TJ ET BT 502.616 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 97?106; )] TJ ET BT 64.016 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and now ?A tale of seven nudes: the Capitoline and Medici Aphrodites, four nymphs at Elean )] TJ ET BT 64.016 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Herakleia, and an Aphrodite at Megalopolis?, )] TJ ET BT 285.968 391.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Antichthon)] TJ ET BT 338.636 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 44 \(2010\), 12?32.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 429.956 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 429.956 389.667 m 483.944 389.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 376.810 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Iris C. Love, ?A preliminary report of the excavations at Knidos, 1972?, )] TJ ET BT 413.288 376.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(American Journal of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Archaeology)] TJ ET BT 125.336 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 77 \(1973\), 413?24, at 419, pl. 74, fig. 12; Sahin, op. cit. \(fn. 5\), 70?2.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 463.976 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 463.976 361.155 m 517.964 361.155 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 348.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lucian, )] TJ ET BT 103.340 348.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Imagines, )] TJ ET BT 153.332 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6; Lucian, )] TJ ET BT 204.992 348.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Amores,)] TJ ET BT 244.652 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 13.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 262.652 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 262.652 346.899 m 316.640 346.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 334.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Homer, )] TJ ET BT 103.340 334.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Odyssey)] TJ ET BT 143.324 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 8.360?7; )] TJ ET BT 193.988 334.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite)] TJ ET BT 330.968 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(5\) 58?67; )] TJ ET BT 389.624 334.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Greek Anthology)] TJ ET BT 471.272 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 9.619, 633, 637; )] TJ ET BT 64.016 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(etc.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 81.008 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 81.008 318.387 m 134.996 318.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 305.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Athenaeus)] TJ ET BT 114.668 305.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(,)] TJ ET BT 117.668 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 13, 590; Clemens Alexandrinus, )] TJ ET BT 278.660 305.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Protrepticus)] TJ ET BT 338.660 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 53; Athenagoras, )] TJ ET BT 429.644 305.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Leg. pro Christ)] TJ ET BT 503.324 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. 14.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 524.324 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 524.324 304.131 m 551.984 304.131 l S BT 64.016 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 289.875 m 90.344 289.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 277.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See in general, )] TJ ET BT 137.996 277.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Prostitutes and Courtesans in the Ancient World)] TJ ET BT 371.336 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Christopher Faraone and Laura )] TJ ET BT 64.016 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(K. McClure \(Madison, WI, 2006\). Proud smiles, etc.: Theocritus, )] TJ ET BT 380.648 262.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Idylls)] TJ ET BT 407.312 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 20.12?15 \(the )] TJ ET BT 482.300 262.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(hetaira)] TJ ET BT 64.016 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eunica\). Eros magic: Faraone, )] TJ ET BT 212.648 248.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ancient Greek Love Magic)] TJ ET BT 341.612 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge and London, 1999\), pp. 146?60.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 232.851 m 118.004 232.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 219.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Walter Burkert, )] TJ ET BT 142.328 219.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Orientalizing Revolution. Near Eastern Influence on Greek Culture in the Early )] TJ ET BT 64.016 205.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Archaic Age)] TJ ET BT 123.668 205.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, MS, 1992\), pp. 96?100.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 303.656 205.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 303.656 204.339 m 357.644 204.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 179.477 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bryn Mawr Classical Review)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://bmcr.brynmawr.edu/2012/2012-02-35.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 149.571 m 271.676 149.571 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 274.676 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET BT 34.016 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rogue Classicism)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://rogueclassicism.com/2012/04/17/cj-online-review-squire-the-art-of-the-body/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 121.059 m 436.292 121.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 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