%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R 26 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140417175052+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140417175052+01'00') /Title (The Polish Revolution and the Catholic Church 1788-1792: A Political History) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4267 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Polish Revolution and the Catholic Church 1788-1792: A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Political History)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The indisputably Catholic dimension of the )] TJ ET BT 245.348 251.939 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fte de la Fdration)] TJ ET BT 349.664 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, that patriotic thanksgiving for the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anniversary of the Revolution held in most towns and villages across France but with its focus in a specially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(built amphitheatre in Paris, is quite well-known; much less so are the religious celebrations held across )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Poland on 3 May 1792 to commemorate the first anniversary of the Polish Constitution. Though they made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the best of it, there was a perception among many clergy and laity in Paris that the Catholic vestments and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rituals, the copes in the colours of the tricolour worn by Talleyrand and the other celebrants, could not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conceal an hubristic apostrophe to the Revolution itself coming just two days after the National Assembly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had voted through the Civil Constitution of the Clergy. From this point on, patriotic and Christian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ceremonies would quickly disentangle. In Poland, however, Catholicism was far more than civic window )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dressing for a special day of revolutionary pageantry. King Stanis?aw August, his brother the primate, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the papal nuncio were all involved alongside all other significant bodies in Church and state. The day was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dressed up in religious ceremonial much as the king had been by Bishop Ok?cki of Pozna? when he first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entered the Church of the Holy Cross in procession, and its high point was the laying of the foundation stone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Church of Divine Providence, whose dedicatory name says it all. ?What human power?, asked the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bishop of ?uck \(quoted p. 270\), ?could have united the hearts of king and nation, and overcome so many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1296)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 9 August, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Butterwick)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199250332)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(65.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(400pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nigel Aston)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8521 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prejudices? Let no insolent sceptic deny a Providential God!? It all bore witness to the triumph \(however )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brief\) of enlightened Catholicism and its compatibility with a ?revolutionary? settlement.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Butterwick?s is a relatively unfamiliar story. 18th-century religious historians know from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writings of John McManners, Derek Beales, Franco Venturi and many other scholars, the stresses and strains )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of national Catholic Churches confronted with state reform initiatives in France, the Habsburg lands and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Italy during the 1780s and 1790s. But the role of the Church and the clergy in events in Europe?s largest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roman Catholic state, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, immediately before and after the publication )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Constitution of 3 May 1791 has remained more shadowy. No longer. It is Dr Butterwick?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considerable achievement to insert religion four-square into what he deems the ?Polish Revolution? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thereby disclose another variant in the Europe-wide religious reform initiatives of the late 18th century. And )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he does so within a clear breakdown of the Commonwealth?s complex confessional picture, with Orthodox )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ruthenians and Uniate \(Ruthenian\) Catholics figuring considerably. In France, the 12 months from May )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1791 witnessed internal schism within the Catholic Church because the Revolutionaries had required )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changes to the structures and procedures of the former First Estate without its consent being obtained; in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Poland, those 12 months by contrast saw the majority of the Catholic clergy \(including the Regulars\), in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Butterwick?s words, propagate and sacralize the Revolution. A marked contrast indeed. There was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(measure of ?deconfessionalization? as religious minorities were brought in from the cold but there was no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secularization of public life comparable to that emerging in France. In Poland, Catholicism remained the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominant public religion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Religion, Butterwick argues, was central to the work of the Four Years? Parliament of 1788-92. The Polish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clergy were represented in the Estates of the )] TJ ET BT 249.284 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sejm)] TJ ET BT 271.280 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( solely by their bishops, who constituted merely a small )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minority within the Senate and were numerically overwhelmed by the nobility. And they felt threatened. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prevailing Polish national myth is that the clergy were part of a patriotic revival that felt comfortable with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the moderate changes proposed at the )] TJ ET BT 217.304 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sejmiks)] TJ ET BT 252.632 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(or electoral assemblies\) of 1788 and 1790; on the contrary, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prelates and clergy, seculars and regulars alike, were fighting a rearguard action to maintain what they could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of well-established rights and privileges. Like other Poles, churchmen had to adapt quickly, for ?In three and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a half years of sovereignty and responsibility ? political culture evolved in ?greenhouse? conditions? \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(16?17\). To historians familiar with events in France and the Habsburg Empire, the pattern will be familiar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Butterwick is at pains to bring out usually illuminating comparisons throughout )] TJ ET BT 439.352 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Polish Revolution)] TJ ET BT 546.020 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book bustles along according to a structure that is essentially narrative and chronological. As such, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(functions satisfactorily despite layers of detail that rightly require plenty of attention from the reader and yet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sometimes have the effect of dulling the fast flow of events that Butterwick is at pains to emphasise. This is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in no wise any sign of deficient scholarship. )] TJ ET BT 248.324 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Polish Revolution)] TJ ET BT 354.992 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( has been a decade in the making, its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author has mined a remarkable collection of sources, and yet the super-abundance of material cited may have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributed to an occasional blunting of the communicative edge and a thematic masking despite all his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempts at clarity. Butterwick is extraordinarily thorough but there is a burden of detail here that takes a lot )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of digestion and somehow contributes to reducing the impact of his arguments.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Polish nobility \(the )] TJ ET BT 150.692 220.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(szlachta)] TJ ET BT 190.028 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) had the usual moderate anticlerical complaints against the clergy that one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could find among their counterparts in most Catholic polities: tithes, mortmain, ecclesiastical court )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(jurisdiction, the place of the monastic orders, monies sent to Rome etc. But by the time of the )] TJ ET BT 485.648 192.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sejmiks )] TJ ET BT 523.976 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(August 1788, they were articulating these grievances in an ?enlightened? idiom that Butterwick has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(previously examined in his essay on ?Catholicism and Enlightenment in Poland-Lithuania?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 474.992 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 474.992 162.579 m 488.984 162.579 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 488.984 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Indeed even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forthright critics of enlightened discourse found themselves adopting theological priorities that indirectly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflected the preferences of their adversaries. ?National? attention was turning to the consequences of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catherine the Great going to war again with the Ottoman Turks, and the need to bolster the army with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(additional funding was reflected in the instructions drawn up in the )] TJ ET BT 358.976 106.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sejmiks)] TJ ET BT 394.304 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( that Butterwick helpfully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compares and contrasts with those of the )] TJ ET BT 232.316 92.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cahiers de dolances)] TJ ET BT 335.636 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( produced in France the following spring. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Church revenues seemed to be part of the answer to Polish dilemmas and the challenge to the primate, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unpopular Micha? Poniatowski, the king?s brother, was how to manage concessions when thus confronted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by majority opinion reflected in the instructions drawn up at the )] TJ ET BT 343.652 49.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sejmiks)] TJ ET BT 378.980 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, especially when Stanis?aw August )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 474.9917 162.8935 488.9837 174.7735 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7603 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had launched the slogan ?the king with the nation, the nation with the king?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As in France, the Church was divided in the face of a series of ecclesiastical polemics, composed in 1788-9 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and taking a position on both sides of the reform question. Everything, it appeared, was negotiable, including )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Church property. Thus the estates of the richest bishopric, Cracow, were to be secularized to help pay for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(army. As one proponent argued: ?The Church does not need estates, because it is not a live structure, and is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(improperly called the Church, because Christ the Lord called a gathering of the faithful the Church? \(quoted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(p. 73\). But, as compared with France, the divisions between the higher and lower clergy were less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pronounced in Poland, and the Polish Church was not without spirited defenders such as Wojciech )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Skarszewski, who was capable of responding to anticlerical critics on their own utilitarian ground. These )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were not enough to forestall the clergy giving ground in the )] TJ ET BT 322.976 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sejm)] TJ ET BT 344.972 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( after several disputatious sessions on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taxation. By late March 1789 their deputies had conceded that the Order would pay 20 per cent of its income )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from lands, capital, and tithes to the state in addition to its existing fiscal commitments. And the burden )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would fall more proportionately on the more prosperous clerics as the poorest of the parish clergy were taken )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out of the tax bracket completely. Butterwick plausibly presents this outcome as the fruit of a well-planned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defensive action by the bishops. Reform was proceeding at a moderate if not a comfortable pace for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Church, and churchmen were told quite bluntly that matters could have gone a lot worse for them. As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wojciech Suchodolski, envoy for Che?m, said, the clergy ?should bless the moment they were born in a free )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commonwealth, that they are not under the rule of any despot, because they can look at neighbouring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(powers to see what happens there to the clergy? \(quoted, p. 119\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such freighted words were cold comfort. Radical attacks on the clergy continued \(along with their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concomitant defences\) throughout 1790 and 1791 against a background of pamphleteering and periodical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussions of the ?religious question? with authors invariably wanting to make contrasts and comparisons )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with events in the France, the United Provinces and the Habsburg lands. As Butterwick nicely puts it, ?The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(currents in the Seine created waves in the Vistula? \(p. 283\). All could agree on this at least, that the clergy?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(true vocation was to act as pastors and to be the champions of the populace. There were several who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demanded the seizure of ecclesiastical property and were met by no less passionate defenders such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Franciszek Salezy Jezierski who, in his )] TJ ET BT 224.984 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Somebody Writing from Warsaw)] TJ ET BT 381.980 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(February 1790\) attacked the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French Revolution and witheringly noted that the true face of ?our enlightened century? was revealed by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seizure of others? property \(p. 144\). It helped that the bishops \(partly reacting to events in France\) were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inclined by the spring of 1790 to insist on the usefulness of the Church to the Commonwealth. By that date )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the outstanding problems were the power of creating new dioceses, censorship, and the proposed Orthodox )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bishopric or hierarchy. Nobody seems to have demanded the election of parish priests. Monastic reform )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(came on only weeks after the French National Assembly had considered this contentious matter and moved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to close down the Religious Orders. Reformers wanted to divert all the revenues of commendatory abbots )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and all surplus revenues of claustral abbots to the army. Somehow, that scheme faltered, indeed, the Estates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later confirmed several monastic foundations ? of both rites and both sexes. Butterwick argues that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relative lack of interest in ecclesiastical detail of most envoys and senators in Warsaw explains the proposals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being watered down though, equally, the news of discontent and growing destabilisation coming out of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France may have given deputies pause. Certainly, public opinion appears to have been less hostile than in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Austria.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is appreciable coverage of the debates leading up to the passing of the ?Cardinal Laws? in September )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1790 regarding the status of the dominant Catholic faith and other, ?tolerated? faiths. It is a topic that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholars tend to neglect because of the other political issues then being agitated by ?enlightened republicans? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and ?old Republicans? and Russophiles, and partly as nothing in the Cardinal Law went beyond a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(declaration of intent. The position of religious minorities was actually aired in an atmosphere not far short of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consensus. Thus new sees and seminaries for the Ruthenian rite were popular with a wide-range of opinion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that was happy to view the clergy as the principal ?enlighteners? of the populace. In this connection, given )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Butterwick?s work on the taxonomies of Enlightenment, he might have said more on the ?enlightened? ideal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the clergy and further explored its resemblances to French and Josephinian models. These debates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represented a genuine attempt to cater for religious minorities, as the request made to Protestants and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 8706 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Orthodox by the )] TJ ET BT 115.676 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sejm)] TJ ET BT 137.672 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to send lay and clerical delegates to Warsaw to present their ideas on reform in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(autumn of 1790 showed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Butterwick makes much use of the instructions of 1790 which, he contends, ?offer historians an exceptional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insight into the political culture of the )] TJ ET BT 218.348 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(szlachta)] TJ ET BT 257.684 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Continuity outweighed change? \(p. 233\). Not that the )] TJ ET BT 522.992 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sejmiks)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of October 1790 ceased to air grievances against the clergy, many reviving favoured reformist ploys that )] TJ ET BT 538.904 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been considered over the previous 18 months in the )] TJ ET BT 284.312 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sejm)] TJ ET BT 306.308 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Their instructions were the prelude to the final )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(negotiation of the new constitution between December 1790 and April 1791. The debates that ended in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(municipal offices being opened to all urban citizens and urban citizenship being opened to all Christians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(except serfs are clearly summarised. At last, the Constitution of 3 May 1791 was ready for promulgation. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There was all-round relief at every level of clerical opinion. Many bishops issued pastoral letters in its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support and there were numerous festivities through the summer in which the new Constitution was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(celebrated and sacralized. The country on the whole was delighted that, as Ignacy Witoszy?ski, canon of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kamieniec said in a sermon, ?our )] TJ ET BT 197.648 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Revolution)] TJ ET BT 249.644 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( differs from other countries? )] TJ ET BT 393.272 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(revolutions)] TJ ET BT 447.272 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and God will take it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as his own work, take it under His care and defence, and will bless us? \(quoted p. 258\). There was even \(the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forlorn\) hope that Pius VI would extend the hand of blessing.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Further reforms to the Catholic Church in Poland seemed possible during the year after 3 May 1791 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there was much discussion in various quarters of the forms it might take. But even while the celebrations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continued, a cloud was being cast by news of the continuing lurch to extremism in France, a toxic presence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confirmed by the return from his travels in western Europe of the primate Micha? Poniatowski. He came )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from Paris to Warsaw in the autumn of 1791 ready in Burkean style \(the two men had met in England\) to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lament the ?follies and misfortunes to which the )] TJ ET BT 267.992 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(philosophes)] TJ ET BT 325.328 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( have reduced the whole of France? \(quoted p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(283\). Polish opinion was polarized with the king determined to show the neighbouring courts that Poland )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was not, in contrast to France, a hotbed of Jacobinism. That spin sat somewhat uneasily while moderate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reform continued in the )] TJ ET BT 149.996 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sejm)] TJ ET BT 171.992 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, not least the approval in May 1792 of an autonomous Orthodox hierarchy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(despite opposition from the nuncio and some of the Catholic bishops. The former warned that their bishop in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Poland could be a Russian agent fomenting rebellion ? most of the clergy and )] TJ ET BT 409.304 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(szlacht)] TJ ET BT 442.640 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a only reluctantly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acquiesced. In fact, attempts to reform further the Catholic clergy of both rites failed in January and May )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1792, a sign that religious reorganisation was running out of steam \(and had been since late 1790\); the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radicalisation of the French Revolution was acting as a brake on the radical agenda in Poland. The Polish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolution had managed ? just - to do without its own version of the Civil Constitution, and had produced a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(package that was more low-key, consultative, and indeed conservative.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The religious reforms in Poland lasted less time than the Civil Constitution and the creation of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parliamentary monarchy in 1791 in both France and Poland was also ephemeral, the latter being swept away )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in both cases by invasion from the east in 1792, eventually repelled in the case of France, not so for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Poles with the Partitions of 1793 and 1795. Stanis?aw August would not have been entirely surprised at so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much unravelling so speedily for, as Butterwick reminds us, he was ?Ever conscious of the parallels between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(himself and Louis XVI, [and] perhaps saw his brother in the role of the count of Artois? \(p. 130\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Butterwick?s reflective conclusion provides a stimulating finale to this distinguished book that so capably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and constructively builds on the achievement of his thematic biography of Stanis?aw August, )] TJ ET BT 485.300 218.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Poland?s Last )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(King and English Culture)] TJ ET BT 157.700 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 160.700 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 160.700 203.091 m 174.692 203.091 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 174.692 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It rests on a massive, multinational archival strength, while other primary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources include parliamentary speeches, pamphlets, unpublished treatises, and sermons. His coverage of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these four crucial years is comprehensive and broad with the key role of Ferdinando Saluzzo, the Papal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nuncio, constantly before us. The latter?s abilities in holding the line between the Polish episcopate, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(members of the )] TJ ET BT 111.668 147.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sejm)] TJ ET BT 133.664 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and the Holy See following the law )] TJ ET BT 312.644 147.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fund for the Army)] TJ ET BT 401.636 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( are carefully charted. If the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ever-present risk of rupture and schism to which France fell victim was avoided in the Commonwealth it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(owed a great deal to him. However, throughout the book the complex international context can be quite hard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to establish. Russia and Prussia were ever watchful of events within the Commonwealth with their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ambassadors vying for influence, for instance, each lining up their own preferred candidates for the see of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cracow, Poland?s richest, in the spring of 1789. Butterwick examines the contest for patronage minutely, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and yet readers may struggle to get a sense of the larger picture, here as elsewhere. His is, essentially, an )] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 160.6997 203.4055 174.6917 215.2855 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 3058 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inward looking history of Poland-Lithuania, and a reader may easily lose sight of the intrinsic riskiness of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Commonwealth?s throwing off Russian hegemony in constructing its Constitution. And one might have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wished for a rather longer reconstruction of the reform environment with only three pages \(pp. 57-9\) given )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over to configuration of the ?Public? in Revolutionary Warsaw. But these minor considerations in no sense )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detract from Richard Butterwick?s major accomplishment in confirming that the religious dimension of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Polish Revolution was, in its way, no less than that pertaining in France and no less significant in shaping its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outcome.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 676.035 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 645.418 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Butterwick, ?Catholicism and Enlightenment in Poland-Lithuania?, in )] TJ ET BT 443.996 645.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Companion to the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Catholic Enlightenment in Europe)] TJ ET BT 229.016 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Ulrich L. Lehner and Michael Printy \(Leiden, 2010\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 505.628 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 505.628 629.763 m 559.616 629.763 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 616.906 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Idem, )] TJ ET BT 94.676 616.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Poland?s Last King and English Culture: Stanis?aw August Poniatowski, 1732-1798)] TJ ET BT 503.384 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1998\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 601.251 m 149.000 601.251 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 576.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author thanks Professor Aston for his generous review, which he is pleased to accept.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 561.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 535.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 509.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Leicester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 483.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 413.983 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 396.203 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 396.203 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1296)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 394.809 m 328.316 394.809 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 369.832 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 355.432 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/27992)] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 505.6277 630.0775 559.6157 641.9575 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.0117 601.5655 148.9997 613.4455 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 23 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 395.1235 328.3157 407.0035 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1296) >> endobj xref 0 34 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000586 00000 n 0000000668 00000 n 0000004987 00000 n 0000005096 00000 n 0000005206 00000 n 0000005315 00000 n 0000008876 00000 n 0000009004 00000 n 0000009088 00000 n 0000009172 00000 n 0000017746 00000 n 0000017776 00000 n 0000017904 00000 n 0000017940 00000 n 0000018005 00000 n 0000025661 00000 n 0000025745 00000 n 0000034504 00000 n 0000034534 00000 n 0000034662 00000 n 0000034698 00000 n 0000034796 00000 n 0000037907 00000 n 0000038035 00000 n 0000038090 00000 n 0000038217 00000 n 0000038272 00000 n 0000038400 00000 n trailer << /Size 34 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 38496 %%EOF