%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R 40 0 R ] /Count 7 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140826212615+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140826212615+01'00') /Title (The Making of the Middle Class: Toward a Transnational History) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4117 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Making of the Middle Class: Toward a Transnational History)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Making of the Middle Class: Toward a Transnational History)] TJ ET BT 351.704 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( grew out of two panels on the middle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class at the American Historical Association meetings in 2004 and a related conference at the University of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maryland in 2006. Taken together, the 16 papers and three commentaries included in this book have the feel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a big academic meeting. Inevitably, the papers are of varying quality. They are combined in section-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(panels of uncertain coherence. The commentator-discussants are generous, sometimes detecting insights that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eluded the contributors, stretching to find common themes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The title?s reference to E. P. Thompson?s )] TJ ET BT 237.644 161.531 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Making of the English Working Class )] TJ ET BT 420.980 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(signals the editors? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conviction that class is not a structure or category, but a historical process bound up in the ways people come )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to define their lives. As the subtitle suggests, they regard this process as ?transnational?, in that it has played )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out more or less independently in diverse national contexts. They strongly reject the notion of a ?global? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process by which the development of the middle class spreads from some ?hegemonic? Western power )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(center to societies on the periphery. Their title might have been extended to include a third concept, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?modernity?, which is central to their concerns. ?[T]his volume?, they write, ?sets out to understand the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(projects of class politics through which middle-class men and women shaped ? and were shaped by ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1297)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 8 August, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A. Ricardo Lpez)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barbara Weinstein)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780822351290)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(18.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(448pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Duke University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Durham, NC)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dennis Gilbert)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6192 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modernity since the mid-nineteenth century? \(p. 4\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Class)] TJ ET BT 34.016 743.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Like many before them, the editors and contributors to this volume regard middle class as a problematic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concept. Karl Marx puzzled over bourgeois society?s expanding ?hoard of flunkeys, the soldiers, sailors, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(police, lower officials ... mistresses, grooms, clowns, and jugglers ... ill -paid artists, musicians, lawyers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(physicians, scholars, schoolmasters and inventors, etc?.\(1\) His writings are replete with vague references to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middle classes, middle bourgeoisie, intermediate strata and the like, whose growth was inexplicable within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the limits of his theory.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 646.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps, the editors concede, the notion of middle class is too ?fuzzy? to be a useful category of historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 632.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis. But they, like several of the contributors, are dismissive of efforts to nail down the meaning of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concept with what they describe as a ?positivist social science approach that measure[s] middle-classness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through occupational categories, income levels, or consumption patterns?. ?[The] important question?, they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insist, ?[is] how a middle class is signified and spoken of in language?. The collection will focus on ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formative power of language or discourse, while interrogating the different historical material practices of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middle-class subjectivity? \(pp. 19?20\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It may well be that middle class is a nebulous, incoherent concept in a way that upper class or working class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is not, but, then again, the difference might be one of perception. The extremes are more salient, more easily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conceived, especially from the perspective of the middle, where most scholars reside. But this collection is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(haunted by a broader question that recurs in brief, sometimes anxious passages: What are we \(analysts\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(talking about when we talk about class? As the foregoing suggests, these historians prefer to think of class in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?constructivist? terms. Class is in our heads and on our tongues.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 437.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is not a lot of heavy theoretical lifting going on in this collection of short empirical essays. Were the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 422.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authors inclined to consider the question of class at greater depth, they might do well to start by re-reading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 408.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the preface to Thompson?s book. Here, Thompson insists that class is not a thing but a ?historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(phenomenon? that ?happens? over time, is driven by material relationships, and expresses itself in cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forms.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 341.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([C]lass happens when some men, as a result of common experiences \(inherited or shared\), feel )] TJ ET BT 64.016 327.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and articulate the identity of their interests as between themselves, and as against other men, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 313.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whose interests are different from \(and usually opposed to\) theirs. The class experience is )] TJ ET BT 64.016 299.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(largely determined by the productive relations into which men are born ? or enter involuntarily. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 284.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Class consciousness is the way in which these experiences are handled in cultural terms: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 270.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(embodied in traditions, value-systems and institutional forms.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is, he goes on to suggest, a ?logic? in the way people come to understand their experience, but not an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inevitable ?law?. Making a class ?owes as much to agency as to conditioning?.\(2\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 191.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What most of the historians represented in this collection have absorbed from Thompson is his emphasis on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 177.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical process and culture. What they resist ? and sometimes seem embarrassed by ? is the material )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foundation of this process. This puts them in the impossible position of refusing to recognize the economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 148.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(basis of class and of the economic processes that lead to the cultural phenomenon they call ?middle-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 134.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classness?. Just identifying the subjects for study becomes problematic. In practice, several contributors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 120.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focus on the consciousness and practices of specific occupational groups, implicitly starting from economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(positions. In her comments on the last section of the book, Robyn Muncy concedes that it nearly impossible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 91.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to write about the middle class without reference to material indicators, ?[a]lthough I hate to admit what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 77.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seems a primitive desire for knowledge of the occupation and income of the subjects under study? \(p. 383\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 51.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These historians are legitimately skeptical of grand historical narratives. But how is the emergence of middle )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 6954 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classes to be explained without some notion of a macro context? All but the simplest societies require people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in middling positions. Such people are likely, however, to identify with the dominant elite until their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(numbers multiply, which happens as societies adopt industrial technologies and large-scale, complex forms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of organization. These societies need increasing numbers of literate people with specialized skills. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(market value of their knowledge and their sheer numbers encourage independence and self-recognition ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(steps toward the making of a middle class. Trade, market competition, imitation, colonialism and modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(media promote the spread of these developments, though their character will obviously be shaped by local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context. The authors resist thinking on this scale. One of the editors asserts that the cultural turn in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarship of recent decades has ?put to rest? the notion of a middle class that appears, ?like the rising sun?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the Industrial Revolution and can be identified by certain ?objective? indicators \(p. 107\). Well, yes. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(History is not ground out by some great, predictable machine. But we owe the ironic solar simile to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thompson, who wrote a half century ago that ?the working class did not rise like the sun at an appointed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time?.\(3\) He obviously regarded the Industrial Revolution as essential to the process he was describing.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Modernity)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(References to modernity and, particularly, middle-class modernity abound in this book, from the first pages )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the introduction to the last page of the afterword. According to the editors, ?what is at stake?, in both the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary debate about globalization and in the historiography covering the last two centuries, is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notion of the Western middle class as the carrier of a universal modernity. This view assumes that modernity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a product of North Atlantic societies, a force that radiated, initially from Europe, and later from the United )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(States, to the rest of the world. Other modernities are judged to be relatively faithful or flawed copies of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Western original, rather than experiences to be understood in their own right. A key objective of the book, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shared by the editors and contributors, is to ?provincialize? the West. That is, rather than taking Western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modernity as the ideal model, to assess it critically, as one among many.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is difficult at times to discern whether these historians mean to deny the powerful influence of the West, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(believe that deference to Western models has distorted our understanding of non-Western societies, or are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simply offended by a historiography they regard as ethnocentric and supportive of ?triumphalist? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(celebrations of contemporary global capitalism. Perhaps all of these. Nor is it clear what they understand by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modernity. There is no sustained effort in the book to grapple with the concept. The contributors distance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves from various definitions they mention in passing. Writing on the English middle class, Simon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gunn refers skeptically to the ?well-established narrative? that identifies this class with three key )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modernizing developments: industrial capitalism, liberal democracy, and a transformation of the social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structure from a ?graded hierarchy? to a simpler class system; he warns that we need to ?be mindful of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very different intellectual traditions in which modernity has been understood? \(pp. 58?9\). Sanjay Joshi )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduces his contribution on colonial India by observing, ?Broadly defined, modernity ... refers to new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(models of organizing social, political and economic relations, which, we are told, draw their inspiration from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ideas of the Enlightenment and material circumstances following from the triumph of industrial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capitalism? \(p. 30\). In his essay on the Arab Middle East, Keith Watenpaugh finds that aspiring middle-class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arabs were powerfully drawn to Western ?middle-class manners, patterns of consumption, and ways of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought? to which they gained access with the advances in transportation and communication of the late 19th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and early 20th centuries. From this exposure, they learned how to be modern and how they might modernize )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their own societies. What they selected from the incoming cultural signals was, according to Watenpaugh, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guided by a Justice Potter Steward standard: ?[they] knew middle-class modernity when [they] saw it? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(269?70\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What the makers of this volume are suggesting ? without necessarily wishing to ? is that modernity is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(powerful myth that originated in the West and spread through people in other societies who were anxious to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(receive it. This myth may be a less than perfect reflection of the realities of Western societies, but Western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(priority and non-Western imitation seem hard to deny.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Sampling)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7417 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The contributions to this volume are more varied than my general remarks to this point convey. In this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(section I take a closer look at a representative selection of the substantive chapters.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 743.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joshi?s essay, referred to above, describes the 19th-century middle class of colonial Lucknow, India, which, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he reports, consisted of people from traditionally high status families ? but not from the wealthiest, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economically independent groups. Men who once would have served in the courts of the indigenous elite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(found new positions of power and influence in the colonial order. They were modernizers, inspired by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary Victorian models, which, however, were not perfectly adaptable to Indian conditions. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(result was what Joshi describes as a contradictory or ?fractured? modernity. For example, they saw )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves as representatives of enlightened public opinion in opposition to older aristocratic views. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their political influence was limited by their own deep, traditional sense of distance between themselves and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(status inferiors. They were drawn to modern ideas of gender relations and women?s education, but retained a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vocabulary suggestive of a traditional ideology of ?husband worship? \(p. 31\). In keeping with the intention )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of ?provincializing? Europe, Joshi insists that the modernity of the West was also inconsistent in terms of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own ideal-typical model. If, for example, )] TJ ET BT 234.308 587.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(homo hierarchicus)] TJ ET BT 324.632 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( continued to dominate Indian society, he was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not absent in contemporary Europe, where middle-class men stood well above their class inferiors and all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women. This comparison seems to equate caste \(a term Joshi avoids\) with class.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael West?s contribution on Zimbabwe \(Southern Rhodesia\) is a history of the country?s black middle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class, from its colonial origins to the present. Based on their experience in India, the British wanted to avoid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creating a potentially subversive African middle class in the colony. But such a class did emerge because )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christian missionary schools were producing educated natives, many of whom would continue their studies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abroad, and because increasing numbers of professionals, technicians and other educated personnel were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(needed for positions in the colonial administration and the colony?s prosperous, white-dominated economy. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It was cheaper, the British soon recognized, to fill these positions with Africans. West traces the ambivalent, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shifting attitudes of this nascent middle class toward the colonial order and the unlettered African majority. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He finds that middle-class blacks vainly sought an alliance with liberal whites based on an elitist ideal of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?equal rights for all civilized men?. Ultimately, they supported the nationalist cause against the colonial state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the white separatist regime. In independent Zimbabwe, the black middle class initially flourished, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gaining access to well paid positions in the state and private sector, adopting the opulent lifestyle once )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reserved for whites, and treating their many servants as abusively as the British colonials once treated theirs. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Since 2000, under Mugabe?s increasingly despotic rule, the middle class has suffered along with, if not so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(severely as, the majority of Zimbabweans. Those who could find a place for themselves abroad, fled the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(country. As in the colonial past, West concludes, this middle class struggles for its existence against the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power of the state.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Susanne Eineigel focuses on the people of Santa Mara la Ribera, a middle-class Mexico City neighborhood, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the first decades of the 20th century. Santa Mara was built in the late Porfirian period, an era of relative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stability and economic expansion that created the conditions for the growth of an urban middle class. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(residents were not the liberal professionals traditionally associated with the middle class, but part of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expanding lower-middle stratum of government and private office workers, teachers, merchants and skilled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(artisans. The modernizing city, Eineigel notes, offered the self-identified middle-class inhabitants of Santa )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maria ample opportunities for ?conspicuous consumption and self-display?. Though disdainful of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Francophile pretensions? of the elite, in many ways they emulated its manners and lifestyle. In the wake of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the violent upheaval of the Mexican revolution, their needs became more basic, beginning with food, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was in short supply. But even as they petitioned for food ration cards, they emphasized their middle-class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(status. As conditions improved, their perceived needs, expressed in letters and petitions, expanded to what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they regarded as the requirements of a decent middle-class lifestyle, including material for proper clothing, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(urban services, and affordable housing. The counterpart to a middle class determined to preserve its class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identity was a receptive post-revolutionary government anxious to win middle-class loyalties as it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consolidated power. Eineigel suggests that the petitioners in this period who identified themselves to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authorities as middle-class understood that it was politically useful to do so.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7657 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Several contributors write about middle-class professionals engaged in reformist endeavors, generally state-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sponsored and targeting the subaltern. Franca Iacovetta describes a broad middle-class effort by social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(workers, doctors, teachers, volunteers and others to make ?new Canadians? out of the European refugees )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(swept into Canada after the Second World War. These immigrants, it was presumed, required instruction in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Canadian ways? and values, from domesticity to anti-communism. Ricardo Lpez presents a study of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Colombian community development workers of the 1950s and 1960s, who hoped to bring ?democracy? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material progress to the nation?s backward, violence-ridden countryside. He stresses the Cold War context )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the American encouragement of their efforts. The program was, in other words, a form of imperialism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lite. Michael Ervin?s subject is the training, professional organizing and mixed fortunes of Mexican )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agronomists in the 1920s. At the time, progressive young agronomists identified with the unfulfilled agrarian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reform promises of the revolution. These chapters have intrinsic topical interest. But the authors and editors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are not convincing when they suggest that such reformist enterprises are specifically middle-class projects or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that we can learn about the formation of the middle class by studying them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marina Moskowitz, in her chapter on the United States in the early 20th century, asks why most Americans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(came to think of themselves as middle class. Her starting point is a 1940 )] TJ ET BT 384.320 572.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fortune)] TJ ET BT 422.984 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( magazine survey which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(found that 80 per cent of respondents labeled themselves middle class, offered the choice of upper, middle or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lower class. Moskowitz finds that during the period she studied, the middle class was ?recast as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(socioeconomic group defined by cultural productions its members share? \(p. 80\). At the same time, there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerged a shared conception of a ?comfortable?, but not extravagant middle-class standard of living. These )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developments permitted a broad population to attain or at least aspire to middle-class status. Middle-class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(goods were obtainable on credit. An expensive dress could be reproduced at home. As a result, she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concludes, middle-class became an inclusive, unifying category, rather than an exclusionary, oppositional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one. To be middle class was to be American.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moslowitz is too willing to take the )] TJ ET BT 207.692 432.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fortune)] TJ ET BT 246.356 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( poll at face value. A survey conducted a few years later by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sociologist Richard Centers, added a fourth answer choice, working class, which turned out to be the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preference of over 50 per cent of respondents. Middle class was a close second. The Centers question, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(become the standard, is still widely used in national surveys, with roughly similar results.\(4\) What this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reminds us is that what we have to say about class, obviously including our sense of class identity, is very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sensitive to context. When Americans call themselves and others middle class, they are often saying, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moskowitz suggests, that we are all regular people. But Americans do not use the term in a consistent way, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and there is an ample stratification literature, based on detailed interviews and ethnographic observation, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows that Americans are quite aware of the class hierarchy that pervades their society and are conscious of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class distinctions between themselves and others.\(5\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In her chapter, Carol Harrison challenges the established historiography of post-revolutionary France )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regarding the role of religion in the life of the bourgeoisie, the term she prefers to middle class. She rejects )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the view that class had displaced faith as the anchor of identity and that the bourgeoisie, in its urbane )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(materialism, had come to an instrumental conception of religion ? relevant only as a buttress to social order. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harrison also questions the ?feminization of religion? notion of a bright distinction between two bourgeois )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worlds: a women?s domestic sphere defined by faith and a men?s secular business sphere. Catholic faith and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practice, she contends, remained central to the lives of bourgeois women and men. Harrison?s contribution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(here is a study of early 19th?century children?s literature, emphasizing its religious content. She does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offer evidence on the dissemination or reception of these books, but assumes that they were aimed at and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(widely read by bourgeois children. Harrison describes their content as ?short moral tales in which children )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personify various elements of virtue and vice? \(p. 323\). They take as given a class-stratified society, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which poverty is inevitable and people don?t necessarily rise in Horatio Alger fashion based on their own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hard work. Catholicism looms large in these books. Families are Catholic. Church rituals frame children?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lives. Charity, offered in a specifically Catholic context, is the proper response to poverty. The attitude )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(toward giving, in the texts, is more Christian than capitalist: readers learn that charity should be offered with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compassion, rather than arrogance, since the world is unpredictable and reversals of fortune are always )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible. The boys and girls in these stories have gendered lives, but for both, religious practice and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 8802 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christian virtues are central. Harrison finds no suggestion of divided paths to ?devout womanhood or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dechristianized manhood? \(p. 331\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Parker is the author of a sophisticated account of the formation of the middle class in Peru.\(6\) His )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution to this collection concerns what he characterizes as a symbolic struggle over the boundary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between upper and middle class, waged with insults and stereotypes in late 19th? and early 20th?century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peru and Chile. He is especially interested in the use of )] TJ ET BT 301.976 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(huachafo)] TJ ET BT 346.640 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in Peru and )] TJ ET BT 407.300 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sitico)] TJ ET BT 439.304 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in Chile, pejorative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms applied to social climbers: the parvenu with more money than breeding or the young man disguising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(he thinks\) his humble origins with extravagant dress and affected speech. At times, these terms were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employed with racist overtones. That they should have come into common use during this period is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surprising. The region?s thriving export economies were providing opportunities for swift accumulation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enormous fortunes by ambitious men of uncertain pedigree, many of them immigrants. Not infrequently, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new money was able to win its way into the old upper class by what Parker describes as ?social money )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(laundering? ? everything from investing in rural property and buying elite education to making strategic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marriages. But if upper-class status was to retain its presumed intrinsic value, it could not openly allow itself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be reduced to a commodity, available to all who could afford the price. Resisting \(or at least denying\) the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commodification of status was, by Parker?s account, the function of the discursive skirmishing around terms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as )] TJ ET BT 72.008 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(huachafo)] TJ ET BT 116.672 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 140.000 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sitico)] TJ ET BT 172.004 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Parker?s suggestion that the struggle was over the upper/middle class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boundary is ? as he might well concede ? too simple. The significance of this denigrating discourse depends )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on context and speaker. In the mouths of people we might think of as middle class, these terms suggest the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archaic conception of Latin American societies divided between a small stratum of )] TJ ET BT 434.600 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(gente decente)] TJ ET BT 500.240 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(decent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people\) and )] TJ ET BT 93.332 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(el pueblo,)] TJ ET BT 140.660 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the great illiterate, unwashed majority. When they describe others as )] TJ ET BT 475.592 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(huachafos)] TJ ET BT 524.924 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(siticos)] TJ ET BT 70.688 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, middle-class people are making what they understand, not as a class distinction, but as a cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and sometimes racial one. By doing so they are claiming for themselves the status of )] TJ ET BT 443.300 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(gente decente.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Do You Need this Book?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Making of the Middle Class)] TJ ET BT 188.348 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( may amount to less than the sum of its parts. That is, taken in its entirety, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the volume does not advance our understanding of its central concerns terribly far. But the authors raise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant issues and individual chapters have real merit. Scholars interested in the formation and historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role of the middle class will also value the historiographic discussions scattered through the book and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extensive bibliography.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 326.403 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 295.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 295.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Karl Marx, )] TJ ET BT 120.332 295.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Theories of Surplus Value)] TJ ET BT 245.336 295.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1963 [1863]\), vol. 1, p. 563.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 430.988 295.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 430.988 294.387 m 484.976 294.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 281.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 281.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(E. P. Thompson, )] TJ ET BT 147.356 281.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Making of the English Working Class)] TJ ET BT 348.692 281.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1991 [1963]\), pp. 8?9.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 506.336 281.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 506.336 280.131 m 560.324 280.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 267.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 267.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ibid., p. 8.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 113.348 267.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 113.348 265.875 m 167.336 265.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 253.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 253.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dennis Gilbert, )] TJ ET BT 141.008 253.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The American Class Structure in an Age of Growing Inequality)] TJ ET BT 444.668 253.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Thousand Oaks, CA, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011\), pp. 193?4.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 148.340 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 148.340 237.363 m 202.328 237.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 224.506 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(W. Lloyd Warner, )] TJ ET BT 154.988 224.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Social Class in America)] TJ ET BT 270.656 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Chicago, 1949\); Richard Coleman and Lee Rainwater, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 210.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Social Standing in America: New Dimensions of Class)] TJ ET BT 325.688 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, NY, 1978\); Gilbert, )] TJ ET BT 489.656 210.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The American )] TJ ET BT 64.016 195.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Class Structure)] TJ ET BT 138.356 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 21-39.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 193.352 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 193.352 194.595 m 247.340 194.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 181.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Parker, )] TJ ET BT 133.664 181.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Idea of the Middle Class: White Collar Workers and Peruvian Society)] TJ ET BT 491.300 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(University )] TJ ET BT 64.016 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Park, PA, 1998\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 144.344 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 144.344 166.083 m 198.332 166.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 141.221 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 126.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in Cultural Theory)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 112.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.reviewsinculture.com/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 111.315 m 198.668 111.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 201.668 112.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 107.983 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 90.203 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 90.203 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1297)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 88.809 m 328.316 88.809 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 63.832 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.432 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/27997)] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 430.9877 294.7015 484.9757 306.5815 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 506.3357 280.4455 560.3237 292.3255 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 113.3477 266.1895 167.3357 278.0695 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 148.3397 237.6775 202.3277 249.5575 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 193.3517 194.9095 247.3397 206.7895 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 144.3437 166.3975 198.3317 178.2775 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 111.6295 198.6677 123.5095 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.reviewsinculture.com/?r=91) >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 89.1235 328.3157 101.0035 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1297) >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 41 0 R >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Length 148 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.354 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.reviewsinculture.com/?r=91)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 42 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000363 00000 n 0000000400 00000 n 0000000586 00000 n 0000000668 00000 n 0000004837 00000 n 0000004946 00000 n 0000005056 00000 n 0000005165 00000 n 0000008726 00000 n 0000008854 00000 n 0000008938 00000 n 0000009003 00000 n 0000015248 00000 n 0000015313 00000 n 0000022320 00000 n 0000022385 00000 n 0000029855 00000 n 0000029920 00000 n 0000037630 00000 n 0000037763 00000 n 0000046618 00000 n 0000046746 00000 n 0000046782 00000 n 0000046910 00000 n 0000046946 00000 n 0000047074 00000 n 0000047110 00000 n 0000047238 00000 n 0000047274 00000 n 0000047402 00000 n 0000047438 00000 n 0000047566 00000 n 0000047602 00000 n 0000047729 00000 n 0000047818 00000 n 0000047945 00000 n 0000048041 00000 n 0000048106 00000 n trailer << /Size 42 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 48306 %%EOF