%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140827181329+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140827181329+01'00') /Title (Violence and Racism in Football: Politics and Cultural Conflict in British Society, 1968-1998) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 2366 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Violence and Racism in Football: Politics and Cultural Conflict in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(British Society, 1968-1998)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a decent book, in my judgment. That?s to say, it?s morally on the side of the angels, but it is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(always on the side of the readers. Going through it was sometimes a bumpy ride and an appreciation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(merits of the book was too often baulked by one or other of a range of difficulties.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1299)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 9 August, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brett Bebber)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781848932661)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(304pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pickering and Chatto)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stephen Wagg)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7781 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the things to recommend this book is its chosen topic. Football violence in the United Kingdom )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(particularly England\) generated several years of tedious in-fighting among British scholars in the 1980s that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had two inescapable ironies: in its inward-looking vehemence it had invariably paralleled the phenomenon it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claimed to illuminate and it had \(too often\) revolved around the existence or otherwise of a ?civilising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process?. Now, in this book, an American historian, who, according to his early pages, was fully conversant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the debate hitherto, had addressed the topic. Could he do for football hooliganism what the masterly US-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(born writer Mike Marqusee had done for English cricket )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 308.288 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 308.288 697.539 m 322.280 697.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 322.280 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and produce the definitive political account of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this episode? After all ? and this is another of the book's strengths ? he?d been into the archives of relevant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bodies, including the government. Well, not quite; the author had some good ingredients, but they weren?t )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(always properly combined and the cake, as a consequence, didn?t altogether rise. This, in my opinion, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(why.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Even at the stage when you?re fishing the book off the shelf, you sense a project not fully thought through. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The cover is dull and conveys almost nothing of the contents; it has an abstract design which looks, to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frank, as if someone has spilled tea over it. It is billed as part of a series called ?Perspectives in Economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Social History?, which suggests historiography and a sampling of different intellectual approaches, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the inside cover reveals simply a list of wholly disparate topics ? )] TJ ET BT 347.312 558.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Female Entrepreneurs in Nineteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Century Russia)] TJ ET BT 107.684 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, for example, or )] TJ ET BT 190.328 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Financing India?s Imperial Railways, 1875?1914)] TJ ET BT 429.992 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. These sound very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting and no doubt resulted, as Brett Bebber's book seems to have done, from doctorates written in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(History departments of the English-speaking world. But they aren?t what I understand to be ?perspectives?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Confusion is compounded by the fact that Brett?s sub-title does not appear on the cover ? so that the book is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(billed vaguely as )] TJ ET BT 118.340 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Violence and Racism in Football)] TJ ET BT 276.332 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, with no cultural or historical specificity ? and by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(words ?Number 16? printed in the bottom right hand corner, implying that the book is logically preceded by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15 other volumes in some kind of sequence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Getting to the contents of the book, a principal difficulty for me was that in its structure it too strongly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resembled the dissertation from which it was derived. There are, for example, 37 pages of introduction. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a necessary chore in a PhD when the aspirant has to show that s/he has read the relevant literature and is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conversant with appropriate theory and method. But in a book one needs more readily to cut to the chase, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fear perhaps that the reader will weary of perpetual recourse to phrases like ?X cannot be understood without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Y? and lectures on the necessity to contextualise, historicise, ?re-think sport history? and so on. In addition, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the first 1,000 words or so of each chapter are devoted to telling the reader what the chapter will consist of; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this \(to my mind\) excessive academic decorum inevitably gives the narrative a disjointed feel.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nor is the fluency of the book always heightened by Brett?s choice of language. Often the style is very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readable and humane, but at others it can be a bit pompous, sometimes straining for an unduly formal or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convoluted way of saying something. For example \(p. 33\), drawing on a survey of police in 1967 in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many respondents commented on how many football fans tried to prevent their mates being arrested, Brett )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reports that ?fans were unwilling to help procure their violent or disorderly companions?. The fusty and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archaic nature of the language here jumps off the page. Besides, ?procure? is hardly a synonym for the more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(customary ?arrest? or ?detain?. And what fan in the world would not try to prevent one of his pals being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bundled into a police van? Similarly, on the matter of ?race? and racism ? the locus of many of the book's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(greatest strengths ? the reader has some unduly awkward theoretical language to negotiate before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encountering some rich historical insights. I, for one, was not much the wiser having been informed that ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(signifiers ?white? and ?black? were discursively employed by racists and anti-racists alike with the intention )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of recognizing and identifying characteristics of race, nationality and ethnicity, often with unintended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(epiphenomenal outcomes? \(p. 206\). Surely, as I have often written somewhere on a student essay, there was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a more straightforward way of saying this.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The more one delved into this book, the stronger was the sense that this intermittent recourse to clunky, over-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(academic writing was a kind of comfort blanket ? that the author wasn?t quite as sure of his ground, either in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regard to post-Second World War British history or to the culture of the English football world, as he could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been. Certainly some of his central assertions were startling ? as, for instance, with the suggestion \(p. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 308.2877 697.8535 322.2797 709.7335 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7658 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(21\) that ?[t]hrough the 1966 World Cup victory football became primarily a working class bastion apart )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from other public school sports like cricket and rugby?. Most observers would say that the opposite was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(case. Association football had, in effect, been a working-class bastion since the late 19th century when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working-class teams began to win the FA Cup. Although ?soccer? continued \(and continues\) to be played at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the most prestigious English public \(i.e. private\) schools, high status amateurs had long since withdrawn to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compete for their own cups ? the FA Amateur Cup \(begun in 1893\), and the Arthur Dunn Cup specifically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for public school old boys? teams \(started in 1902\). Such men left the Football League, the FA Cup and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England team to the working class. It was precisely with the 1966 World Cup win, seen \(by the standards of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the time\) by a huge television audience and generating great popular enthusiasm, that football?s standing as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a working-class bastion actually became )] TJ ET BT 230.972 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(threatened)] TJ ET BT 282.296 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. This was the first step on the road to the football-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(saturated corporate, global media culture that we have today. After all, nobody had taken much interest in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the previous \(minimally televised\) World Cup in Chile in 1962. Indeed, as Brett himself acknowledges \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4\), one scholarly interpretation of football spectator violence held it to be an angry working-class reaction to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the commercialisation and )] TJ ET BT 163.664 611.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(embourgeoisement )] TJ ET BT 257.312 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the English game ? the hovering around it of middle-class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entrepreneurs and consumers .)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are also some noticeable errors of fact. There is a baffling assertion \(p. 22\) that the Labour Party )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?removed Clause Four? of its constitution in 1964. ?Clause Four? refers to the party?s undertaking: ?To )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secure for the workers by hand or by brain the full fruits of their industry and the most equitable distribution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thereof that may be possible upon the basis of the common ownership of the means of production, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distribution and exchange, and the best obtainable system of popular administration and control of each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industry or service?. This had been adopted in 1918 and, although it had often been a bone of contention in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Labour movement, its wording was not changed until 1995, at the prompting of the ?New Labour? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coterie by then steering the party. Similarly, the Conservative cabinet minister ?Henry Munro? referred to \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(79\) is actually Hector Monro, Margaret Thatcher?s first minister for sport \(1979-?81\); moreover Monro was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not a cabinet minister ? no British government minister responsible specifically for sport ever has been. And )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bermuda-born West Ham footballer Clyde Best, who graced the Hammers? Boleyn Ground between 1968 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and 1976, was not a full back \(p. 208\), but a forward.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(None of this is to be picky. It?s simply to suggest that the author might have been more comfortable with, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and suitably immersed in, his material ? the theory and the research data ? before writing the book. \(After )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all, Mike Marqusee ? admittedly, in my view, the acme of writers on sport and politics ? seemed to know )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(everything there was to know both about cricket and the British class system.\) This point is all the more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important when one considers the raw material of the book, which is eye-opening and, as a political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(document, extremely valuable. The contents of papers relating to government deliberations over football )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hooliganism and the subsequent racist and anti-racist activity at football grounds that greeted the emergence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of English Afro-Caribbean players onto the English League scene are recounted at length.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The statements privately made, and the positions privately embraced, by some of the leading players on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issue of football violence are set out in some detail and Brett?s tendency occasionally to over-interpret their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(already largely self-evident political implication doesn?t minimise their impact. There are, for example, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unenlightened musings of Denis Howell \(Minister for Sport 1964?70 and 1974?9\). Howell, a former )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Birmingham councillor, official of a clerical workers? union and football referee was typical of many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Labour MPs at the time. A populist and bureaucrat, rather than a visionary or a socialist, he was on the right )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the party and his bizarre analysis of football violence was that it resulted from working-class mothers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(going out to work \(p.1 33\). Similarly, Walter Winterbottom, coach to the England football team between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1946 and 1962, and now at the Sports Council, supervised some grim scientific research on possible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?corporeal damage? to spectators on the football terraces, which among other things calculated that humans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(needed little more than 2.25 square feet of space on which to stand and could withstand a maximum of 206 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pounds per square foot of pressure. Winterbottom strongly favoured the physical confinement of supporters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and these calculation were to determine how tightly human beings could be packed without crushing them to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(death. There was much talk of cages. Another plan was to have a fence which would collapse in time of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(danger but to install sprinkler systems so that, if supporters encroached onto the field of play, they would be )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 6116 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sprayed with dye and, thus colour-coded, be rounded up by the police. This plan was only abandoned when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(someone pointed out that the wind might carry the dye in the wrong direction \(pp. 80?5\). Bebber is similarly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critical of FA officials such as Denis Follows, who called for a greater involvement of police dogs, of police )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brutality and of the Labour MP Walter Johnson, whose baleful contribution to this whole fiasco was to call )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the return of military conscription \(pp. 130?1\). He rightly points to the callousness of government )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(calculation and to the inherent dangers to spectators which they posed. He also has bursts of eloquence, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when he quotes some of the indignant football supporters who wrote to government departments objecting to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being treated ?as an undifferentiated population of thugs? \(pp.90?1\). But one feels that too often he does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(see the wood, despite his sensitive appreciation of the trees; he does not give due weight to the emergence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the law-and-order state in Britain in the 1970s so acutely observed by Stuart Hall and others in their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influential )] TJ ET BT 86.348 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Policing the Crisis)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 179.360 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 179.360 652.515 m 193.352 652.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 193.352 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? something to which much of his evidence points. The football hooligans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were an early example of the ?enemies within?, identified by the propagandists of successive Thatcher )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administrations, and would be succeeded by, among others, ?welfare scroungers?, single parents, trade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unionists, miners, muggers and migrants.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The section on racism and anti-racism in football is similarly valuable. Once again there are lapses into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unnecessarily cumbersome language but, as with the whole hooligan affair, the greatest merit is in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal testimony of those involved at the time. Take, for instance, the footballer John Colquhoun, who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recalled playing for Heart of Midlothian against Glasgow Rangers and hearing his own supporters chant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monkey noises at Rangers? winger Mark Walters. Colquhoun professed himself ?disappointed in my own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(performance ... because I let this go on. I didn?t do anything?. \(How typical Colquhoun was is hard to say. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He was politically minded and was later elected rector of Edinburgh University. He?s now a successful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(football agent.\) Similarly Mark Bright, now a television football pundit, was instrumental in challenging the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notion that the ?professional? way for black footballers like him and Walters to deal with racist taunts was to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ignore them; Bright insisted that these taunts themselves represented a \(disgraceful\) lack of respect for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fellow professionals and, as such, must be challenged \(pp. 214?15\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So this book contains important research, and the documents Brett Bebber has read and brought to light are a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(real contribution to our understanding of some parlous times in the post-war history of British society. I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hope, and expect, that his next book will have a smoother and more gently analytical narrative. Historians, I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(think, should take a great deal from sociology, but emphatically not their characteristic mode of self )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expression.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 324.147 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 293.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mike Marqusee )] TJ ET BT 142.664 293.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Anyone But England )] TJ ET BT 244.988 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1994\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 323.312 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 323.312 292.131 m 377.300 292.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 279.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stuart Hall et al., )] TJ ET BT 148.676 279.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Policing the Crisis: Mugging, the State and Law and Order)] TJ ET BT 434.684 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1978\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 516.008 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 516.008 277.875 m 556.004 277.875 l S BT 64.016 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 263.619 m 78.008 263.619 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 248.287 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 230.507 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 230.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1299)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 229.113 m 328.316 229.113 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 204.136 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 189.736 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/28005)] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 179.3597 652.8295 193.3517 664.7095 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 323.3117 292.4455 377.2997 304.3255 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 516.0077 278.1895 556.0037 290.0695 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 23 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 263.9335 78.0077 275.8135 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 23 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 229.4275 328.3157 241.3075 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1299) >> endobj xref 0 34 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000596 00000 n 0000000678 00000 n 0000003096 00000 n 0000003205 00000 n 0000003315 00000 n 0000003424 00000 n 0000006985 00000 n 0000007113 00000 n 0000007197 00000 n 0000007281 00000 n 0000015115 00000 n 0000015145 00000 n 0000015273 00000 n 0000015309 00000 n 0000015374 00000 n 0000023085 00000 n 0000023197 00000 n 0000029366 00000 n 0000029396 00000 n 0000029524 00000 n 0000029560 00000 n 0000029688 00000 n 0000029743 00000 n 0000029871 00000 n 0000029926 00000 n 0000030052 00000 n 0000030107 00000 n 0000030235 00000 n trailer << /Size 34 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 30331 %%EOF