%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R ] /Count 3 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141218180851+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141218180851+00'00') /Title (Scholastic Humanism and the Unification of Europe. Volume I: Foundations) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4012 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Scholastic Humanism and the Unification of Europe. Volume I: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Foundations)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After leaving Balliol, Sir Richard Southern had the compensation of daily contact with the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seventeenth- century collection of medieval scholastic writings which William Laud had built up at St. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Johns. Presumably Laud was concerned to recover religious and intellectual values with which he felt in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sympathy, although he could not he could not wholly share them. An analogous impulse would seem to lie )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behind this splendid book. The intellectual personality of the author permeates the interpretation. Sentences )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(like the following are symptomatic: 'Scholastic arguments ... performed many of the functions of arguments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in political assemblies today: they brought the issues Of faith and behaviour before a continuing stream of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men, many of whom would one day have to administer what today they discussed'; or again: 'As late as 1930 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no Oxford graduate went willingly "into trade" except in pursuit of a political, objective or to inherit a grand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(old firm'. Southern thinks with the whole of his mind and experience, not just specialised section.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This intellectual personality developed its individuality in the context of a group originally brought together )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by another famous Balliol medievalist, Sir Maurice Powicke. Though Southern was himself a pupil of V.H. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Galbraith, he evidently felt a close affinity with the informal school which after Powicke's time gravitated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 November, 1996)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Southern)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780631191117)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1995)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(330pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Blackwell)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://bookshop.blackwell.co.uk/jsp/id/Scholastic_Humanism_and_the_Unification_of_Europe_v_1/9780631191117)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David d'Avray)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7535 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(around the office in Bodley of another Balliol man, Richard Hunt. The trilogy of which this is the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume can be regarded as the last and finest product of a collective enterprise: the sympathetic exploration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of medieval thought and religion in its relation to society and government. The trilogy's subject is one of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(great movements in intellectual history, the effort the 11th to the 14th century to ' ... demonstrate the dignity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the human mind by showing that it can know all things", and 'to make man appear more rational, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divine ordering of the universe more open to human inspection and the whole complex of Man, nature and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(God more intelligible, than the bitter experience of either the earlier or later centuries of the Middle Ages )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made at all likely' No other member of the group chose to paint so large a canvass - the combination of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(synthesis with fresh and vivid work on detail is one of Southern's particular gifts - but the spirit of humane )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarship which animated these Oxford medievalists is very present in this book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One sign of this intellectual setting is the chapter on 'The Bible', special field of his older colleague Beryl )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Smalley, even though a narrower conception of 'scholastic humanism might have excluded it. Southern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explains how the masters of the high medieval schools took over the symbolic tradition of biblical exegesis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and systematized it, collecting and arranging the spiritual interpretations of the past, producing manuals, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popularising doctrine through biblical imagery. A development which was closer to 'scholasticism' as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(usually defined was the method of resolving contradictions between Biblical authorities by means of verbal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and logical analysis. Southern elegantly shows how discussion of the problem of 'Fear' \(Proverbs 1:7 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Psalm 19/18:10 versus 1 John\) developed in sophistication into a solution elaborated by Peter Lombard; and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then how the Lombard's teaching was passed on by an ex-pupil to Henry II of England.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A sensitivity to the setting in political and social life of medieval religious has been characteristic of those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(members of the group who taught Oxford's perhaps rather conservative history syllabus: Miss Smalley, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(W.A. Pantin, but Southern most of all. There was perhaps a creative tension between, on the one hand, their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research interest in intellectual history, and on the other, their teaching which Oxford tradition pulled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towards the history of government and wider historiographical fashion towards social history. In chapters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(four and five the history of thought and life are more successfully integrated than in any previous history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholasticism that I can think of. We are shown how a society in which the appeal of the church lay in its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ritual powers, where secular rulers legislated on religious matters, reacting to short-term crises, and where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the rules about such matters as marriage and penance were inconsistent and confusing, gave way to a society )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where the Schools, and governments run by the scholastically educated, made rules intended to organise life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for all time. Southern reminds us that although scholastic training was a path to success, it could not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guarantee a good job without connections and luck. It is typical that he brings the outcomes for the losers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sharply to mind. As for the successful, they bought a sharp combination of broad systematisation with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mastery of detail to the practise of government. A former Balliol tutor is peculiarly well equipped to bring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out the connection between academic excellence and action outside the ivory tower. The human and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal aspects of the professional academics world are also skilfully evoked: loyalty of pupils, a growing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense of the place in history of contemporary intellectuals, the stories told about well-known teachers. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Southern is able to turn the twelfth-century scholastics back into people.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He is even more original about places. First, \(in chapter Two\), he reasserts against various critics his thesis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the famous school of Chartres was never a significantly distinctive centre at all. Southern enjoys )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(controversy, one suspects, and his ability to carry it on without innuendo or animus makes him a model for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anyone engaged in the modern equivalent of scholastic disputation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In addition to breathing new life into an old debate, Southern proposes two new \(and this time positive\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theses about places. He explains why Leon failed to compete with Paris, after a promising start, by pointing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out that there was simply not enough physical room for expansion. Then - and this is the newest big idea in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the book - he proposes a striking antithesis between the smooth and almost inexorable development of Paris )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the scholastic metropolis of northern Europe, on the one hand, and the sudden prominence of Bologna )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the centre of legal scholasticism on the other. Paris is structure, Bologna evenement, the event in question )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being the appearance of Gratian's Decretum \(admittedly in a town which already had the advantage of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proximity to the papacy\). Before that, there was no academic school of law in Italy. Aficionados of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Southern's work will feel the usual thrill as they realise that he has discreetly removed the pin of another )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 18 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 2803 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grenade.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Before Gratian, Canon Law did not exist in a form capable of serving as the 'software' for a hierarchy of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working Church courts. Gratian made the difference not only by synthesising the mass of past ecclesiastical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decisions, but above all by incorporating procedural systems borrowed from Roman Law. As for Roman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Law, that too was a novelty as a subject for systematic academic teaching. the well-known specialists before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this time had been practising lawyers, not academics. The novelty of the argument is not the emphasis on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gratian's importance, but the contrast with the situation before him, and the implication that but for one man )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the great studium of Bologna might never have been. Some may argue that it is not certain whether Gratian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(himself bought the Roman Law into his synthesis, but even if he did not, the essence of the thesis could be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preserved by substituting 'one work' for 'one man'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Decretum not only made Bologna the southern metropolis of thought, but began the process of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transforming the scholastic vision of the world into practice backed by government sanction. Southern sees )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Theology and law as closely allied, and it is with the triumph of Bologna that he finishes the first instalment. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The proportions of the book will fit harmoniously into the overarching structure outlined at the start of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book, but this volume an also stand just as well on its own - already a classic.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 527.647 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 509.867 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 509.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/13)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 508.473 m 316.316 508.473 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 483.496 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 469.096 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/186)] TJ ET BT 34.016 454.696 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 508.7875 316.3157 520.6675 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/13) >> endobj xref 0 20 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000335 00000 n 0000000372 00000 n 0000000568 00000 n 0000000650 00000 n 0000004714 00000 n 0000004823 00000 n 0000004933 00000 n 0000005042 00000 n 0000008603 00000 n 0000008731 00000 n 0000008815 00000 n 0000008880 00000 n 0000016468 00000 n 0000016552 00000 n 0000019408 00000 n 0000019536 00000 n trailer << /Size 20 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 19630 %%EOF