%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Count 7 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150702184811+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150702184811+01'00') /Title (The Grand Strategy of Philip II) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3372 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Grand Strategy of Philip II)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Academics and the general public alike have an understandable fascination regarding the Spanish Armada. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 358.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The naval confrontation in the Channel in 1588 and the subsequent disastrous Spanish circumnavigation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the storm-lashed British coastline, helped shape world history from the end of the sixteenth century to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beginning of the twentieth. Spain - the first 'Global Empire' - was bested by Mother Nature and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considerably smaller political power with the result that as her imperial pretensions stuttered, England's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flourished. But it was a close run thing. In a fantastic book, Geoffrey Parker gives the reader a wealth of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detailed information on how the strategist behind the Armada, Philip II of Spain, thought, worked, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administered and went about his day-to-day business. Parker aims to engage three types of reader: scholars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interested in Philip II; strategic analysts; and those interested in the rise and fall of great powers. The book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will do so and it will engage many more. The Grand Strategy of Philip II is a book for everyone from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(keenest Armada-wonks to the most frustrated of corporate middle-managers. Numerous illustrations and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tables, complemented by full and discursive footnotes, make the volume an accessible tool for the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serious academic and a fascinating insight for the general reader.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(130)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 June, 2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Geoffrey Parker)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1998)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Haven, CT)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robin Macpherson)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7175 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Following his excellent )] TJ ET BT 149.684 784.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Philip II)] TJ ET BT 190.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Little, Brown & Co, 1978\) and other valuable volumes on Spain and her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Empire, this book puts in place an in-depth understanding of the political, administrative and personal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attributes of Philip II and his 'Grand Strategy'. Over thirty years of top-class scholarship shine through a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(masterclass in understanding how governments worked, and how they did not. While it is doubtless only fair )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to point out that the volume reflects the surviving source material, the fact that the author is Geoffrey Parker )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes the reader feel comfortable that this is as near to historical reality as we are readily going to get. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one immediately recognisable problem, in that a sequential book cannot truly express the globalness of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philip's concerns and immediacy of constantly pressing problems, is quickly forgotten as the reader engages )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the fluid and fast-paced narrative.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philip II controlled Spain for fifty-five years in the latter half of the sixteenth century from his appointment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as regent for his father, Emperor Charles V, in 1543 to his death in 1598. He was far from solely a Spanish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarch. By 1554, he was also king of Naples and king of England and, although this later title lapsed with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the death of Queen Mary in 1558, in 1580, he acquired the kingdom of Portugal and her considerable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overseas possessions. His empire had no common language, no common currency, disparate political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions and laws, competing economic and strategic defence needs and even some divergent religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convictions. In spite of the seemingly insurmountable difficulties, Philip can truly be said to have ruled the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first empire on which the sun never set and, long before James Bond, used the motto )] TJ ET BT 442.628 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Non Sufficit Orbis)] TJ ET BT 529.976 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( - the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World is not Enough!)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parker addresses three key questions in the course of his work: firstly, what strategic priorities underlay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philip II's policies? Secondly, what practices and prejudices informed him and influenced his decision-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(making? Finally, what external factors affected the achievement of his goals? He looks at the questions by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysing Philip's reign in an obvious, clear and structured manner: in part one of the volume, Parker looks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at the strategic culture of the Spanish Empire drawing on the full panoply of Philip's rule. He examines the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system of government, the crisis caused by information overload, Philip's strategic priorities and the day-to-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(day assumptions he employed in exercising his rule. In the second section, three case studies are examined - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Low Countries from 1555-77; Scotland and England from 1558-85; and England from 1585-88. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(third part of the volume deals with the flaws which caused the downfall of the Spanish Grand Strategy. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There was the failure to prevent foreign intelligence, the failure of co-ordination of logistics and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communication and the failure to appreciate change in tactics and technology.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Part 1 - Strategic Culture)] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If we accept that Philip II did indeed have a 'Grand Strategy' \(and this book adds heavy evidence suggesting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that we should\), then the reader also has to notice that Philip II 'failed to achieve most of his policy goals'. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Spanish king, who was personally blamed for many of these failures, sacrificed lives, resources and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reputation to attempt to achieve his aims. He undoubtedly left his main concern, Spain, weaker than when he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(took office and he failed to inspire unquestioning obedience. This was not entirely his own fault - among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other problems, the religious controversies of the later sixteenth century severely restricted his freedom to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manoeuvre and his ability to compromise. Despite being flattered as the 'Largest Brain in the World', Parker )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes a strong case that it would have taken a genius to cope with all the concerns that confronted the king. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That said, some of his concerns were universal: for large parts of the reign the succession to Philip II was far )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from secure and, at a time when it was generally understood that the king \(or queen\) equalled the land and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the land equalled the king, there would have been catastrophic changes if Philip had died without an obvious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heir. He was not alone in having dynastic insecurities - in the period covered by the text Portugal lost their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independence \(to Spain\); France was engaged in bitter civil war; Scotland likewise; and up until 1603, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England was only ever one heartbeat away from disaster. The hopes and aspirations of a dynasty and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(country all rested on the life-force of a single individual. Somewhat as a reaction to such mortality \(and like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in England\) the populace began to ascribe to their monarch attributes and powers that went beyond the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mortal.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Also as in the other western European nations as the century and reign progressed, so the paperwork )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7314 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surrounding government increased. Philip governed with a desire for written communication - personal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(audiences with the king often ended in procrastination and with no decision being made. The administration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Spanish Empire was run by a series of councils \(totalling fourteen after 1585\) with distinct but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overlapping membership and direct responsibilities below the king. They suffered from duplication of roles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and over-coverage of certain geographic areas. There was no administrative collective responsibility to any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Grand Strategy and at times, the secretaries were almost ham-strung by the king's desire to see and judge on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(every piece of minute business.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another problem Philip II shared with some of his contemporary monarchs was that, in general, the king did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not understand finances. Despite gold and riches from the New World, Philip was forced to endure a series )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of financial crises with four Castilian decrees of bankruptcy issued during the reign. These were brought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about by almost constant warfare, phenomenal military spending and ever increasing debt repayments. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Financial stringency meant Philip could not afford to engage in all his theatres of action at the same time - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no matter how much he wished to or was required to by the situation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But Philip II was a realist and recognised that every thing could not be accomplished at once. However, in an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empire that spanned the globe, he failed to appreciate that many things did have to be accomplished at once. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As bureaucracy slowed and the king insisted on seeing more and more paperwork, so the workings of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empire struggled under the delays. Philip tried a variety of techniques to solve his administrative problems: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(delegation, prioritisation, condensation and abbreviation. But they all had limited success as Philip II \(like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any good medieval or early modern monarch\) insisted on taking all important decisions in person. Philip II )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exhibited an unwillingness to compromise and believed he always knew best. Accordingly, although he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chose talented subordinates in military matters, increasingly they were those who tended to agree with his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal and strategic viewpoint. At points, he was acutely stressed and, as a result, lost his grip on long-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(term goals at the expense of the here and now, an attitude Parker summarises as an 'incorrigible urge to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meddle'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another problem not unique to the Spanish monarch, but accentuated by the extent of his empire was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distance. Despite this, there was an unprecedented quality to the information received by Philip II. The king )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(and most of his leading ministers\) had visited many of Spain's European possessions, while maps, plans, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drawings, surveys and questionnaires ensured Philip was one of the best informed monarchs of his period. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Good couriers could be expected to cover up to 185km per day and frequently Philip got his European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information considerably before his opponents. When it came to Philip's overseas possessions, information )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was less predictable and more expensive. Many of the correspondents, however, complained of royal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impotence - they saw a royal failure to act on information and one even commented that it was the king's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('natural condition never to decide anything'. Parker is generous to Philip II: he says that the king made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deliberate decisions to do nothing, was not a 'terminally inefficient bureaucrat' and constantly reviewed his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decisions and voiced doubts as to the course of action to be taken. This is perhaps too generous: Elizabeth of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England and James VI of Scotland both exhibited similar traits towards procrastination and indecisiveness. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The suggestion that sixteenth century monarchs sat like rabbits staring into lights coming ever closer is an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(image of bureaucracy which, although it rings true, does not make for good monarchy. A man ruled by self )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imposed deadlines, a 'zero defects mentality' and artificial priorities \(and even this may be an over-generous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretation\), who could not concentrate on items specific to individual ambassadors indicates a poor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strategic manager.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Like other of his fellow monarchs Philip occasionally felt alone and isolated. His Grand Strategy was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conceived and executed in his interests and at his behest. Although Emperor Charles V had left detailed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instructions to his son on how to rule, Parker argues that these were not the whole basis for the Grand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Strategy. Over time, Philip's Grand Strategy developed but it was hindered in a number of important ways - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly it was dictated by the needs and policies of Spain; in other areas, such as Italy and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Netherlands, political structures caused trouble in that the countries were not as centralised as Spain; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly Philip took on the role to defend Catholic Europe \(and beyond\) against Turks and Protestants )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(this was a massive undertaking\) and engaged in 'messianic imperialism'. On top of all the structural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems for the strategy, there was also the constant fear of the domino theory. Philip felt that if England )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7249 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(in 1558\) and then the Netherlands \(from 1574\) were lost then the other arms of his diverse empire would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(soon follow. He had to prevent the dyke bursting by plugging the first leak, no matter how much time and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resources this took.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Part 2 - Formation of the Grand Strategy)] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The three case studies chosen by Parker to demonstrate the formation and implementation of Philip II's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grand strategy all deal with North Western Europe and all are concerned with areas which troubled the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spanish Empire for a considerable period during the later half of the sixteenth century. That the case studies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(do not deal with the Mediterranean, the Turks or the Indies reflects both the available evidence and the areas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of most interest when it comes to the English speaking historians of Philip II's Spain. This is not a criticism: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the concentration on the North West of Europe lends a cohesion to Parker's argument over an extended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(timeframe and a set geographic area. Where there is criticism, it is that the analysis stops in 1588. Taking a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(case study dealing with England, Scotland and the Netherlands to Philip's death would have allowed for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wider discussion of fifth-columnists, sponsored Jesuit infiltration of enemy territory, the situation following )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the execution of Mary, Queen of Scots \(and the claims to the English throne - rumoured and real - of Philip )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(II and the Infanta\) and other abortive armadas. Parker recognises to give you too much of a good thing is to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spoil the reader. This reader wanted to be spoilt more and more!)] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As the situation unfurled in the Netherlands, Philip's Grand Strategy developed along lines already outlined )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as 'classic' by Parker in the first part of his book: Philip, being a control freak, sought to 'micromanage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy' and left detailed but restrictive lists of how the Low Countries were to be dealt with by his regent, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Margaret of Parma. Philip had not taken advice to rule from the Netherlands and, as such, soon became out-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of-touch with concerns and interests there. He managed to antagonise many sections of the Netherlands )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community and individuals who had previously been at each others throats saw the opportunity to unite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against a common threat. When Philip and his regent were perceived to have retreated on their policy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerning the Netherlands, this was seen as governmental weakness and led to an increase in opposition. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the early 1560s, Philip neglected the Netherlands for the Mediterranean and failed to respond to increasing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provocations. The classic concern of too many identifiable problems to deal with at one time is demonstrated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearly and with verve. Philip was unwilling to undertake action necessary to solve the solution. In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politically correct twenty-first century, his humanity is seen as a virtue - he refused to open the sluices and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flood the troublesome area. Humanity is, however, subjective - to early modern contemporaries, Philip was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(too weak to undertake the \(admittedly unpalatable\) action required to quench the threat of rebellion. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Admittedly he received conflicting advice - 'I do not know the truth of what is happening' - but his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indecision and ultimately limited response only stored up problems for later in his reign.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some of the problems faced by Philip in dealing with England and Scotland in the period 1558-85 were the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same as were witnessed in the Netherlands, others were different. Distance was an obvious problem )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(although little mention is made of the sea barrier between Spain and the two countries\); religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intransigence another and the familiar failure to establish acceptable policy alternatives a third. England and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scotland had seen major transformations in the later half of the sixteenth century: both countries had seen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious zealots prepared to abandon state rules; both states had seen religion complicate regular political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alliances and diplomacy \(although here Parker may be over-playing the real significance of this factor\); and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious rifts challenged traditional power alliances. Because of his experience as king of England, Philip )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(felt he was an expert on the subject but it had to be noted the Spain and the Turks in the Mediterranean )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remained the priority; there was a perennial lack of money; he was unwilling to ally with the equally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholic France to unite against the Protestant realms of the north; and both Spain and the Netherlands had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differing agendas when it came to dealing with both England and Scotland \(principally because of long-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standing trade relations\) but also because of religious similarities.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is perhaps a little cheeky of Parker to claim this section of the case study deals with England and Scotland. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In reality, it deals with England and Scottish implications on English policy with Spain. It does not deal with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scoto-Spanish relations in any way and many of the changes in the Scottish polity of the period 1585-1588 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are ignored. The exception is the imprisonment and attitude towards Mary, Queen of Scots. Within Scotland, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7354 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philip was prepared to support Mary diplomatically but, ironically, outside Scotland, although Catholic, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mary represented French interests \(she was daughter of the French Mary of Guise and dowager Queen of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France following her short marriage to Francis II\), Philip II supported his sister-in-law Elizabeth instead of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Scottish queen. In the 1560s he would not sanction Elizabeth's deposition, even though this would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strengthen his hand in other areas of conflict \(notably the Netherlands\). From 1568 there was almost a Cold )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War with England as discourse between two countries effectively ceased. With problems in Spain, Philip )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considered removing the English problem and delegated its solution to Alba \(who did not agree with Philip's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policies so sabotaged them\). The king and his foremost lieutenant had separate agendas and despite Alba's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(periodic successes in the Netherlands, he could not be persuaded to follow the king's directions. Indeed after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the unsuccessful Ridolfi Plot in England \(when Elizabeth took a more aggressive policy against Philip\) Alba )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even felt she was justified in her actions. Where the early period of relations between Spain and England )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were hindered by Philip's problems in the Mediterranean and the Netherlands, the later 1570s were troubled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Philip's altered focus to Portugal and his attempt to unite the Iberian peninsula. Only after this unification )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was achieved, in the 1580s, was Philip finally able to concentrate on North West Europe as his main centre )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of operations \(centred on the Netherlands\). However, he under-estimated Elizabeth and his own problems: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he was isolated from Northern Europe - in reality out-of-touch with the sentiments of the region; he was, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(still, diverted by other events; and he lacked good information. Alba urged Philip to ignore England - advice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philip was not minded to accept. In the end he meddled - intervening too much to be ignored but not enough )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be effective.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parker considers that the way Philip viewed 'The Enterprise of England' was not based in reality. Philip still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wanted to deal with one problem a time. The most pressing problem was the Netherlands but Philip needed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to counter the influence of England in order that he could solve the more serious problem across the channel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the continent. Despite Philip's impression, his Roman Catholic zeal was not in question. His desire to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prove his religious credentials did not require his countering of Protestant England on the field of battle. For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(once, Philip allowed himself to be provoked by Drake raiding Galicia and threatening America. The armada )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(project of 1588 was not really at a time of the king's choosing \(although he felt he could do it when he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wanted\) and, despite considerable background preparations, he had other concerns with the Turks, French, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dutch and in the Indies. Most pressingly, Philip wished the Pope to pay heavily for his demonstration of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholic Church militant Haggling over gold did not convey a sense of crusade to the crew and military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leaders of the campaign. There was poor communication between Philip and his commanders and despite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(giving it his undivided attention, as usual he was hampered by indecision, the desire to micro-manage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actions and financial difficulties. Also, as usual, there were a host of other concerns and, by late 1587, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Enterprise of England - widely discussed in the courts of Europe - was in almost total disorder. That the final )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(storm-lashed chapter of the armada is taken as the end of Philip's enterprise is a mistaken quirk of history. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spain would continue to be a political threat to England into the first year of the reign of Elizabeth's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successor, James I. However, the failure of the armada to exploit favourable opportunities during the course )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of their advance up the channel accurately demonstrated Philip's problems with his Grand Strategy as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whole.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Part 3 - Execution of the Grand Strategy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The third part of Parker's volume is an essay in understanding early modern western Europe and, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular, Philip II. Diplomacy, financial inducements, economic pressure, deception, propaganda are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undercurrents through the section but Parker postulates four specific causes of failure which are outlined and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussed in detail. Philip II's Grand Strategy failed due to a lack of secrecy \(which meant Elizabeth was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(able to construct a suitable defence strategy\); due to Parma's inability to join the fleet; due to technical and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tactical disparity of the fleets \(the English fleet being superior in the conditions of the Channel\); and due to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that scourge of all historical leaders, chance.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The problem of secrecy in early modern Europe was not specific to Philip II's court. All his contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarchs had access to spy networks which attempted to gain vital information to strengthen the position of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their state. Philip II also played this game - he attempted to gain access to secret information from London, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paris, the Netherlands and Rome. That his court leaked more information that it received was partly a )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7167 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problem of the administrative complexity of the machine, partly a problem due to lack of finance to reward )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(loyalty and partly down to the volume of detail available to be passed on. In reality, although general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information of the armada was available, specific and important detail was lacking. For example, Parker )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(points out that although Elizabeth knew an armada was to be launched against England, she suspected that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Essex would be the target \(not the intended Kent\). If lack of secrecy was not solely to blame for the failure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the implementation of Philip's Grand Strategy against England then could it be argued \(as it has been\) that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the project failed due to the fact that Parma was not ready? In a thorough and masterly section, Parker proves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beyond reasonable doubt that it is Medina Sidonia whose reputation deserves more detailed examination \(he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(misinterpreted Philip's instructions on more than one occasion and had an inaccurate conception of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communication possibilities\) rather than Parma \(whom Parker partially exonerates from blame\). Parker )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pinpoints the disparity in naval technology and the poor weather conditions as more crucial factors that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mattered more than the decisions and actions of any one of Philip's armada lieutenants. That Medina Sidonia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was the wrong man in the wrong place at the wrong time is perhaps going a little too far but Parker )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognises that the Duke suffered from Philip's constant interference and unending desire to micro-manage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leaving no latitude for individual action and providing no contingency plans due to his over confidence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(success. In the end it was a number of factors which led to the failure of the enterprise of England and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps the biggest factor in it all was chance.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After the loss of the Armada, the principles and practice of Grand Strategy remained fundamentally the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same. Philip was blamed personally for the reverse of the fleet and not for first time, he hoped to die )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(although this temporary phase passed\). Philip knew that he had to rely on Spain's own resources and hope )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to rely on God's intervention but he continued to retain unrealistic goals. Just because Spain had suffered an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ignominious defeat at the hands of nature and a inferior political power, it did not mean that problems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elsewhere in the Spanish empire disappeared. Internal riots in Spain over taxation and supply brought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discontent to the very heart of the empire and disorder in the Netherlands and France threatened the Empire's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cohesion and security. As Philip grew older, he grew more and more tired. He spent more time ill and was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bed-ridden or chair bound for the last two years of his life. Philip's life descended into a cycle of sleep and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prayer. Increasingly, his Strategy was placed in the hands of others \(including his eventual successor Philip )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(III\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Conclusion)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the end of a powerful and persuasive book, the author presents the reader with a tightly argued conclusion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where nothing comes as a surprise as all the points have been amply demonstrated in the preceding pages. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Again, Parker turns to comparisons and makes excellent use of modern political theory and contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and modern historical comparisons. Early Modern monarchy was not just about acting but about how those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actions are perceived by others: Philip failed to recognise that his gains represented threats to others but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when he was faced with a number of no-win situations, he came extremely close to winning them. Parker )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues that Philip was very nearly the imperial leader his empire needed. Very nearly but not quite. As noted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the text, 'no power exists that can maintain continuous wars' and Philip was personally blamed for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failures within his Grand Strategy principally his failure to defeat England, his failure to defend Catholicism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and his failure to be fiscally prudent. All these failures impacted not only in the individual theatres of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(operations but in the empire as a whole and in Spain in particular.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It could be asked why Philip stuck with his Grand Strategy despite obvious failings. Parker offers three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reasons - no leader likes to lose; he expected God to provide success and he was over-confident of his own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abilities. To be fair, Philip was rarely in control of events. This is nothing startling - Elizabeth of England, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henry III in France, Mary in Scotland and the various Popes in Rome were no more in control of events than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their contemporary in Spain. Like his contemporaries and other great political leaders, Philip found that he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had to react to events and could not always dictate outcomes. One of the stark differences however, was that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while Elizabeth, Henry, Mary and the Holy Father may have had considerable diplomatic and political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interests on many fronts, only Philip had dynastic, political, diplomatic, military, social and economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerns that affected his everyday policies over a vast range of differing arenas.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 1668 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The criticisms of the book are minor - you could claim it was too Euro-centric; you could say it stressed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weaknesses of Philip's strategy at the expense of the successes; and you could say it failed to represent the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(admiration and fear felt by fellow monarchs of Europe when it came to dealing with Philip II and his agents. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the end, however, the only conclusion possible is that this book is an essential read for all historians and, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in particular, for all early modern scholars and people interested in the fun and games of the later sixteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is pleased to accept the review and will not be providing a response.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 660.677 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 646.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 641.695 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 623.915 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 623.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/130)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 622.521 m 322.316 622.521 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 597.544 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 583.144 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/741)] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.744 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 622.8355 322.3157 634.7155 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/130) >> endobj xref 0 28 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000363 00000 n 0000000400 00000 n 0000000555 00000 n 0000000637 00000 n 0000004061 00000 n 0000004170 00000 n 0000004280 00000 n 0000004389 00000 n 0000007950 00000 n 0000008078 00000 n 0000008162 00000 n 0000008227 00000 n 0000015455 00000 n 0000015520 00000 n 0000022887 00000 n 0000022952 00000 n 0000030254 00000 n 0000030319 00000 n 0000037726 00000 n 0000037791 00000 n 0000045011 00000 n 0000045095 00000 n 0000046816 00000 n 0000046944 00000 n trailer << /Size 28 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 47039 %%EOF