%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 30 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140923175226+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140923175226+01'00') /Title (Wales and the British Overseas Empire: Interactions and Influences, 1650-1830) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 2822 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Wales and the British Overseas Empire: Interactions and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Influences, 1650-1830)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The mid-1980s saw the launch of the ?Studies in Imperialism? series. As outlined by the general editor, John )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. MacKenzie, the main concept behind this has been that ?imperialism as a cultural phenomenon has as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant an effect on the dominant as on the subordinate societies?. The series has embraced a cross-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disciplinary approach, covering a wide range of themes, from culture, language and literature, to gender and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sex, science and the environment. The study of imperialism continues to flourish, with ?Studies in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Imperialism? at the forefront of this field, contributing cutting-edge research to the growing mass of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarship.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1302)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 16 August, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hugh Bowen)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780719086205)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(240pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lowri Ann Rees)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7297 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In relation to the study of the British Empire, a recent development has been the ?four-nation? approach, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whereby academics have considered Wales, Scotland, Ireland and England separately, in the wider context )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of imperial expansion. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 144.668 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 144.668 754.563 m 158.660 754.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 158.660 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The latest offering from ?Studies in Imperialism? adopts this approach. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Wales and the British Overseas Empire: Interactions and Influences, 1650 ? 1830 )] TJ ET BT 430.976 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is an edited volume of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essays presented as papers at a British Academy-funded workshop held in September 2007 at Aberystwyth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University. The publication of this monograph is significant, not only to Welsh historiography, but also to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies of the British Empire, and, more generally, imperialism. Crucially, it is the first book to study the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(place of Wales, and role of the Welsh people, within the British overseas empire.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Traditionally, Wales does not figure very prominently in studies of the British Empire, perhaps through a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fleeting reference, often in conjunction with England, or vague comparison with Scotland or Ireland. Bowen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explains in the introduction to this volume:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 591.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Without much fear of contradiction it can be stated that Wales and the Welsh have always been )] TJ ET BT 64.016 577.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(located at the very outer margins of British imperial historiography; and similarly it can be said )] TJ ET BT 64.016 563.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the British Empire has never loomed very large in writing on the domestic history of Wales )] TJ ET BT 64.016 548.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 1\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 510.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, as Bowen highlights, on closer examination, several Welsh references emerge. For example, some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 496.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plantations in the West Indies bore Welsh place names, such as Denbigh and Swansea; sailing between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain and Asia were the East Indiamen )] TJ ET BT 231.644 482.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Anglesey)] TJ ET BT 274.964 482.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 280.964 482.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cardigan)] TJ ET BT 326.972 482.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 332.972 482.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Carmarthen)] TJ ET BT 391.640 482.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 414.968 482.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Monmouth)] TJ ET BT 466.964 482.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; and New South )] TJ ET BT 34.016 467.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wales in Australia was initially called ?New Wales?. There are also examples of prominent individuals, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 453.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some Welsh, others with a Welsh connection, playing a role within the Empire. Bowen draws attention to Sir )] TJ ET BT 34.016 439.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William Jones, Sir Thomas Picton, Elihu Yale, Henry Morgan, but also highlights that there were several )] TJ ET BT 34.016 425.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lesser-known individuals who had their roots in Wales and managed to forge careers overseas. In relation to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 410.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the role of the individual, important issues surrounding identity are raised; the very fact these people had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 396.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been born in Wales \(or had Welsh blood pumping through their veins\) does not automatically mean they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 382.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(projected a Welsh identity, or even attempted to carve out a separate Welsh identity overseas. Many of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 368.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Welshmen prominent in British imperial activity came from the landed elite, and traditionally did not seek to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 353.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cement a separate identity from their English contemporaries. Throughout the volume, the problems of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 339.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tracking the Welsh in the empire is emphasized, and the fact that they were often registered as ?English?, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 325.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even grouped together with the English, makes it very difficult to ascertain exact numbers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In considering the reasons behind the lack of scholarly work on Wales and the empire, Bowen considers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 284.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether it is due to the fact that Wales did not play a prominent part in the empire, or perhaps because it is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 270.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(topic historians have not yet fully explored. Whatever the answer is, it has significant implications for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study of Welsh history and the role of Wales within the empire. One of the principal aims of this volume is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to generate questions and debates, to encourage further research on the Welsh dimension of the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 227.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overseas empire. The Welsh might not have been as numerous or as prominent as the English, Scots or Irish, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 213.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but nonetheless, the role they played must not be ignored, as has largely been the case. Bowen draws )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention to the mass of sources relating to empire housed at the National Library of Wales, highlighting that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 184.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there is great potential for considerable further research in order to shed light on the topic. He also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 170.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledges the potential wealth of primary sources held in archives and local record offices across Wales, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 156.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which are slowly being uncovered, with many fascinating discoveries emerging in the publications of local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history societies. By scouring the archival material new sources will come to light and help formulate a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more detailed and rounded picture of the Welsh influence on empire, and of the influence of empire upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wales.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The scope of this study is considerable, spanning the period between 1650 and 1830. Surveying the existing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography on Wales and empire, the focus appears to be on the late 19th and early 20th centuries. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 58.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume aims to redress the balance, by looking at an earlier period, beginning in the mid-17th century \(a )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 144.6677 754.8775 158.6597 766.7575 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 25 0 R 28 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 6349 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time when private companies were being established to administer the growing empire\); and ending in 1830, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a period that saw the end of the East India Company and the slave system, but also rapid industrialisation in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wales, which had implications for her place within the wider world.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In recent years, historians have been paying more attention to the way Scotland and Ireland interacted with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the British overseas empire.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 167.996 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 167.996 726.051 m 181.988 726.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 181.988 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In contrast, the Welsh dimension has received far less scholarly attention. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bowen himself has made several valuable contributions to the historiography of 18th-century British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperialism, with a particular focus on economic and political history, giving due attention to the Welsh )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context in his more general works on Britain.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 251.324 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 251.324 683.283 m 265.316 683.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 265.316 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Nonetheless, there remained a need for a specialised study )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Wales, one which presented a more general overview of the Welsh interaction with the wider British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overseas empire ? this volume does just that. As MacKenzie highlights in the general editor?s foreword:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? the relative absence of Wales in the historiography is particularly true of the period covered by )] TJ ET BT 64.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the chapters in this volume, spanning as they do the years 1650 ? 1830. Thus this book is )] TJ ET BT 64.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(genuinely pioneering, both in terms of the recognition that there is indeed a significant story of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial Wales to be told and in respect of its chronological focus \(p. x\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 536.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first chapter explores the way empire figures in the Welsh historiography. In ?Writing Wales into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 522.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empire: rhetoric, fragments ? and beyond?? Neil Evans charts the emergence of the study of history as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 508.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professional subject in Wales alongside the developments in imperial historiography to see whether patterns )] TJ ET BT 34.016 494.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or links emerge. This overview is divided into three chronological sections; the first, 1890 ? 1950, focuses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 479.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the establishment of Welsh history in academia, and how the medieval period figured largely. The second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 465.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period, from roughly 1950 until the mid - 1980s, saw more scholarly attention paid to the modern history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 451.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wales, with class becoming an important theme; but apart from studying Welsh migrants and the Atlantic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 437.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connection, there was little in the way of placing Wales in a broader imperial context. Evans explains:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 398.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What has gone before is really rather a depressing chronicle for anyone concerned to analyse the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 384.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(place the empire held in Welsh affections and the role that Welsh people played in its )] TJ ET BT 64.016 370.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development \(p. 29\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, the third period, from the mid-1980s onwards, offers more optimism. Trends in the study of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 317.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British history began influencing the way Welsh historians viewed Wales and her interaction with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 303.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empire; for example, Welsh historians began to look at migration, not only to America, but also to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 289.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(furthest reaches of the empire.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 179.636 289.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 179.636 287.907 m 193.628 287.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 263.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Building on the firm foundations set out by Evans?s historiographical overview, the next two chapters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 248.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consider the impact of imperialism on Wales in relation to Scotland, Ireland and England. In ?Wales, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 234.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Munster and the English South West: contrasting articulations with the Atlantic world? Chris Evans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highlights the importance of the Atlantic during the 17th century and a considerable part of the 18th century:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 182.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Large volumes of capital and much political energy were expended in Asia, but in terms of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 167.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(territorial acquisition, the settlement of migrant populations or the volume of commercial traffic, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 153.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Atlantic was the principal imperial theatre for the English and \(after 1707\) the British \(p. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 139.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(40\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 100.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Evans draws attention to the London-centric approach, ?gentlemanly capitalism?, and acknowledges that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 86.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although attempts have been made to consider the impact of imperialism beyond the metropolis, work in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 72.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(area has been slow in emerging: ?For all their efforts to ?de-centre? the empire, the centre obstinately )] TJ ET BT 34.016 58.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reimposes itself? \(p. 40\). His chapter focuses on comparing the experiences of a region he defines as the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 167.9957 726.3655 181.9877 738.2455 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 251.3237 683.5975 265.3157 695.4775 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 179.6357 288.2215 193.6277 300.1015 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 33 0 R ] /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 6518 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(south-west, and the links with empire. In relation to Wales, cloth manufactured in Wales was used to clothe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slaves in the Atlantic world, and the Welsh copper industry supplied the Atlantic markets, reinforcing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument that the Welsh were far from disengaged with the commercial activities linked with the empire.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Focusing on the Celtic dimension, Martyn J. Powell, in the chapter ?Celtic rivalries: Ireland, Scotland and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wales in the British Empire, 1707 ? 1801?, uses Linday Colley?s )] TJ ET BT 350.324 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Britons: Forging the Nation)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 488.336 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 488.336 726.051 m 502.328 726.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 502.328 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(starting point to emphasize the need for more studies of inter-Celtic relations. In Colley?s book, England is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the central factor, with comparisons made between England and Wales, England and Scotland, but, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Powell highlights, no mention is made of England and Ireland. In his chapter, Powell takes Ireland as his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focus, and considers the relationship between the Celtic nations in the wider imperial context.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the ensuing two chapters, the focus shifts from the four nations to consider Wales and the Atlantic World. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Ceri Jones builds on his previous study of early Welsh Methodism by examining the way some Welsh )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evangelicals during the 18th century utilised their imperial links in their work and the impact this had on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spread of evangelicalism in Wales. ?Welsh evangelicals, the eighteenth-century British Atlantic world and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the creation of a ?Christian Republick?? explores the networks forged across the Atlantic, charting the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exchange of ideas that crossed the ocean and bridged the linguistic and cultural divides.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The chapter by Trevor Burnard, ?From periphery to periphery: the Pennants? Jamaican plantations and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrialisation in North Wales, 1771 ? 1812? again considers the Atlantic dimension. As Burnard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highlights, the number of Welsh who travelled to the British West Indies was indeed small, in Jamaica )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(making up less than two per cent of migrants from Europe during the late 17th century, and later, during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1750s and 1760s, comprising just over one per cent. Nonetheless, there are examples of individuals who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made an impact. The focus of the chapter revolves around the influence of the West Indies on Wales, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular industry in Wales, during the late 18th and early 19th centuries. The case study under focus is that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Pennant family and how the profit from the slave-trade stimulated the development of the slate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industry in north Wales, but also, how the Pennants helped with the transfer of ideas from the West Indies to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wales. Burnard explains that:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Pennant experience in Jamaica and North Wales tells two stories. First, it shows how )] TJ ET BT 64.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wealth could be made in the colonies through a combination of hard work, luck and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demographic fortune. Second, it illustrates the contributions that colonial money made to British )] TJ ET BT 64.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic development, especially the peripheries \(p. 118\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The last two chapters are similarly linked, but here the focus is on Asia. Andrew Mackillop looks at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 284.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiences of the Welsh in the East Indies in ?A ?reticent? people? The Welsh in Asia, c.1700 ? 1815?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 270.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explaining:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 232.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Few areas of Welsh involvement in the pre-1815 empire have been quite as neglected as the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 218.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Asian hemisphere of expansion. With the exception of one or two conspicuous individuals like )] TJ ET BT 64.016 203.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elihu Yale, governor of Madras from 1687 to 1699 or the Anglo-Welsh ?orientalist? scholar, Sir )] TJ ET BT 64.016 189.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William Jones, founder of the Bengal Asiatic Society in 1784, Welsh sojourners in India have )] TJ ET BT 64.016 175.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attracted remarkably little interest \(p. 145\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 136.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scholarly studies of the Welsh experience in India have been few and far between due to the perception that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 122.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Welsh presence was too small to be of significance. However, the Welsh were more than capable of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 108.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(finding their way to India, and Mackillop explores the way they made their connections with the East India )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Company based in London, and the opportunities afforded to them in India. Mackillop draws evidence from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 79.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the AHRC-funded database ?The Scots, Irish and Welsh in British Asia, 1695 ? 1813?, which provides )] TJ ET BT 34.016 65.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(valuable statistical evidence. The fact that the Welsh were not as numerous as the Scots and Irish proves an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 51.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting point in itself, about the Welsh experience, but also about the situation at home. That is, perhaps )] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj [30 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 488.3357 726.3655 502.3277 738.2455 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 36 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Length 5561 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the need to leave Wales was not as great as in the cases of Scotland and Ireland, and the economic, social or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political factors driving migration across the empire themselves warrant further research and assessment.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whilst Mackillop?s chapter focuses on the Welsh experience in the East Indies, in the final chapter Bowen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considers the impact of activities in India on the Welsh economy. In ?Asiatic interactions: India, the East )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(India Company and the Welsh economy, c.1750 ? 1830? Bowen emphasises that the small number of Welsh )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in India does not signify the failure of Wales to take advantage of imperial expansion overseas. Bowen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(draws attention to certain Welshmen who succeeded in amassing quite substantial fortunes during their time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in India, and how this wealth found its way back to Wales. Bowen?s argument can be linked with Burnard?s, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that money generated overseas did find its way to Wales, and that imperial riches were subsequently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invested into the Welsh economy. Although the scale was never extensive, and it far from transformed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economy, Bowen argues nonetheless that we should not discount the influx of imperial wealth, as it helped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stimulate further improvements and developments. Through stocks, industrial enterprises, the building of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(country houses, charitable work or the forging of political careers, East Indian fortunes left their mark on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society, economy and landscape of Wales.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The central aim of this volume is to analyse how Wales interacted with the wider world:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 534.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The authors have measured participation in imperial activity, mapped overseas connections, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 520.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marked out similarities and differences by comparing Wales with other parts of the British and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish Isles, and assessed the impact of empire on Wales itself \(p. 193\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 467.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, one neglected aspect remains the attitude of the Welsh to the empire and the people of the empire; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 453.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did the people of Wales have strong feelings about the empire, or were they largely indifferent to events and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 439.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people located so far away from their day-to-day lives? These questions need to be addressed:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 401.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And herein lies perhaps the greatest challenge ahead if the foundations laid out in this volume )] TJ ET BT 64.016 386.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are to be built upon in future studies of Wales and the empire during the long eighteenth century )] TJ ET BT 64.016 372.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 193\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 334.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It has been suggested that the empire was not a major concern in Wales, but this in itself is an interesting fact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that warrants further study and analysis. As Bowen explains in the introduction, this volume does not present )] TJ ET BT 34.016 305.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a comprehensive account of the history of Wales and the British Empire between 1650 and 1830; this is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 291.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considerable task outside the scope of this volume. Further research needs to be conducted and more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 277.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material gathered before we can fully understand the position of Wales in the wider imperial context, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this is exactly what this book aims to encourage. Going back to MacKenzie?s foreword:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 224.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the purposes of this book is to stimulate further research. It will certainly do that. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 210.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moreover, this volume cries out to be succeeded by one considering Wales and the British )] TJ ET BT 64.016 196.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Empire in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Work on this is already proceeding and will )] TJ ET BT 64.016 182.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surely be published in the not-too-distant future \(p. xi\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 143.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The promise of future publications on Wales and the British Empire is encouraging, and will hopefully be a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 129.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(positive step in furthering this neglected area of the historiography.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.611 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 63.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 63.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John M. MacKenzie, ?Irish, Scottish, Welsh and English worlds? A four-nation approach to the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 49.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of the British Empire?, )] TJ ET BT 213.344 49.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History Compass)] TJ ET BT 296.348 49.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 6 \(2008\), 1244 ? 63; John M. MacKenzie, ?Irish, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R ] /Contents 38 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Length 3553 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scottish, Welsh and English worlds? The historiography of a four nations approach to the history of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the British Empire?, in )] TJ ET BT 176.348 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Race, Nation and Empire: Making Histories, 1750 to the Present)] TJ ET BT 488.660 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catherine Hall and Keith McClelland \(Manchester, 2010\), 133 ? 53.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 391.292 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 391.292 766.563 m 445.280 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 753.706 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See for example Michael Fry, )] TJ ET BT 209.984 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Scottish Empire )] TJ ET BT 310.316 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(East Linton and Edinburgh, 2001\); T. M. Devine, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Scotland?s Empire, 1600 ? 1815 )] TJ ET BT 224.012 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 2003\); )] TJ ET BT 305.672 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(An Irish Empire? Aspects of Ireland and the British )] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Empire)] TJ ET BT 99.344 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Keith Jeffery \(Manchester, 1996\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 285.620 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 285.620 723.795 m 339.608 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 710.938 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Specifically H. V. Bowen, )] TJ ET BT 193.664 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Business of Empire: The East India Company and Imperial Britain, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1756 ? 1833 )] TJ ET BT 127.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 2006\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 221.336 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 221.336 695.283 m 275.324 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 682.426 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aled Jones and Bill Jones, ?The Welsh world and the British Empire, c.1851 ? 1939: an exploration?, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History)] TJ ET BT 296.348 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 31 \(2003\), 57 ? 81.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 393.668 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 393.668 666.771 m 447.656 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 653.914 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Linda Colley, )] TJ ET BT 133.016 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Britons: Forging the Nation 1707-1837 )] TJ ET BT 326.024 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New Haven, CT, 1992\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 445.328 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 445.328 652.515 m 499.316 652.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is happy to accept this review as it stands.)] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 610.927 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 593.147 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 593.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1302)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 591.753 m 328.316 591.753 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 566.776 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 552.376 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/28943)] TJ ET endstream endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 391.2917 766.8775 445.2797 778.7575 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 285.6197 724.1095 339.6077 735.9895 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 221.3357 695.5975 275.3237 707.4775 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 393.6677 667.0855 447.6557 678.9655 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 27 0 R >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 445.3277 652.8295 499.3157 664.7095 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 32 0 R >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 592.0675 328.3157 603.9475 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1302) >> endobj xref 0 51 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000594 00000 n 0000000676 00000 n 0000003550 00000 n 0000003659 00000 n 0000003769 00000 n 0000003878 00000 n 0000007439 00000 n 0000007567 00000 n 0000007651 00000 n 0000007735 00000 n 0000015085 00000 n 0000015115 00000 n 0000015243 00000 n 0000015279 00000 n 0000015377 00000 n 0000021779 00000 n 0000021809 00000 n 0000021937 00000 n 0000021973 00000 n 0000022003 00000 n 0000022131 00000 n 0000022167 00000 n 0000022197 00000 n 0000022325 00000 n 0000022361 00000 n 0000022445 00000 n 0000029016 00000 n 0000029046 00000 n 0000029174 00000 n 0000029210 00000 n 0000029275 00000 n 0000034889 00000 n 0000035008 00000 n 0000038614 00000 n 0000038742 00000 n 0000038797 00000 n 0000038925 00000 n 0000038961 00000 n 0000039089 00000 n 0000039144 00000 n 0000039272 00000 n 0000039327 00000 n 0000039455 00000 n 0000039510 00000 n 0000039638 00000 n trailer << /Size 51 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 39734 %%EOF