%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 34 0 R 60 0 R 86 0 R 109 0 R 120 0 R 149 0 R 154 0 R 162 0 R 182 0 R 184 0 R 204 0 R 221 0 R 281 0 R 317 0 R 355 0 R ] /Count 17 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140723174255+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140723174255+01'00') /Title (Terror in Ireland 1916-1923) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4372 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Terror in Ireland 1916-1923)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Terror in Ireland, 1916?23)] TJ ET BT 164.684 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is the fifth Trinity College Dublin History Workshop publication. Edited by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor David Fitzpatrick, who also contributes a chapter, this well-presented volume publishes research )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from 14 undergraduate and postgraduate students, doctoral researchers and established historians.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book examines British and Irish violence \(mainly the latter\) from the 1916 Easter Rising through the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Civil War. The terms ?terror? and ?terrorist? are loosely, often selectively, applied. According to Fitzpatrick, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?)] TJ ET BT 39.344 204.299 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Terrorists)] TJ ET BT 87.356 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( are those who perpetuate any form of terror; )] TJ ET BT 305.624 204.299 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Terrorism)] TJ ET BT 354.296 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( implies a sustained and systematic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempt to generate terror? \(p. 5\). This conceptualisation is not so much taut as tautological. It is difficult to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(envisage military or quasi-military activity that does not induce terror among combatants and an affected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civilian population. Brian Hanley?s compelling first chapter exposes the problems in Fitzpatrick?s construct. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hanley notes that even under current US State Department categorisations, IRA attacks on Bloody Sunday )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(21 November 1920\) and at Kilmichael \(28 November 1920\) cannot be defined as terrorist \(p. 11\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nevertheless, two chapters are devoted to Bloody Sunday and one to Kilmichael.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Throughout the collection republican forces are often ?Irish terrorists? or simply ?the terrorists?. Their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British opponents are not similarly identified, suggesting that the words have a pejorative rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(descriptive function. Drawing upon the work of the late Peter Hart \(who died in 2010 at the age of 46\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whose analysis ?called into question the morality and sincerity of the republican movement?, the editor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1303)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 16 August, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Fitzpatrick)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781843511991)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(248pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lilliput Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dublin)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Niall Meehan)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R 23 0 R 26 0 R 29 0 R 32 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8735 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(asserts that republicans set out ?to threaten and marginalize )] TJ ET BT 322.292 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(?deviants?)] TJ ET BT 374.288 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( within the community that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terrorists claim to represent? \(p. 6\). Their suspicions were ?based on categorical assumptions? \(p. 4\). As the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume is dedicated to Hart?s memory, Fitzpatrick is intent on defending his reputation from ?outraged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readers? for whom ?the integrity of the revolutionaries from 1916?21 was an article of faith? \(pp. 4, 6\). The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?article of faith? formulation is carefully chosen.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hart?s first publication appeared in the 1990 History Workshop publication, )] TJ ET BT 402.968 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Revolution?)] TJ ET BT 460.964 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, also edited by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fitzpatrick. His later output dominated discourse on ?the Irish revolution?, at times provoking ?intemperate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debate? \(as the book?s rear cover puts it\). Fitzpatrick declares his intention ?to restore balance and decorum? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 5\). ?Equilibrium? might be more appropriate than ?balance?, since there is little open engagement with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hart?s research or with his critics. One of Hart?s prominent contemporaries \(and fellow Workshop )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alumnus\), Joost Augusteijn, several years ago called attention to ?the serious questions over Hart?s use of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(source material?. He was neither invited to the seminar that produced the book, nor asked to contribute a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter. This approach may result from ?groupthink?, where, to paraphrase Fitzpatrick, critics are seen as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deviants within the academic community some historians claim to represent.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 401.312 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 401.312 597.747 m 415.304 597.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dr. Eve Morrison offers a forthright defence of Hart?s reconstruction of the Kilmichael Ambush, but her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(willingness to provide readers with full references to the ongoing debate distinguishes her work from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributions by Fitzpatrick, Hanley, and Fearghal McGarry. Their essays are littered with cryptic asides )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about ?ideological conflict?, ?furious debate?, and ?often ugly and personally offensive? ?counter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(?revisionist? )] TJ ET BT 99.020 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(polemic? from ?those who felt duty bound to defend the honour of the IRA,? but they have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficulty identifying sources for these claims \(pp. 5, 12, 53\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 326.312 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 326.312 500.211 m 340.304 500.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 340.304 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Criticism of Hart?s detractors is not always )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consistent: McGarry complains here that critics possess ?no scholarly interest in who did what? \(p. 53\), but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(previously charged them with maintaining an ?inordinate focus on who did what? \(McGarry, )] TJ ET BT 483.272 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Irish News)] TJ ET BT 534.944 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 28 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aug 2010\). Brian Hanley bypasses substantive ?criticism concern[ing] Hart?s sources?, knocking down )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instead an observation by West Cork traditional musician Peadar Rada that Kilmichael Ambush )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commander Tom Barry ?wasn?t capable of lying? \(pp. 15, 23, n.15\). Where critical interplay is elided )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(academic faculties atrophy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Initially, Hart?s )] TJ ET BT 112.340 389.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The IRA and its Enemies, Violence and Community in Cork, 1916-23)] TJ ET BT 443.648 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1998, based on his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1993 PhD thesis\) received both critical and popular acclaim.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 324.296 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 324.296 374.163 m 338.288 374.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 338.288 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( He characterised revolutionary violence as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sectarian, unambiguously so in a chapter entitled ?Taking it out on the Protestants?, which examined the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(killing of thirteen West Cork Protestant civilians in late April 1922. That controversial chapter provoked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spirited debate, as did Hart?s treatment of the 28 November 1920 Kilmichael Ambush, arguably the single )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biggest British defeat of the War of Independence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hart?s critics accused him of distorting evidence but also, more seriously, of inventing two anonymous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interviewees in his Kilmichael chapter. This criticism seems to be regarded by Hart?s defenders as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly unfair. They will likely welcome the publisher?s assertion that Eve Morrison?s chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?vindicates? Hart?s treatment of the ambush.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 249.968 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 249.968 248.115 m 263.960 248.115 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 263.960 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( For that reason Morrison?s findings merit consideration, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does the legacy of Hart?s work infusing other contributions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One week before the Kilmichael Ambush a significant series of events occurred in Dublin. Consistent with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the volume?s fixation with republican \(rather than Crown force\) ?terror?, Jane Leonard?s chapter on Bloody )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday offers a shot-by-shot account of coordinated IRA attacks on the morning of 21 November 1920 \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(102?40\), in which ten British staff and intelligence officers were killed. Leonard gives us pen-portraits of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(victims, calling into question republican claims of success by suggesting not all of those targeted worked in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intelligence. Curiously, she ignores an internal assessment that the intelligence system was ?temporarily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paralysed? due to ?several of its most efficient members? being killed.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 372.284 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 372.284 122.067 m 386.276 122.067 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 386.276 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Crown forces retaliated for these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assassinations that afternoon by firing into a Gaelic football match in Croke Park, killing ten spectators and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one footballer. Later the same evening, in Dublin Castle, three IRA suspects were tortured and then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unofficially executed, ?while trying to escape?. Their demise receives attention from Eunan O?Halpin, who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(draws on his forthcoming study of fatalities in the war.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 297.320 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 297.320 65.043 m 311.312 65.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 311.312 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( O?Halpin discusses brutality and criminality )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attributed to the Crown forces, a trend that escalated after ?Black & Tans? and Auxiliaries were introduced )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 401.3117 598.0615 415.3037 609.9415 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 326.3117 500.5255 340.3037 512.4055 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 324.2957 374.4775 338.2877 386.3575 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 249.9677 248.4295 263.9597 260.3095 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 372.2837 122.3815 386.2757 134.2615 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 297.3197 65.3575 311.3117 77.2375 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 37 0 R 40 0 R 43 0 R 46 0 R 49 0 R 52 0 R 55 0 R 58 0 R ] /Contents 35 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Length 8764 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1920. These forces feature in chapters on Kilmichael and on the Balbriggan reprisal attack.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Auxiliary Cadets were an elite counter-insurgency force of former British military officers, deployed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland in the autumn of 1920. Their first commander, Brigadier General F. P. Crozier, resigned in February )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1921 and later described the Auxiliaries as, ?soldiers in disguise under no army and no R. I. C. code?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 522.272 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 522.272 740.307 m 536.264 740.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(According to J. B. E. Hittle \(2011\), their activities as ?a sort of English Freikorps? consisted of ?clearing out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towns, and burning and looting of houses, farms, factories, and dairies, while shooting or arresting unnamed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(citizens and sending them to internment camps?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 267.656 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 267.656 697.539 m 281.648 697.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It was economic as well as ordinary warfare, as evidenced in Ross O?Mahony?s chapter on ?The Sack of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Balbriggan? \(pp. 58?74\), which details the September 1920 police reprisal conducted against the small town )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(north of Dublin. Shops, pubs, houses and a factory were destroyed, putting over 400 out work. The element )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of collective punishment is noted in David Fitzpatrick?s analysis of Balbriggan compensation claims \(p. 87\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He also remarks, at odds with the thrust of editorial commentary, ?many former unionists?, persuaded ?that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish terrorists were less arbitrary and malign than the forces of the Crown ? conferred moral legitimacy on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the emerging republic? \(p. 92\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ulster Unionists in the emerging state of Northern Ireland generated terror on a large scale, but the volume )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conspicuously avoids examination of ?so-called pogroms and counter terror that tore Belfast apart between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1920-22? \(Fitzpatrick, p. 7\). The closest we come is in Brian Hanley?s chapter, where he rightly criticises )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians? failure to analyse pro-state loyalist violence in its relationship to the British state in 1920?2 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after 1968 \(pp. 18-19, 20-22\). The omission is surprising when we consider that in 2002 Hart called the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ulster Special Constabulary ?ethnic cleansers? of Roman Catholics. During the same period Hart retracted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(previous claims of IRA ethnic cleansing in Cork, though this development is not acknowledged by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fitzpatrick. He asserts that ?Hart?s hypothes[i]s of ?)] TJ ET BT 285.296 461.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ethnic cleansing?)] TJ ET BT 369.620 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? in Cork was formulated in 1996 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reissued in 2003 \(pp. 4, 5\). Reissued yes, but in 2003 Hart also insisted, without reference to his 1996 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(position, that ?what happened in Southern Ireland did not constitute ethnic cleansing?. In a 2006 )] TJ ET BT 499.628 432.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Irish Times)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(letter directed at this reviewer, Hart denied ever espousing his former view. This is the second time Professor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fitzpatrick has made his assertion and the second time I have corrected it.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 388.280 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 388.280 402.675 m 402.272 402.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(During 27?9 April 1922 in West Cork, ?armed bands shot down a dozen Protestants, several of them well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(known loyalists?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 118.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 118.016 362.163 m 138.008 362.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 138.008 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This was the only incident that might plausibly offer a basis for suggesting parallels )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between events in Cork and Belfast. If an exception can illustrate a rule, this was it \(though a sectarian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(motive has been queried )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 153.992 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 153.992 333.651 m 173.984 333.651 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 173.984 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). A representative Protestant Convention asserted two weeks later that, apart )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the West Cork events, Protestants had not been singled out for persecution. The influential British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Empire journal, )] TJ ET BT 112.340 306.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Round Table)] TJ ET BT 174.008 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, remarked after the incident that southern Ireland ?boasts with justice that it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has been remarkably free from the purely sectarian hatreds that have come to characterise Belfast?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 509.528 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 509.528 290.883 m 529.520 290.883 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 529.520 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( RIC )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(later RUC\) police inspector John Regan astutely observed that the further one travelled from Belfast ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less sectarianism there is generally?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 208.976 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 208.976 262.371 m 228.968 262.371 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 228.968 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The further south Hart pressed his case for a sectarian interpretation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the war, the weaker his treatment of evidence became, and nowhere more so than in his consideration of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the April 1922 killings.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Undergraduate student Thomas Earls Fitzgerald engages to some extent with Hart?s work in an interesting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter on IRA ?Execution[s] of )] TJ ET BT 193.640 194.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(?Spies and Informers?)] TJ ET BT 302.300 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? in West Cork \(pp. 181?93\). His research suggests )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that such killings during the War of Independence were based on IRA evidence of collaboration. Earls )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fitzgerald briefly addresses a British Army report asserting that loyalist Protestants in the Bandon area )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engaged in systematic informing \(pp. 183?4\), but ignores Hart?s often discussed misuse of the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(document. Hart quoted a section stating that in general Irish Protestants rarely passed information to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Crown forces, but omitted a succeeding passage mentioning direct assistance from West Cork Protestants. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On this basis Hart could claim that the April 1922 West Cork killings were sectarian. Hart never )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(satisfactorily addressed his distortion of the record.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 279.644 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 279.644 93.555 m 299.636 93.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 299.636 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This is the closest the volume comes to examining )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hart?s assertion of republican sectarianism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hart also never properly addressed anomalies in his Kilmichael research, which should be revisited in the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 36 0 obj [34 0 R /Fit] endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 522.2717 740.6215 536.2637 752.5015 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 39 0 obj [34 0 R /Fit] endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 267.6557 697.8535 281.6477 709.7335 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 42 0 obj [34 0 R /Fit] endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 388.2797 402.9895 402.2717 414.8695 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 45 0 obj [34 0 R /Fit] endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 118.0157 362.4775 138.0077 374.3575 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 48 0 obj [34 0 R /Fit] endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 153.9917 333.9655 173.9837 345.8455 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 51 0 obj [34 0 R /Fit] endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 509.5277 291.1975 529.5197 303.0775 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 54 0 obj [34 0 R /Fit] endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 56 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 208.9757 262.6855 228.9677 274.5655 ] >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 57 0 obj [34 0 R /Fit] endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 59 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 279.6437 93.8695 299.6357 105.7495 ] >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 63 0 R 66 0 R 69 0 R 72 0 R 75 0 R 78 0 R 81 0 R 84 0 R ] /Contents 61 0 R >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Length 8025 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context of Eve Morrison?s chapter ?Kilmichael Revisited: Tom Barry and the ?)] TJ ET BT 415.616 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(False Surrender?)] TJ ET BT 499.940 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(158?80\). Morrison?s chapter, which she believes overturns criticism of Hart, includes important new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence that provides a breakthrough in the debate surrounding Hart?s treatment of the ambush. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material is significant, as it goes to the heart of determining the reliability of Hart?s research. But as always, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the devil is in the detail.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At Kilmichael16 of 18 British Auxiliaries present were killed by an IRA flying column commanded by Tom )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barry. One Auxiliary who was wounded, escaped but was later captured and shot dead by the IRA, while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another was left for dead but miraculously survived. Three of 37 IRA attackers were killed. British officials )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alleged at the time that the IRA massacred defenceless soldiers and deliberately mutilated the corpses. In his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1949 memoir, )] TJ ET BT 104.348 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Guerrilla Days in Ireland)] TJ ET BT 228.008 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, IRA commander Tom Barry insisted that the Auxiliaries engaged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in a false surrender ruse that caused the death of two IRA fighters. To Barry this justified his force )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuing the fight until all remaining Auxiliaries were believed dead.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 375.308 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 375.308 626.259 m 395.300 626.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In )] TJ ET BT 47.012 601.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The IRA and Its Enemies)] TJ ET BT 166.328 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Hart dismissed the allegations of mutilation but asserted that otherwise ?British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information seems to have been remarkably accurate?. Kilmichael was ?a brilliant ambush but it turned into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a massacre?. Hart, who described Barry as a ?political serial killer?, insisted that his account ?was riddled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with lies and evasions. There was no false surrender as [Barry] described it. The surviving Auxiliaries were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simply exterminated?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 140.672 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(16\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 140.672 542.979 m 160.664 542.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 160.664 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Hart?s hypothesis of ?republican duplicity? \(Fitzpatrick, p. 5\) is based on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assertion that Barry invented a false surrender narrative, a finding that Morrison endorses.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Though Hart?s rejection of the false surrender contradicted a strong oral tradition in West Cork, some of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important sources were unverifiable. Hart explained that during his research he personally interviewed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?thirteen Cork IRA veterans?, some of whom requested anonymity. For unknown reasons Hart decided to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anonymise them all, identifying veterans sequentially as AA, AB, AC, etc.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 392.312 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(17\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 392.312 459.699 m 412.304 459.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 412.304 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Two Kilmichael Ambush )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(veterans were reportedly interviewed: AA in 1988; and AF in 1989.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 359.624 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(18\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 359.624 445.443 m 379.616 445.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These attributions created two problems. From 1 January 1987 to 13 November 1989 just one known )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kilmichael veteran remained alive. His name was Edward ?Ned? Young. In Hart?s 1993 PhD thesis, AA )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was identified as EY, Young?s actual initials. However, in 2008 Young?s son John testified in a sworn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(affidavit that Ned Young suffered a stroke late in 1986, could no longer communicate effectively, was in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Young?s care, and was incapable of being interviewed by Peter Hart.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 391.592 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(19\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 391.592 362.163 m 411.584 362.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hart claimed to have interviewed his second Kilmichael veteran \(AF\), an IRA scout rather than rifleman, on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19 November 1989, six days after Young \(the last known veteran\) died. In an interview for a television )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documentary, )] TJ ET BT 102.668 308.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Scal Tom Barry)] TJ ET BT 183.992 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2011\), Hart said, in relation to the ?scout?:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 270.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I suppose it?s possible that this was some sort of hoax and he was a fantasist, but that seems )] TJ ET BT 64.016 256.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extremely unlikely.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 157.340 256.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(20\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 157.340 254.883 m 177.332 254.883 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 218.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kilmichael veterans Jack Hennessey and Ned Young contributed Bureau of Military History \(BMH\) Witness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 203.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Statements on the Ambush. The statements were sealed until 2003, though many veterans retained personal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 189.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(copies. Later chapters of Hart?s )] TJ ET BT 189.296 189.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The IRA and Its Enemies)] TJ ET BT 308.612 189.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( cite Hennessy and Young?s statements, though not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the Kilmichael ambush. The veteran Hart called AF had first been labelled HJ in his PhD thesis. HJ was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 160.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not a scout in Hart?s thesis. Inexplicably his status changed to a scout in Hart?s book. Jack Hennessey?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 146.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(initials backwards are HJ. Hennessy was a rifleman, not a scout. He died in 1970.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 425.276 146.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(21\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 425.276 145.347 m 445.268 145.347 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 120.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The false-surrender narrative was the central focus of Hart?s Kilmichael chapter. However, Hart?s two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interviewees do not appear to have been asked an obvious question, ?Was there a false surrender?? A direct )] TJ ET BT 34.016 91.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(answer never appears in Hart?s narrative. An explanation for this omission and the dating anomalies could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 77.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be that Hart paraphrased information from Jack Hennessy and \(in particular\) Edward ?Ned? Young?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(witness statements and also \(as we shall see\) misattributed testimony from another source.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 467.624 63.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(22\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 467.624 62.067 m 487.616 62.067 l S endstream endobj 62 0 obj [60 0 R /Fit] endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 64 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 375.3077 626.5735 395.2997 638.4535 ] >> endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 65 0 obj [60 0 R /Fit] endobj 66 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 67 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 140.6717 543.2935 160.6637 555.1735 ] >> endobj 67 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 68 0 obj [60 0 R /Fit] endobj 69 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 70 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 392.3117 460.0135 412.3037 471.8935 ] >> endobj 70 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 71 0 obj [60 0 R /Fit] endobj 72 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 73 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 359.6237 445.7575 379.6157 457.6375 ] >> endobj 73 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 74 0 obj [60 0 R /Fit] endobj 75 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 76 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 391.5917 362.4775 411.5837 374.3575 ] >> endobj 76 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 77 0 obj [60 0 R /Fit] endobj 78 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 79 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 157.3397 255.1975 177.3317 267.0775 ] >> endobj 79 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 80 0 obj [60 0 R /Fit] endobj 81 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 82 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 425.2757 145.6615 445.2677 157.5415 ] >> endobj 82 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 83 0 obj [60 0 R /Fit] endobj 84 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 85 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 467.6237 62.3815 487.6157 74.2615 ] >> endobj 85 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 86 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 89 0 R 92 0 R 95 0 R 98 0 R 101 0 R 104 0 R 107 0 R ] /Contents 87 0 R >> endobj 87 0 obj << /Length 7796 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eve Morrison does not address interview-dating anomalies, but instead concentrates on another critical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(source of anonymous testimony. Hart claimed access to taped interviews with three more unnamed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kilmichael veterans. These were conducted by Father John Chisholm, while helping War of Independence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(veteran Liam Deasy research his 1973 memoir, )] TJ ET BT 263.960 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Toward Ireland Free)] TJ ET BT 365.288 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 368.288 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(23\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 368.288 740.307 m 388.280 740.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Therefore, Hart?s PhD thesis reported ?five detailed interviews? with Kilmichael veterans - his two and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Father Chisholm?s three, all anonymous. Hart?s 1998 book then added two further veteran sources, making )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a total of seven. The sixth was ?a detailed statement written by one of the ambush party? held by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ballineen Enniskeane Area Heritage Group. While Hart stated he reviewed this material, he did not cite it. I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggest it is \(again\) either Jack Hennessy or Ned Young?s Witness Statement. Hart?s final, seventh, veteran )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(source account was an elusive ?taped interview?, also ?held by the Ballineen/Enniskeane Area Heritage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Group?. The group deny ever possessing such a tape.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 289.292 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(24\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 289.292 628.515 m 309.284 628.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Meda Ryan queried Hart?s disputed interviews in )] TJ ET BT 274.976 603.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tom Barry, IRA Freedom Fighter)] TJ ET BT 437.288 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 440.288 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(25\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 440.288 602.259 m 460.280 602.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 460.280 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Hart prepared a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(draft ?riposte? in 2004 that remained unfinished at the time of his death. Morrison was granted access to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(draft and reported that Hart listed seven individual Kilmichael veterans as his sources: Paddy O?Brien, Jim )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Spud? Murphy, Jack Hennessy, Ned Young, Michael O?Driscoll, Jack O?Sullivan, and \(finally\),)] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(?Unidentified Scout?)] TJ ET BT 135.680 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Significantly, five of the six named were dead before Hart began his research, while the alive Ned Young )] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was unavailable. The first five submitted BMH statements released in 2003. The sixth veteran, Jack )] TJ ET BT 34.016 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(O?Sullivan, is a Chisholm interviewee. The seventh is the still unidentified ?scout?. How was it Hart could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not name him? Morrison?s new evidence indicates that Hart interviewed zero, not two, Kilmichael veterans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and cited two, not three, Chisholm interviewees. The veteran testimony Hart relied upon in 1998 appears to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been: )] TJ ET BT 88.664 449.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Jack O? Sullivan)] TJ ET BT 170.648 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? Chisholm interview; )] TJ ET BT 283.316 449.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ned Young)] TJ ET BT 336.320 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? Chisholm interview and BMH Witness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Statement \(plus claimed Hart interview with AA\); )] TJ ET BT 277.652 434.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Jack Hennessy)] TJ ET BT 348.620 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? BMH Witness Statement, \(plus claimed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hart interview with AF\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Morrison does not explore the full import of her new evidence this conclusion requires explanation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 368.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 2010 TV producer Jerry O'Callaghan was given access to the Chisholm tapes. He was permitted to make )] TJ ET BT 34.016 353.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(verbatim transcripts of the recordings, but not broadcast them. As pointed out in the television documentary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 339.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Scal Tom Barry)] TJ ET BT 115.340 339.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, O?Callaghan found that only one of the eight tapes contained Kilmichael testimony. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 325.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(came from a single IRA veteran, Jack O?Sullivan, not the three veterans Hart claimed.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 449.252 325.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(26\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 449.252 323.907 m 469.244 323.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 469.244 325.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 311.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(puzzling.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 284.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Father Chisholm partly explained the mystery during a presentation by Morrison at a TCD Contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 270.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(History Seminar.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 116.012 270.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(27\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 116.012 269.139 m 136.004 269.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 136.004 270.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( He reported there was an additional ninth \(and apparently final\) tape he had mislaid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and only recently remembered. Chisholm made all nine tapes available to Eve Morrison ?in response?, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she explained, to ?unwarranted attacks on Hart? \(p. 160\). The ninth tape contained one more Kilmichael )] TJ ET BT 34.016 227.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(veteran interview. Therefore, two \(not three\) interviewees discuss Kilmichael on the ?Chisholm tapes?. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 213.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ninth tape interview is with Ned Young, the only Kilmichael veteran reportedly alive \(but unavailable\) in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1988?9.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 72.344 199.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(28\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 72.344 197.859 m 92.336 197.859 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 172.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These are new anomalies. Surprisingly, Fr Chisholm informed Ned Young?s son, John, in 2008:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 134.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I greatly regret having to inform you I have no recording of an interview with your father, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 120.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though I remember him with affection as a man of real character.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 376.592 120.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(29\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 376.592 119.091 m 396.584 119.091 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 82.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fr Chisholm additionally confirmed something queried by Meda Ryan in 2003. A Kilmichael ambush )] TJ ET BT 34.016 67.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account in )] TJ ET BT 86.672 67.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Towards Ireland Free)] TJ ET BT 192.668 67.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, reportedly by ambush participant Paddy O?Brien, was not in fact written )] TJ ET BT 34.016 53.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by O?Brien. Morrison reports Fr Chisholm?s ?distress? at being informed in 2011 that O?Brien was not the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 88 0 obj [86 0 R /Fit] endobj 89 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 90 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 368.2877 740.6215 388.2797 752.5015 ] >> endobj 90 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 91 0 obj [86 0 R /Fit] endobj 92 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 93 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 289.2917 628.8295 309.2837 640.7095 ] >> endobj 93 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 94 0 obj [86 0 R /Fit] endobj 95 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 96 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 440.2877 602.5735 460.2797 614.4535 ] >> endobj 96 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 97 0 obj [86 0 R /Fit] endobj 98 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 99 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 449.2517 324.2215 469.2437 336.1015 ] >> endobj 99 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 100 0 obj [86 0 R /Fit] endobj 101 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 102 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 116.0117 269.4535 136.0037 281.3335 ] >> endobj 102 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 103 0 obj [86 0 R /Fit] endobj 104 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 105 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 72.3437 198.1735 92.3357 210.0535 ] >> endobj 105 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 106 0 obj [86 0 R /Fit] endobj 107 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 108 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 376.5917 119.4055 396.5837 131.2855 ] >> endobj 108 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 109 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 112 0 R 115 0 R 118 0 R ] /Contents 110 0 R >> endobj 110 0 obj << /Length 6247 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author. However, he admitted to Meda Ryan that he had a ?free hand? in its drafting. Morrison reports )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discovering an ?earlier draft of Paddy O?Brien?s account? in Liam Deasy?s papers \(p. 160; p. 176, n. 8\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though she continues to attribute to O?Brien the )] TJ ET BT 267.332 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Toward Ireland Free)] TJ ET BT 368.660 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( rewritten account \(pp. 163, 164, 166, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(168\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 59.012 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(30\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 59.012 752.307 m 79.004 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Be that as it may, Morrison reveals that Chisholm interviewed Ned Young. This is a second reason why )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Young may be excluded as one of Hart?s two interviewees in 1988?9. Five possibilities could explain the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anomaly. Hart either,)] TJ ET BT 48.816 672.682 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(double counted Ned Young as being interviewed by himself and Fr Chisholm;)] TJ ET BT 34.016 646.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or,)] TJ ET BT 48.816 620.170 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 620.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(misrepresented parts of Chisholm?s taped interviews as his own work;)] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or,)] TJ ET BT 48.816 567.658 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 567.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invented one or both of his claimed Kilmichael interviews;)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or,)] TJ ET BT 48.816 515.146 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 515.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(misattributed Jack Hennessy and Ned Young?s witness statements as his own interviews)] TJ ET BT 34.016 488.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or,)] TJ ET BT 48.816 462.634 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 462.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interviewed unknown Kilmichael veterans.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 436.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If he did not discover hitherto unknown veterans, Hart may have mixed up his sources to strengthen his case )] TJ ET BT 34.016 422.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Barry lied about the false surrender.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 227.636 422.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(31\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 227.636 420.723 m 247.628 420.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 395.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eve Morrison does not believe that Hart acted unethically, but rather, ?muddled a few citations? \(p. 173\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 381.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(She reports that testimony Hart ascribed to his ?scout?, in which Tom Barry issues an order, ?finish him?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 367.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actually comes from a Chisholm tapes interview with Jack O?Sullivan \(p. 161\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 415.640 367.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(32\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 415.640 365.955 m 435.632 365.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 435.632 367.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( She should be troubled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 353.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by this misattribution, since it further questions the existence of Hart?s 1988 and 1989 veteran interviews. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 338.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addition, Hart?s scout citation also includes, ?)] TJ ET BT 254.660 338.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(?Barry made us?)] TJ ET BT 337.316 338.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, said another?, implying the existence of yet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 324.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?another? unnamed interviewee. This quotation is possibly one of what Morrison refers to as two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 310.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unspecified ?un-attributable? utterances \(p. 161; Hart, )] TJ ET BT 295.952 310.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Enemies)] TJ ET BT 336.608 310.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 35, n. 62.\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 284.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Morrison also described as ?slightly mistranscribed? a Ned Young quotation, in which meaning is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 269.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compromised \(p. 179, n. 58\). That is rather generous. 71 words in two Ned Young utterances, interrupted by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 255.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chisholm, become an 18-word sentence in which confusion is removed and narrative flows \(p. 170; p. 179, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 241.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(n. 58. Hart, )] TJ ET BT 91.340 241.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Enemies)] TJ ET BT 131.996 241.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 35\). The remarks relate to IRA volunteers attacking the first of two Auxiliary lorries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 227.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(caught in the Kilmichael trap. There is a third noteworthy transcription error by Hart. An Auxiliary pleading, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 212.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Don?t shoot me, I?m a Catholic? is not referenced and neither is the assertion that he was ?shot off?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 198.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Morrison reports \(p. 170\) that the Auxiliary?s plea is not heard on a taped interview. It is a hearsay remark )] TJ ET BT 34.016 184.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from Fr Chisholm \(claiming to cite veteran Paddy O?Brien\) during Chisholm?s interview with Ned Young.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 158.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These misattributions of varying seriousness enable the presentation of a seamless narrative guiding the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 143.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader toward a pre-ordained conclusion. Fitzpatrick conceded that Hart was ?occasionally careless in citing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 129.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([primary sources]? \(p. 3\). Occasionally?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 103.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Let us now test Morrison?s assertion that Hart personally interviewed a Kilmichael veteran on 19 November )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1989 \(the ?unidentified scout?\), whom no one, not even Hart, can identify. We should also remember that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 74.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hart claimed to have personally interviewed two Kilmichael veterans, not one, in 1988?9. Since Ned Young )] TJ ET BT 34.016 60.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is now excluded \(he was unavailable and Chisholm interviewed him two decades previously\), there is a )] TJ ET endstream endobj 111 0 obj [109 0 R /Fit] endobj 112 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 113 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 59.0117 752.6215 79.0037 764.5015 ] >> endobj 113 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 114 0 obj [109 0 R /Fit] endobj 115 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 116 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 227.6357 421.0375 247.6277 432.9175 ] >> endobj 116 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 117 0 obj [109 0 R /Fit] endobj 118 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 119 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 415.6397 366.2695 435.6317 378.1495 ] >> endobj 119 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 120 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 123 0 R 126 0 R 129 0 R 132 0 R 135 0 R 138 0 R 141 0 R 144 0 R 147 0 R ] /Contents 121 0 R >> endobj 121 0 obj << /Length 8734 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(second unidentified Kilmichael veteran sitting for interview alongside the ?unidentified scout.? Morrison )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ignores this problem. Instead it is implied that two unknown ambush participants near the end of their lives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spoke anonymously in 1988-89 to a visiting PhD student before again disappearing. Positing one or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(especially\) two unaccounted for Kilmichael veterans faces a difficulty. There were un-contested newspaper )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(references to the deaths of the final three Kilmichael veterans between 1983 and 1989.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 449.240 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(33\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 449.240 738.051 m 469.232 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 469.232 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The fates of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dwindling ?boys of Kilmichael? had been dutifully catalogued since the 1960s.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Detailed Kilmichael veteran lists are to hand. One is in the paperback edition of Meda Ryan?s )] TJ ET BT 488.264 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tom Barry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(IRA Freedom Fighter)] TJ ET BT 137.996 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2005\). Ryan researched Kilmichael and the false surrender in the 1970s for her earlier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shorter work, )] TJ ET BT 101.000 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Tom Barry Story)] TJ ET BT 202.664 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1982\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 240.656 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(34\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 240.656 669.027 m 260.648 669.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 260.648 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This involved establishing the identity of ambush )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participants in order ?to investigate the [false surrender] fully? \()] TJ ET BT 340.940 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Irish Press,)] TJ ET BT 396.272 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 29 December 1983\). Ryan also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cited eight named Kilmichael veterans who confirmed their perception of an Auxiliary false surrender.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 526.568 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(35\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 526.568 640.515 m 546.560 640.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The veterans were: Tom Barry, Dan Hourihane, Paddy O?Brien, Tim O?Connell, Pat O?Donovan, James )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(O?Mahony, Jack O?Sullivan, Ned Young.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(An initial participant list was constructed at a 1938 ambush commemoration attended by 23 veterans.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 520.292 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(36\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 520.292 585.747 m 540.284 585.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 540.284 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(solidly researched compilation was provided by the Ballineen Enniskeane Area Heritage Group \(which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conducts the Kilmichael Ambush commemoration\) in its booklet, )] TJ ET BT 351.668 558.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Wild Heather Glen, The Kilmichael )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Story in Grief and in Glory )] TJ ET BT 167.348 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1995\). This list of 46 participants agrees with Ryan?s. She identified within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(46 three scouts and two dispatch scouts, in addition to noting four after-ambush helpers.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 456.968 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(37\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 456.968 528.723 m 476.960 528.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 476.960 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Except for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unavailable Ned Young, none of the 46 veterans were alive in 1988?9.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Citing BMH witness statements, Morrison refers to ?two previously unknown witnesses? and implies that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that there were undocumented participants \(p. 162\). However, her argument is not persuasive. Morrison?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first, Cornelius Kelleher \(p. 162\), was not an ambush witness and died in 1968. A member of the local IRA )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(company \(but not attached to Barry?s force\), he never claimed to have fought at Kilmichael.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 477.248 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(38\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 477.248 445.443 m 497.240 445.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Morrison?s second new witness is Timothy Keohane who died in 1972. In his BMH statement \(1,295\), he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claimed to have participated in the ambush, though he did not appear in the three veteran lists mentioned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(above. His claim was not unknown in West Cork. After Keohane died, ?following considerable debate?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local historian Flor Crowley added Keohane to a 1973 )] TJ ET BT 297.644 377.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Southern Star)] TJ ET BT 363.980 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( participant list.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 438.980 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(39\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 438.980 376.419 m 458.972 376.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 458.972 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Meda Ryan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reported that Keohane joined the column almost immediately after the ambush.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 414.296 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(40\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 414.296 362.163 m 434.288 362.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 434.288 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( He lived in the intimate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rural community of West Cork where a publicised anomaly arose about participation in the ambush. It was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matter of public interest and debate. This environment makes the appearance of one previously unknown )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kilmichael veteran so unlikely, much less two.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hart himself disposed of any suggestion that he interviewed ambush veterans omitted from the )] TJ ET BT 491.960 294.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Wild Heather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Glen)] TJ ET BT 57.344 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( list. In )] TJ ET BT 94.016 280.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The IRA and its Enemies)] TJ ET BT 212.672 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Hart observed that the list included, ?a profile of )] TJ ET BT 454.628 280.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(every man)] TJ ET BT 504.272 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ambush containing valuable biographical details? \(my emph.\). Therefore, if there were additional unknown )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(veterans, they were not, according to Hart, interviewed by him.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This controversy began over Hart?s claim that Tom Barry invented the ?false surrender? story to cover up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for his ?massacre? of Auxiliary police. However, Hart and now Morrison cite no veteran testimony denying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a false surrender. Hart amalgamated what he considered incriminating testimony in two footnotes. He wrote )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the first:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 144.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?All of the men interviewed agree on this point: [Michael] McCarthy and [Jim] O?Sullivan? did )] TJ ET BT 64.016 130.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not die because of a fake surrender. Two of these veterans considered Barry?s account to be an )] TJ ET BT 64.016 115.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insult to the memory of these men?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 236.336 115.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(41\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 236.336 114.579 m 256.328 114.579 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 77.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If ?all the men? believed McCarthy and O?Sullivan did not die due to a false surrender, how then did Pat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Deasy, the third IRA fatality, die? This is a strange omission. Secondly ?all of the men? seem to be \(at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same time\) ?two ?veterans?, Ned Young and Jack O?Sullivan. Morrison should be in a position to cite them )] TJ ET endstream endobj 122 0 obj [120 0 R /Fit] endobj 123 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 124 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 449.2397 738.3655 469.2317 750.2455 ] >> endobj 124 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 125 0 obj [120 0 R /Fit] endobj 126 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 127 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 240.6557 669.3415 260.6477 681.2215 ] >> endobj 127 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 128 0 obj [120 0 R /Fit] endobj 129 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 130 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 526.5677 640.8295 546.5597 652.7095 ] >> endobj 130 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 131 0 obj [120 0 R /Fit] endobj 132 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 133 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 520.2917 586.0615 540.2837 597.9415 ] >> endobj 133 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 134 0 obj [120 0 R /Fit] endobj 135 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 136 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 456.9677 529.0375 476.9597 540.9175 ] >> endobj 136 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 137 0 obj [120 0 R /Fit] endobj 138 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 139 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 477.2477 445.7575 497.2397 457.6375 ] >> endobj 139 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 140 0 obj [120 0 R /Fit] endobj 141 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 142 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 438.9797 376.7335 458.9717 388.6135 ] >> endobj 142 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 143 0 obj [120 0 R /Fit] endobj 144 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 145 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 414.2957 362.4775 434.2877 374.3575 ] >> endobj 145 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 146 0 obj [120 0 R /Fit] endobj 147 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 148 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 236.3357 114.8935 256.3277 126.7735 ] >> endobj 148 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 149 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 152 0 R ] /Contents 150 0 R >> endobj 150 0 obj << /Length 3534 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the Chisholm tapes, though she refers only to Jack O?Sullivan. He stated it was ?wrong? to assert that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael McCarthy ?got up out of his position? during the false surrender episode. However, Tom Barry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reported McCarthy died beforehand.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 209.300 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(42\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 209.300 766.563 m 229.292 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is necessary to reveal a partial transcript of Chisholm?s interview with Jack O?Sullivan, in which they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discuss Michael McCarthy:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 689.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Chisholm - Yes but still [Tom Barry] put [Michael] McCarthy [in charge of No 2 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 674.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(section].)] TJ ET BT 64.016 648.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(O?Sullivan - That?d tell you. That?s what I?m coming at that McCarthy never got credit )] TJ ET BT 64.016 634.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for his bravery as a soldier and then ?)] TJ ET BT 64.016 608.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chisholm - Yes.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 581.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(O?Sullivan - Another thing I think is very wrong.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 555.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chisholm - Yes.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 529.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(O?Sullivan - And it wasn?t up to me because his own pals from Dunmanway should have )] TJ ET BT 64.016 515.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taken care of it. It was a wrong thing to say that Michael McCarthy got up out of his position.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 488.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chisholm - Yes.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 462.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(O?Sullivan - and got shot. Now there could be two meanings to it.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 436.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chisholm - Yes, yes, yes, well you see the way Tom Barry put it was that the Auxiliaries )] TJ ET BT 64.016 422.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cried, ?we surrender, we surrender?.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 395.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(O?Sullivan - Yes.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 369.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chisholm - ? and then, only then Michael McCarthy stood up and he said that once the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 355.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Auxiliaries saw him they just shot.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 329.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(O?Sullivan - Yes.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 302.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chisholm - And shot, it was a bogus surrender.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 276.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(O?Sullivan - I know, I know, that covers my story, but ah then I, I always say that )] TJ ET BT 64.016 262.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael McCarthy was even dead before ?)] TJ ET BT 64.016 236.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chisholm - was dead before the Auxiliaries surrendered.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 209.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(O?Sullivan - Before they surrendered.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 183.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chisholm - Yes.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 157.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(O?Sullivan - Yes.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 131.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chisholm - And I?d say the same of Jim Hurley ? Jim O?Sullivan.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 104.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(O?Sullivan - Yes, Jim O?Sullivan, yes, Jim O?Sullivan hadn?t a hope.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 78.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chisholm - No.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 151 0 obj [149 0 R /Fit] endobj 152 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 153 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 209.2997 766.8775 229.2917 778.7575 ] >> endobj 153 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 154 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 157 0 R 160 0 R ] /Contents 155 0 R >> endobj 155 0 obj << /Length 5755 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(O?Sullivan - He was up high.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 758.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chisholm - Yes. And I?d say the very same thing happened about ?)] TJ ET BT 64.016 731.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(O?Sullivan - ?Tis very likely.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 705.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chisholm - Pat Deasy too.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 679.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(O?Sullivan - Yes.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 653.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chisholm - The whole three of them, so you wouldn?t be satisfied with Tom Barry?s )] TJ ET BT 64.016 638.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(story as history but you think it good, a good dramatic account.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 612.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(O?Sullivan - Well now I?ll tell ya I read it and I tell you it couldn?t remind me of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 598.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anything only a Wild West story. I mean a man can get away with escapes once, twice or three )] TJ ET BT 64.016 584.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(times but there was too many of them in Tom Barry?s story.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 557.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chisholm - Yes.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 531.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(O?Sullivan - I mean, it wasn?t Tom Barry?s ?twas somebody else that wrote this story. I )] TJ ET BT 64.016 517.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suppose he just told them what to say.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 479.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Here, Jack O?Sullivan pointedly asserts that McCarthy was killed before the false surrender. Chisholm steps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 464.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in to wrongly accuse Barry of stating otherwise. Chisholm then uses this false premise to impress his own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 450.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(view that Pat Deasy and Jim O?Sullivan were also killed beforehand. Chisholm elicits from Jack )] TJ ET BT 34.016 436.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(O?Sullivan, ?Tis very likely? and ?Yes?. The latter ?Yes? would have more weight, had not O?Sullivan also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 422.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uttered ?Yes? twice and ?that covers my story?, affirming Chisholm?s ?bogus surrender? reference. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 407.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addition, what did ?[Jim O?Sullivan] hadn?t a hope? and his being ?up high? when shot mean? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 393.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unfortunately Fr Chisholm \(apparently having achieved a semblance of his purpose\) did not ask.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 367.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It would appear Morrison was referring to this exchange when she wrote, ?Jack O?Sullivan categorically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 353.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(denied to Chisholm that there had been a false surrender? \(p.167\). The assertion is followed by note 45 \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 338.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(178\), where we find, ?This denial is )] TJ ET BT 209.648 338.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(more emphatic)] TJ ET BT 281.300 338.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in the )] TJ ET BT 314.300 338.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(untaped)] TJ ET BT 355.964 338.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(version)] TJ ET BT 391.292 338.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of the interview with O?Sullivan: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 324.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(telephone interview with Chisholm, 27 July 2011? \(my emph.\). So, Chisholm claimed O?Sullivan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 310.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unequivocally rejected the false surrender, but not in the evidence supplied to Morrison. This argument is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 296.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underwhelming.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 112.340 296.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(43\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 112.340 294.675 m 132.332 294.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 269.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Remarkably, despite its ambiguity, this passage has been used as a primary piece of evidence to justify the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 255.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(denial of a false surrender at Kilmichael.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 229.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Like Father Chisholm, Peter Hart also thought Tom Barry attributed McCarthy?s death to the false )] TJ ET BT 34.016 215.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surrender. Hart?s misreading is clear in adjoining pages of )] TJ ET BT 317.288 215.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The IRA and its Enemies)] TJ ET BT 435.944 215.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Having first correctly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 200.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cited Barry on the false surrender ?kill[ing] two of them?, Hart then incorrectly stated that Barry claimed it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 186.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?caused the death of three IRA men?. This careless mistake led to further errors, though Morrison does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 172.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledge it.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 110.000 172.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(44\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 110.000 170.883 m 129.992 170.883 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 146.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Let us also consider another Hart footnote cited by Morrison, which partially concedes a false surrender )] TJ ET BT 34.016 131.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(event, though it jars with the main text. The footnote wording is exactly the same as in Hart?s 1992 PhD )] TJ ET BT 34.016 117.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thesis, except it changes HJ to his new name, AF, and adds text I italicise,)] TJ ET BT 34.016 91.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One witness \(AF ?)] TJ ET BT 123.668 91.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( a scout rather than a rifleman, and therefore further away from the ambush site than the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(other interviewees)] TJ ET BT 122.336 76.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) saw several auxiliaries surrender after the three volunteers were hit, but then heard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 62.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further firing, some of which he believed came from the Englishmen. Because of this he says there was a )] TJ ET endstream endobj 156 0 obj [154 0 R /Fit] endobj 157 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 158 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 112.3397 294.9895 132.3317 306.8695 ] >> endobj 158 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 159 0 obj [154 0 R /Fit] endobj 160 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 161 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 109.9997 171.1975 129.9917 183.0775 ] >> endobj 161 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 162 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 165 0 R 168 0 R 171 0 R 174 0 R 177 0 R 180 0 R ] /Contents 163 0 R >> endobj 163 0 obj << /Length 6554 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sort of false surrender, but no IRA men died as a result.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 300.296 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(45\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 300.296 795.075 m 320.288 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alongside the first footnote, this second one constitutes Hart?s full argument against the occurrence of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(false surrender. This includes testimony about what Hart termed ?a sort of false surrender? from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unidentified \(1998 book\) ?scout?. In the absence of other suitable candidates )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 405.272 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(46\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 405.272 740.307 m 425.264 740.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 425.264 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, I suggest he is Jack )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hennessy, who did indeed imply a false surrender episode in his BMH statement, as will be discussed below.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What is the alternative case?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 674.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ambush commander Tom Barry divided his 36 men into four sections to tackle two auxiliary lorries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 660.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between two bends in the road at Kilmichael. In )] TJ ET BT 267.308 660.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Guerilla Days)] TJ ET BT 335.636 660.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Barry detailed the approach of two Crossly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 646.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tenders containing 18 Auxiliaries from ?C Company? in Macroom into the Kilmichael Ambush trap after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 632.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5pm on 28 November 1920. Wearing an Irish Volunteer uniform, Barry stood in the road and waved down )] TJ ET BT 34.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the first lorry.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 100.340 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(47\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 100.340 616.515 m 120.332 616.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 120.332 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( When it slowed, Barry blew a whistle commencing the action and hurled a Mills bomb )] TJ ET BT 34.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that exploded in the driver?s cab. Some of the lorry?s nine occupants died immediately or were killed during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gruesome hand-to-hand fighting. Barry then turned his attention to the second Auxiliary lorry, some distance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(away, which was under attack by ten IRA volunteers in No. 2 section. This is where a false surrender )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(episode occurred.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barry wrote:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 496.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Auxiliaries were lying in small groups on the road firing back at No. 2 section, at about 25 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 482.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(yards? range. Some men of No. 2 were engaging them. Waiting only to reload revolvers and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 467.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pick up an Auxiliary?s rifle and some clips of ammunition, the three riflemen from the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 453.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Command Post, Murphy, Nyhan and O?Herlihy, were called on to attack the second party from )] TJ ET BT 64.016 439.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the rear. In single file, we ran crouched up the side of the road. We had gone about fifty yards )] TJ ET BT 64.016 425.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when we heard the Auxiliaries shout ?We surrender?. We kept running along the grass edge of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 410.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the road as they repeated the surrender cry, and actually saw some Auxiliaries throw down their )] TJ ET BT 64.016 396.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rifles. Firing stopped but we continued, still unobserved, to jog towards them. Then we saw )] TJ ET BT 64.016 382.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(three of our comrades on No. 2 section stand up, one crouched and two upright. Suddenly the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 368.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Auxiliaries were firing again with revolvers. One of our three men spun around before he fell, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 353.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Pat Deasy staggered before he, too, went down.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 315.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barry indicated here that the false surrender caused two IRA fighters to be killed. He and his party then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attacked the Auxiliaries from the rear, giving the order, ?rapid fire and do not stop until I tell you?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Auxiliaries attempted again to surrender, but Barry believed they had forfeited their opportunity and took no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 272.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prisoners.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 81.008 272.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(48\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 81.008 271.395 m 101.000 271.395 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 246.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stephen O?Neill was the first ambush veteran to write about the false surrender, in )] TJ ET BT 433.604 246.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Kerryman)] TJ ET BT 503.264 246.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( newspaper )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1937.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 73.352 232.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(49\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 73.352 230.883 m 93.344 230.883 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 93.344 232.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Though footnoted by Morrison \(p. 177, n. 34\), like Hart she ignores O?Neill?s succinct account:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 194.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The O/C [Tom Barry], with three of the section responsible for the destruction of the first )] TJ ET BT 64.016 179.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([Auxiliary] lorry, came to our assistance, with the result that the attack was intensified. On )] TJ ET BT 64.016 165.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being called on to surrender, they signified their intention of doing so, but when we ceased at )] TJ ET BT 64.016 151.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the O/C?s command, fire was again opened by the Auxiliaries, with fatal results to two of our )] TJ ET BT 64.016 136.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comrades who exposed themselves believing the surrender was genuine. We renewed the attack )] TJ ET BT 64.016 122.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vigorously and never desisted until the enemy was annihilated.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 365.648 122.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(50\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 365.648 121.347 m 385.640 121.347 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 84.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jack Hennessy was in No. 2 Section. His BMH account contains:)] TJ ET endstream endobj 164 0 obj [162 0 R /Fit] endobj 165 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 166 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 300.2957 795.3895 320.2877 807.2695 ] >> endobj 166 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 167 0 obj [162 0 R /Fit] endobj 168 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 169 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 405.2717 740.6215 425.2637 752.5015 ] >> endobj 169 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 170 0 obj [162 0 R /Fit] endobj 171 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 172 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 100.3397 616.8295 120.3317 628.7095 ] >> endobj 172 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 173 0 obj [162 0 R /Fit] endobj 174 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 175 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 81.0077 271.7095 100.9997 283.5895 ] >> endobj 175 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 176 0 obj [162 0 R /Fit] endobj 177 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 178 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 73.3517 231.1975 93.3437 243.0775 ] >> endobj 178 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 179 0 obj [162 0 R /Fit] endobj 180 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 181 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 365.6477 121.6615 385.6397 133.5415 ] >> endobj 181 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 182 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 183 0 R >> endobj 183 0 obj << /Length 4703 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vice Comdt. McCarthy got a bullet through the head and lay dead ? Our orders were to fix )] TJ ET BT 64.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bayonets and charge onto the road when we heard three blasts from the O/C?s whistle. I heard )] TJ ET BT 64.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the three blasts and got up from my position, shouting )] TJ ET BT 326.348 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(?hands-up?)] TJ ET BT 383.012 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. At the same time one of the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Auxies about five yards from me drew his revolver. He had thrown down his rifle. I pulled on )] TJ ET BT 64.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(him and shot him dead. I got back to cover, where I remained for a few minutes firing at living )] TJ ET BT 64.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and dead Auxies on the road. The Column O/C sounded his whistle again. Nearly all the Auxies )] TJ ET BT 64.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had been wiped out.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 660.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Morrison does not agree that this testimony implies the perception of a false surrender, speculating that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 646.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rifle was discarded because the Auxiliary was out of ammunition \(p. 169\). A soldier exposing himself and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 632.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shouting ?hands up? to an enemy who had just ?thrown down? his rifle, might disagree. Hennessy?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statement goes on to relate moving on to the road after ?nearly all the Auxies had been wiped out?. He then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bayoneted:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 565.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a wounded Auxie who moved his hand toward his revolver?. Another Auxie tried to pull on )] TJ ET BT 64.016 551.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Lordan who was too near to use his bayonet and he struck the Auxie with the butt of his )] TJ ET BT 64.016 536.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rifle.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 498.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eve Morrison paraphrased Ned Young, on the ninth Chisholm tape as reporting \(p. 168\):)] TJ ET BT 64.016 460.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?he had seen [John] Lordon bayonet an Auxiliary and that after the ambush members of the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 446.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(column had informed him that this Auxiliary had surrendered falsely?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 407.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While Young may have confused Hennessy?s bayonet and/or Lordan?s rifle butt, this is further evidence of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 393.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perception of a false surrender that links with Hennessy and O?Neill?s narrative. It is significant testimony. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 379.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Does Morrison think the participants lied to each other?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 353.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Morrison connects Young?s testimony here \(p. 168?9\) to the testimony cited above from Hart?s disputed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 338.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?scout? interview. Hart said he was told, ?there was a sort of false surrender, but that no I.R.A. men died as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 324.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(result?. Hart?s paraphrase resembles the passage cited from Jack Hennessey?s BMH Witness Statement. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 310.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Regardless, a ?sort of? false surrender may be as good as a false surrender to a soldier fighting for his life at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 296.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(close-quarters in the November twilight.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 269.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Besides Tom Barry, three additional Kilmichael veterans \(O?Neill, Hennessy, Young\) provided accounts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 255.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what was perceived as a false surrender. Young \(according to Morrison\) also reported other volunteers \(and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 241.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presumably John Lordon\) believing it occurred. A problematic IRA veteran \(Timothy Keohane\) said in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 227.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(witness statement:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 188.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tom Barry ? called on the enemy to surrender and some of them put up their hands, but when )] TJ ET BT 64.016 174.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(our party were moving on the road the Auxiliaries again opened fire. Two of our men \(John )] TJ ET BT 64.016 160.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lordon and Jack Hennessy, I think\) were wounded by this fire.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 122.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If Keohane was present this is his memory of what happened. If, as Meda Ryan contends, he joined the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 107.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(column after the ambush, he could have remembered discussion with those who participated in the fight.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 184 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 187 0 R 190 0 R 193 0 R 196 0 R 199 0 R 202 0 R ] /Contents 185 0 R >> endobj 185 0 obj << /Length 7893 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The various accounts are not identical which is not surprising. They are conceived from the vantage point of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the observer in the midst of battle and with the benefit \(or hindrance\) of memory.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 424.280 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(51\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 424.280 768.819 m 444.272 768.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 444.272 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The IRA Volunteers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(believed the Auxiliaries? false surrender sealed their fate.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Two important British sources described a false surrender before and independently of Tom Barry. Lloyd )] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George?s secretary during Anglo Irish Treaty talks, Lionel Curtis, published the earliest in June 1921. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addressed:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 662.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an account of one notorious episode, which was obtained from a trustworthy source in the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 648.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(district ... Last autumn a party of police was ambushed at Kilmichael, near Cork. Every member )] TJ ET BT 64.016 634.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the party but one was killed, and the bodies were shamefully mutilated. It is alleged by Sinn )] TJ ET BT 64.016 620.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fein that a white flag was put up by the police, and that when the attacking party approached to )] TJ ET BT 64.016 605.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accept the surrender fire was opened upon them.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 296.612 605.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(52\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 296.612 604.515 m 316.604 604.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 567.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Former Auxiliary commander General F.P. Crozier reported in )] TJ ET BT 338.624 567.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ireland forever)] TJ ET BT 411.608 567.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1932\) the version of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 553.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(false surrender reported to him in Cork soon after ambush. Here, an Auxiliary ?shot a )] TJ ET BT 447.596 553.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(?Shinner?)] TJ ET BT 496.928 553.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? with his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolver after ?arms were supposed to have been surrendered?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 336.236 539.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(53\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 336.236 537.747 m 356.228 537.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 356.228 539.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( These are significant accounts, related or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 524.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obtained soon after the actual ambush. Hart mistakenly asserted that Crozier?s ?incredible? account was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 510.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first published, when it was the third.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 212.672 510.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(54\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 212.672 509.235 m 232.664 509.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 232.664 510.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Hart wrote that Crozier claimed he had ?infiltrated? the IRA. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 496.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Crozier stated no such thing. He reported being in Cork ?in Mufti? to find out what happened at Kilmichael )] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and why his troops burned down Cork city centre in December 1920. Hart?s undermining of Crozier?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 467.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(credibility deflects attention from the significance of Crozier?s Kilmichael account.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 441.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unsurprisingly, Hart additionally failed to note two Republican accounts appearing well before Barry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published, from Piaras Beaslai in 1926 and from Ernie O?Malley in 1936.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 388.976 427.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(55\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 388.976 425.955 m 408.968 425.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 408.968 427.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( There were five published )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accounts of a Kilmichael false surrender Hart either ignored or was unaware of \(or chose to disbelieve in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 398.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(case of Crozier\), before Barry published on the subject in 1941 and 1949. Did all these sources invent their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 384.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative, as Hart believed Barry and Crozier did?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 358.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hart?s overall conclusion was made possible by careless citation, misattribution, misunderstanding and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research shortcomings. Morrison?s reduction of the problem to ?muddled ? citations? considerably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 329.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understates the scale of Hart?s misrepresentation. There is no more basis for portraying Barry as a liar then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 315.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there is with regard to other ambush participants. Why pick on him? Fitzpatrick insists that Peter Hart?s PhD )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thesis possessed ?the rare distinction of being accepted exactly as it stood? \(p. 3\). Hart was not required to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undergo a normal PhD )] TJ ET BT 146.000 287.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Viva Voce )] TJ ET BT 197.984 287.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examination. This is unfortunate because closer inspection, in particular of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 272.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anonymous sources, might have resolved some of these issues.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 246.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Morrison construes minor criticisms by some veterans of aspects of Barry?s narrative \(e. g., Paddy O?Brien )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the location of a veteran during the ambush, or Jack O?Sullivan on Barry?s overemphasis on dramatic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(escapes\) as definitive rejections of the false surrender narrative \(p. 174\). This weak and contestable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 203.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument on subsidiary points seems to be the strongest case available.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 374.972 203.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(56\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 374.972 202.371 m 394.964 202.371 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 394.964 203.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( There is little basis for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 189.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Morrison?s claim to have definitively settled the record of the Kilmichael Ambush. While it is possible to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accept, to reject, or to modify, the false surrender narrative, one cannot assume that that differences between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 160.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participant testimonies amount to bad faith by any single participant. Peter Hart offered his provocative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 146.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative based on a dubious claim to certainty, but the authenticity of his unverifiable evidence is doubtful. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 132.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hart?s ?hypothes[is] of republican duplicity?, as David Fitzpatrick puts it \(p. 5\) is, therefore, unsustainable.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hart accused Tom Barry of committing fraud to cover up his war crimes. Pleas for restraint and decorum )] TJ ET BT 34.016 91.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would carry more weight if historians based in the Irish academy themselves considered adequately the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 77.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shortcomings of the academic methodology used to construct the assault on Tom Barry. As it stands, Barry?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative emerges from this saga in rather better shape than Peter Hart?s. Hart concluded his analysis of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kilmichael by stating it ?belonged to [a] world of disappearances and revenge killings?. He returned to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 186 0 obj [184 0 R /Fit] endobj 187 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 188 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 424.2797 769.1335 444.2717 781.0135 ] >> endobj 188 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 189 0 obj [184 0 R /Fit] endobj 190 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 191 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 296.6117 604.8295 316.6037 616.7095 ] >> endobj 191 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 192 0 obj [184 0 R /Fit] endobj 193 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 194 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 336.2357 538.0615 356.2277 549.9415 ] >> endobj 194 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 195 0 obj [184 0 R /Fit] endobj 196 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 197 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 212.6717 509.5495 232.6637 521.4295 ] >> endobj 197 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 198 0 obj [184 0 R /Fit] endobj 199 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 200 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 388.9757 426.2695 408.9677 438.1495 ] >> endobj 200 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 201 0 obj [184 0 R /Fit] endobj 202 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 203 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 374.9717 202.6855 394.9637 214.5655 ] >> endobj 203 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 204 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 207 0 R 210 0 R 213 0 R 215 0 R 217 0 R 219 0 R ] /Contents 205 0 R >> endobj 205 0 obj << /Length 9237 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kilmichael in the final paragraph of his April killings chapter and associated the massacre of defenceless )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(soldiers with that of defenceless Protestants.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 246.656 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(57\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 246.656 780.819 m 266.648 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 266.648 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In both cases Hart?s selective use of evidence enabled him )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to arrive at sensational conclusions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To eradicate residual doubt the ?Chisholm tapes? should be publicly available through deposit in a research )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(library, the preferred option of Liam Deasy?s eldest daughter. Perhaps all can agree that the present )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unsatisfactory situation should end. In addition, Hart?s unpublished 2004 defence of his position might, if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his family agrees, also be published.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In broader terms, the historiographical trend initiated by Peter Hart in 1998 and extended by some of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians contributing to )] TJ ET BT 157.688 658.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Terror in Ireland)] TJ ET BT 240.356 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( has created the basis for a history that reinforces a sectarian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretation of the past even while laying claim to anti-sectarianism. Its epistemological antecedents can be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traced to a contested project initiated by Conor Cruise O?Brien \(1972\) and endorsed academically by Roy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Foster \(1986\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 102.008 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(58\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 102.008 614.259 m 122.000 614.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 122.000 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It is sometimes called ?revisionism? and, though an unsatisfactory name, its essence as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hegemonic project is best enunciated by a supporter, the distinguished novelist and critic Colm Tibn:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 563.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This revisionism is precisely what our state needed once the North blew up and we joined the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 548.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(E[E]C, in order to isolate Northern Ireland from us and our )] TJ ET BT 350.624 548.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [([sic])] TJ ET BT 373.292 548.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( history, in order to improve )] TJ ET BT 64.016 534.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relations with Britain, in order to make us concentrate on a European future. Foster and his )] TJ ET BT 64.016 520.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fellow historians? work became useful, not for its purity, or its truth, but its politics.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 466.664 520.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(59\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 466.664 518.979 m 486.656 518.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 482.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Questions about Hart?s Kilmichael chapter have been in the public domain for over a decade. Hart refused to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 467.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(answer them in the years before his premature and unfortunate death. Though dedicated to his memory, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 453.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Terror in Ireland )] TJ ET BT 119.684 453.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides limited and ultimately unsatisfactory answers to evidence of serious anomalies in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 439.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hart?s work. Book editor David Fitzpatrick has proved adept in the past at dismissing and marginalising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 425.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hart?s critics, without engaging with them. Perhaps he could clearly respond to the issues raised here.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 390.195 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 359.578 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 359.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joost Augusteijn, )] TJ ET BT 150.356 359.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History Ireland)] TJ ET BT 224.684 359.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 17, 2, 4 \(March-April, July-August 2009\); email, 1 May 2012. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 345.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another TCD associated historian, Conor Kostick, who wrote that Hart ?appeared to have invented )] TJ ET BT 64.016 331.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eyewitness interviewees?, was similarly ignored - see )] TJ ET BT 323.960 331.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Revolution in Ireland: Popular Militancy 1917 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 316.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(to 1923)] TJ ET BT 100.352 316.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cork, 2009\), pp. 102?3.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 221.672 316.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 221.672 315.411 m 275.660 315.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 302.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 302.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Criticism of anomalies in Hart?s research stretches from mild to severe. See, Joost Augusteijn, )] TJ ET BT 520.952 302.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(op cit)] TJ ET BT 547.952 302.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; )] TJ ET BT 64.016 288.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Borgonovo, )] TJ ET BT 149.684 288.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Spies, Informers and the ?Anti-Sinn Fein Society, the Intelligence War in Cork City )] TJ ET BT 64.016 274.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1920?1921)] TJ ET BT 118.016 274.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Dublin, 2006\), pp. 83?97; )] TJ ET BT 252.008 274.037 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Michael Farry,)] TJ ET BT 332.324 274.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Aftermath of Revolution: Sligo, 1921?23)] TJ ET BT 64.016 259.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Dublin, 2000\), p. 193; J. B. E. Hittle, )] TJ ET BT 249.020 259.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Michael Collins and the Anglo Irish War)] TJ ET BT 445.688 259.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Dulles, VA, 2011\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 245.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pp. xvi?ii , 276?7, n. 54; William H. Kautt, )] TJ ET BT 273.680 245.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ambu)] TJ ET BT 301.676 245.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(shes and Armour: The Irish Rebellion 1919?1921)] TJ ET BT 64.016 231.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Dublin, 2010\), pp. 108?9; Conor Kostick, )] TJ ET BT 271.340 231.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(op cit)] TJ ET BT 298.340 231.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; David Leeson, )] TJ ET BT 377.660 231.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Black and Tans: British Police )] TJ ET BT 64.016 217.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and Auxiliaries in the Irish War of Independence, 1920?1)] TJ ET BT 340.988 217.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 2011\), p. 156; Niall Meehan and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 202.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brian Murphy, )] TJ ET BT 138.344 202.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Troubled History, a Tenth Anniversary Critique of Peter Hart?s The IRA and its )] TJ ET BT 64.016 188.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Enemies)] TJ ET BT 104.672 188.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Aubane, 2008\); Brian P. Murphy, )] TJ ET BT 276.320 188.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Origins and Organisation of British Propaganda in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 174.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ireland, 1920)] TJ ET BT 129.344 174.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Aubane, 2006, pp. 71?5, 77?9; Brendan O?Leary, ?A long march, Paul Bew and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 159.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland?s nations?, )] TJ ET BT 156.992 159.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dublin Review of Books)] TJ ET BT 272.648 159.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 5 \(April 2008\), see n. 72, 73 <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 145.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.drb.ie/apr08_issues/a_long_march.htm)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 144.339 m 308.336 144.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 311.336 145.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 325.328 145.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> [accessed 5 Jun 2012]; John Regan, ?The )] TJ ET BT 64.016 131.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bandon Valley Massacre as a historical problem?, )] TJ ET BT 307.964 131.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History)] TJ ET BT 343.964 131.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 97, 325, \(January 2012\). Meda Ryan, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 117.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tom Barry, IRA Freedom Fighter)] TJ ET BT 226.328 117.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(henceforth, )] TJ ET BT 290.636 117.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(TBIFF)] TJ ET BT 323.300 117.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) \(Cork, 2003\), pp. 64?89, 209?29, pagination )] TJ ET BT 64.016 102.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from paperback edition.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 178.988 102.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 178.988 101.571 m 232.976 101.571 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 88.714 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 88.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Hart, )] TJ ET BT 119.000 88.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The IRA and its Enemies, Violence and Community in Cork, 1916-23)] TJ ET BT 450.308 88.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford,1998\) )] TJ ET BT 64.016 74.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(henceforth, )] TJ ET BT 125.324 74.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Enemies)] TJ ET BT 165.980 74.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), based on Hart PhD thesis, )] TJ ET BT 303.296 74.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Irish Republican Army and its Enemies, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 60.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Violence and Community in Cork, 1916-23)] TJ ET BT 270.668 60.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(PhD thesis, University College Dublin, 1992\), )] TJ ET endstream endobj 206 0 obj [204 0 R /Fit] endobj 207 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 208 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 246.6557 781.1335 266.6477 793.0135 ] >> endobj 208 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 209 0 obj [204 0 R /Fit] endobj 210 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 211 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 102.0077 614.5735 121.9997 626.4535 ] >> endobj 211 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 212 0 obj [204 0 R /Fit] endobj 213 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 214 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 466.6637 519.2935 486.6557 531.1735 ] >> endobj 214 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 215 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 216 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 221.6717 315.7255 275.6597 327.6055 ] >> endobj 216 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 217 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 218 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 144.6535 308.3357 156.5335 ] >> endobj 218 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.drb.ie/apr08_issues/a_long_march.htm) >> endobj 219 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 220 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 178.9877 101.8855 232.9757 113.7655 ] >> endobj 220 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 221 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 223 0 R 225 0 R 227 0 R 229 0 R 231 0 R 233 0 R 235 0 R 237 0 R 239 0 R 241 0 R 243 0 R 245 0 R 247 0 R 249 0 R 251 0 R 253 0 R 255 0 R 257 0 R 259 0 R 261 0 R 263 0 R 265 0 R 267 0 R 269 0 R 271 0 R 273 0 R 275 0 R 277 0 R 279 0 R ] /Contents 222 0 R >> endobj 222 0 obj << /Length 13902 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(henceforth, thesis\). Roy Foster, ?Things change: but not violence?, )] TJ ET BT 392.300 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Times)] TJ ET BT 420.968 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Lon\), 21 May 1998; Paul )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bew, ?)] TJ ET BT 97.340 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(IRA and its Enemies)] TJ ET BT 194.996 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( review?, Canadian Journal of History, 34, 2 \(August 1999\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 483.284 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 483.284 780.819 m 537.272 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 767.962 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Lilliput Press, press release, n.d., ?Some highlights from Terror in Ireland, 1916?23?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 495.620 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 495.620 766.563 m 549.608 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 753.706 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Brian Murphy, )] TJ ET BT 151.340 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Origins and Organisation of British Propaganda in Ireland, 1920)] TJ ET BT 488.696 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Aubane, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006\), p. 54. See also, J. B. E Hittle, )] TJ ET BT 242.012 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Michael Collins and the Anglo-Irish War)] TJ ET BT 439.676 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Potomac, MD, 2011\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pp. 160?77.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 120.344 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 120.344 723.795 m 174.332 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 710.938 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(O?Halpin also refers to the ?strongly criticized?, )] TJ ET BT 299.960 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Year of Disappearances, Political Killings in Cork, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1921?1922 )] TJ ET BT 121.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Dublin, 2010\), by Gerard Murphy, whose work was inspired by Peter Hart?s research \(p. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(150?1\). Reviews of Murphy may be accessed alongside Eugenio Biagini?s at, <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1053)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 666.771 m 287.660 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 290.660 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 304.652 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> [accessed 31 May 2012]. Curiously, O?Halpin )] TJ ET BT 64.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(asserts that though that book ?may be inaccurate in particulars?, its findings will be supported by )] TJ ET BT 64.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?evidence shortly to reach the public domain?. Possibly this is a reference to a forthcoming )] TJ ET BT 64.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Broadcasting Authority of Ireland funded TV3 \(Tile Films\) television documentary, )] TJ ET BT 470.300 625.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Graves of the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 611.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Disappeared)] TJ ET BT 126.008 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 129.008 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 129.008 609.747 m 182.996 609.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 596.890 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(F. P. Crozier, )] TJ ET BT 131.348 596.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ireland Forever)] TJ ET BT 208.328 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Bath, 1971, originally published 1932\), p. 133; also in Ryan, )] TJ ET BT 509.660 596.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(TBIFF)] TJ ET BT 542.324 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(62, citing memoirs in )] TJ ET BT 169.688 582.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Kerryman)] TJ ET BT 239.348 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 1938.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 272.348 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 272.348 581.235 m 326.336 581.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 568.378 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. B. E Hittle, )] TJ ET BT 132.356 568.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Michael Collins and the Anglo-Irish War)] TJ ET BT 330.020 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Potomac, MD, 2011\), pp. 115, 116.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 507.344 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 507.344 566.979 m 547.340 566.979 l S BT 64.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 552.723 m 78.008 552.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 539.866 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Hart, )] TJ ET BT 119.000 539.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The IRA at War 1916?1923)] TJ ET BT 251.660 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 2003\), p. 246; ?Definition, defining the Irish )] TJ ET BT 64.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolution?, in )] TJ ET BT 141.020 525.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Irish Revolution 1913-1923)] TJ ET BT 294.680 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Joost Augusteijn \(Basingstoke, 2002\), p. 25. Niall )] TJ ET BT 64.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Meehan, ?Distorting Irish history two, the road from Dunmanway: Peter Hart?s treatment of the 1922 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 497.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(?April killings?)] TJ ET BT 139.028 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in West Cork?, )] TJ ET BT 217.352 497.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Spinwatch)] TJ ET BT 267.356 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 24 May 2011 <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://gcd.academia.edu/NiallMeehan/Papers/618347/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 481.443 m 322.652 481.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 325.652 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET BT 339.644 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> [accessed 5 June 2012], a response to )] TJ ET BT 64.016 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Fitzpatrick, ?History In A hurry? <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 264.416 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.drb.ie/more_details/11-03-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 264.416 467.187 m 450.404 467.187 l S BT 64.016 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17/History_In_A_Hurry.aspx)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 452.931 m 205.664 452.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 208.664 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5])] TJ ET BT 222.656 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> [accessed 18 June, 2012]; also see, Niall Meehan, letter, )] TJ ET BT 504.692 454.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History )] TJ ET BT 64.016 440.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ireland)] TJ ET BT 99.344 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 17, 4 \(July-August 2009\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 229.004 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 229.004 438.675 m 282.992 438.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 425.818 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. B. McDowell, )] TJ ET BT 149.348 425.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Crisis and Decline, the Fate of the Southern Unionists)] TJ ET BT 410.348 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Dublin, 1997\) p. 127.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 520.676 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 520.676 424.419 m 560.672 424.419 l S BT 64.016 411.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 410.163 m 84.008 410.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 397.306 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 397.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See Niall Meehan, replies to Jeffrey Dudgeon on Peter Hart, <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 383.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://gcd.academia.edu/NiallMeehan/Papers/1369781/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 381.651 m 328.652 381.651 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 331.652 383.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([6])] TJ ET BT 345.644 383.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> [accessed 28 June 2012] and )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 368.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://gcd.academia.edu/NiallMeehan/Papers/1133971/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 367.395 m 328.652 367.395 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 331.652 368.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([7])] TJ ET BT 345.644 368.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( [accessed 28 June 2012]; also, on David )] TJ ET BT 64.016 354.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fitzpatrick and Peter Hart,< )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 201.092 354.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://gcd.academia.edu/NiallMeehan/Papers/618347/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 201.092 353.139 m 459.728 353.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 462.728 354.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET BT 476.720 354.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> [accessed 28 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 340.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(June 2012]. See Fitzpatrick response, ?Dr Regan and Mr Snide?, to John Regan, ?Dr Jekyll and Mr )] TJ ET BT 64.016 326.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hyde, the two histories?, )] TJ ET BT 186.668 326.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History Ireland)] TJ ET BT 260.996 326.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 6, 1, 3 \(January-February, May-June 2012\). See also video )] TJ ET BT 64.016 311.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of, ?The War of Independence: )] TJ ET BT 216.620 311.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(?four glorious years?)] TJ ET BT 320.624 311.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or squalid sectarian conflict??, with David )] TJ ET BT 64.016 297.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fitzpatrick, John M. Regan, Eve Morrison and John Borgonovo, National Library, 11 January 2012 <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 283.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://vimeo.com/35893747)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 281.859 m 197.696 281.859 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 200.696 283.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([8])] TJ ET BT 214.688 283.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> [accessed 5 June 2012]. Also, see Ryan, Murphy, Regan, note 2.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 268.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 267.603 m 124.004 267.603 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 254.746 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 254.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Irish Times)] TJ ET BT 118.352 254.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 124.352 254.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Irish Independent)] TJ ET BT 209.336 254.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 12 May 1922; Anon., ?Ireland at the cross-roads?, )] TJ ET BT 458.948 254.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Round Table)] TJ ET BT 520.616 254.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 12 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 240.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(September 1921 to December 1922\), p. 523.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 280.976 240.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 280.976 239.091 m 340.964 239.091 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 226.234 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 226.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Memoirs of John M. Regan, a Catholic Officer in the RIC and RUC, 1909?48)] TJ ET BT 457.664 226.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Joost )] TJ ET BT 64.016 211.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Augusteijn \(Dublin, 2007\), p.78.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 221.012 211.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 221.012 210.579 m 281.000 210.579 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 197.722 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 197.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A problem first indicated in Brian Murphy?s review of )] TJ ET BT 330.308 197.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The IRA and its Enemies)] TJ ET BT 448.964 197.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 454.964 197.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Month)] TJ ET BT 64.016 183.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(September-October 1998\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 195.980 183.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 195.980 182.067 m 255.968 182.067 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 169.210 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 169.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tom Barry, )] TJ ET BT 123.008 169.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Guerilla Days in Ireland: A Personal Account of the Anglo-Irish War)] TJ ET BT 456.980 169.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1989, originally )] TJ ET BT 64.016 154.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published 1949\), pp 44?45. 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In 1995, )] TJ ET BT 492.308 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Wild )] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Heather Glen, the Kilmichael Story Grief and in Glory)] TJ ET BT 326.996 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cork, 1995\), p. 125, noted that Ned Young )] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?spent the last eight years of life living with his son?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 319.664 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(19\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 319.664 723.795 m 379.652 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 710.938 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Scal Tom Barry)] TJ ET BT 145.340 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Trans., ?The Tom Barry Story?\), Blackrock Pictures, Dir., Gerry O?Callaghan, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Broadcast TG4, 19 January 2011.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 225.320 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(20\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 225.320 695.283 m 285.308 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 682.426 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(21.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Enemies)] TJ ET BT 104.672 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 35, n. 61; )] TJ ET BT 171.008 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Enemies)] TJ ET BT 211.664 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(thesis\), p. 49, n. 55. Hart cited Jack Hennessy?s BMH Witness )] TJ ET BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Statement \(No. 1,234, 23 August 1955\) and sourced it ?Ballineen Enniskeane Area Heritage Group? )] TJ ET BT 64.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 132, n. 20\), but does not cite Hennessy on the ambush. Hart also cited in similar fashion Ned )] TJ ET BT 64.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Young?s then unreleased BMH witness statement as ?Edward Young statement? \()] TJ ET BT 458.612 639.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Enemies)] TJ ET BT 499.268 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 232; )] TJ ET BT 64.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thesis, p. 306\). ?Obituary, Mr Jack Hennessy?, )] TJ ET BT 291.308 625.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Irish Press)] TJ ET BT 343.640 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 12 February 1970. When )] TJ ET BT 472.616 625.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Times Higher )] TJ ET BT 64.016 611.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Education)] TJ ET BT 113.348 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( invited Hart to explain these interview anomalies after publication of )] TJ ET BT 450.296 611.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Troubled History)] TJ ET BT 533.300 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hart denied that he had acted improperly, John Gill, ?Troubles and strife as IRA historian draws )] TJ ET BT 64.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peers? fire?, 3 July 2008.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 184.652 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(21\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 184.652 581.235 m 244.640 581.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 568.378 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(22.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One clear example, Young?s witness statement asserted that Auxiliaries used his father as a hostage in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the vicinity of Dunmanway. This is also claimed by Hart?s interviewee, AA, )] TJ ET BT 434.960 554.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Enemies)] TJ ET BT 475.616 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 80, n. 46, by )] TJ ET BT 64.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(EY, thesis, p. 100, n. 178.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 188.348 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(22\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 188.348 538.467 m 248.336 538.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 525.610 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(23.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Father Chisholm refused for many years to release his taped interviews to other researchers. In 2009 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liam Deasy?s eldest daughter, Maureen, who typed her father?s manuscript, requested in writing that )] TJ ET BT 64.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the tapes be deposited in the University College Cork \(UCC\) library archives. 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Meda Ryan, ?Peter Hart and Tom Barry?, )] TJ ET BT 500.960 440.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History )] TJ ET BT 64.016 425.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ireland)] TJ ET BT 99.344 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 13, 3, \(May-June 2005\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 221.324 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(24\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 221.324 424.419 m 281.312 424.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 411.562 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 411.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In fact Ryan first put the point in )] TJ ET BT 224.672 411.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kilmichael: The False Surrender in the Irish War of Independence - )] TJ ET BT 64.016 397.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Why the Ballot \(of 1918\) was Followed by the Bullet \(in 1919\), a discussion with Peter Hart, Padraig )] TJ ET BT 64.016 383.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Cuanachin, D.R. O?Connor Lysaght, Brian Murphy, Meda Ryan, Jack Lane, Brendan Clifford)] TJ ET BT 536.324 383.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 368.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jack Lane, Brendan Clifford \(Aubane, 1999\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 281.960 368.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(25\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 281.960 367.395 m 341.948 367.395 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 354.538 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(26.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 354.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I am indebted to Jerry O?Callaghan for allowing me to see his transcript of Jack O?Sullivan?s )] TJ ET BT 64.016 340.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interview. That transcript is identical to the portion reproduced by Morrison on p. 171 and other partial )] TJ ET BT 64.016 326.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(citations.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 107.684 326.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(26\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 107.684 324.627 m 167.672 324.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 311.770 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(27.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 311.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Entitled ?Kilmichael revisited, the Veterans? Speak?, 26 October, 2011. I attended.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 463.604 311.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(27\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 463.604 310.371 m 523.592 310.371 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 297.514 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(28.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 297.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Two additional Kilmichael veterans, Jack Aherne, and Paddy O?Brien, were also interviewed by )] TJ ET BT 64.016 283.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chisholm but do not discuss the ambush. Email from Eve Morrison, 30 November 2011. I am grateful )] TJ ET BT 64.016 268.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Eve Morrison for this information.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 242.672 268.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(28\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 242.672 267.603 m 302.660 267.603 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 254.746 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(29.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 254.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Letter to John Young, 12 April 2008, copy in author?s possession.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 382.328 254.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(29\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 382.328 253.347 m 442.316 253.347 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 240.490 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(30.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 240.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Meda Ryan, )] TJ ET BT 125.672 240.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(TBIFF)] TJ ET BT 158.336 240.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 56?7. Additionally, Chisholm?s introduction to the Deasy book contained)] TJ ET BT 536.324 240.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(,)] TJ ET BT 539.324 240.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ?I )] TJ ET BT 64.016 226.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(endeavoured to preserve the style found in the manuscripts supplied to me, but I am conscious that all )] TJ ET BT 64.016 211.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(too often it is my own style that prevails?. Editor?s note \(November 1972\), Liam Deasy, )] TJ ET BT 491.300 211.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Towards )] TJ ET BT 64.016 197.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ireland Free: The West Cork Brigade in the War of Independence 1917?1921)] TJ ET BT 437.624 197.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cork, 1973\), p. vii.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 183.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(30\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 182.067 m 124.004 182.067 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 169.210 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(31.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 169.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given John Regan?s demonstration that Hart evaded presentation of evidence that contradicted his )] TJ ET BT 64.016 154.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(view on the 1922 ?April killings?, this is not an improper suggestion, ?The Bandon Valley Massacre )] TJ ET BT 64.016 140.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a historical problem?, )] TJ ET BT 184.328 140.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History)] TJ ET BT 220.328 140.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 97, 325 \(January 2012\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 340.640 140.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(31\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 340.640 139.299 m 400.628 139.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 126.442 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(32.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 126.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(TV producer Jerry O?Callaghan, who heard and took a written transcript from this interview, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 112.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independently confirms this, email, 21 November 2011.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 332.324 112.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(32\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 332.324 110.787 m 392.312 110.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 97.930 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(33.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 97.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For example, )] TJ ET BT 130.340 97.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Southern Star)] TJ ET BT 196.676 97.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 3, 24 December 1983, 7 December 1985, 20 December 1986, 26 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 83.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(November 1988, 18 November 1989. I outline this in more detail in ?Reply to Jeff Dudgeon on Peter )] TJ ET BT 64.016 69.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hart?,)] TJ ET BT 93.668 69.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Irish Political Review)] TJ ET BT 201.332 69.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, November 2011 <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 294.752 69.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://gcd.academia.edu/NiallMeehan/Papers/1133971)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 294.752 68.019 m 556.052 68.019 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 64.016 55.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([12])] TJ ET BT 84.008 55.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> [accessed 5 June 2012].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 207.740 55.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(33\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 207.740 53.763 m 267.728 53.763 l S endstream endobj 283 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 284 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 154.3517 781.1335 214.3397 793.0135 ] >> endobj 284 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 71 0 R >> endobj 285 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 286 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 319.6637 724.1095 379.6517 735.9895 ] >> endobj 286 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 74 0 R >> endobj 287 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 288 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 225.3197 695.5975 285.3077 707.4775 ] >> endobj 288 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 77 0 R >> endobj 289 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 290 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 184.6517 581.5495 244.6397 593.4295 ] >> endobj 290 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 80 0 R >> endobj 291 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 292 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 188.3477 538.7815 248.3357 550.6615 ] >> endobj 292 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 83 0 R >> endobj 293 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 294 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 453.2455 124.0037 465.1255 ] >> endobj 294 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 88 0 R >> endobj 295 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 296 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 221.3237 424.7335 281.3117 436.6135 ] >> endobj 296 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 91 0 R >> endobj 297 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 298 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 281.9597 367.7095 341.9477 379.5895 ] >> endobj 298 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 94 0 R >> endobj 299 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 300 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 107.6837 324.9415 167.6717 336.8215 ] >> endobj 300 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 97 0 R >> endobj 301 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 302 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 463.6037 310.6855 523.5917 322.5655 ] >> endobj 302 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 100 0 R >> endobj 303 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 304 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 242.6717 267.9175 302.6597 279.7975 ] >> endobj 304 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 103 0 R >> endobj 305 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 306 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 382.3277 253.6615 442.3157 265.5415 ] >> endobj 306 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 106 0 R >> endobj 307 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 308 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 182.3815 124.0037 194.2615 ] >> endobj 308 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 111 0 R >> endobj 309 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 310 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 340.6397 139.6135 400.6277 151.4935 ] >> endobj 310 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 114 0 R >> endobj 311 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 312 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 332.3237 111.1015 392.3117 122.9815 ] >> endobj 312 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 117 0 R >> endobj 313 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 314 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 294.7517 68.3335 556.0517 80.2135 ] >> endobj 314 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://gcd.academia.edu/NiallMeehan/Papers/1133971) >> endobj 315 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 316 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 207.7397 54.0775 267.7277 65.9575 ] >> endobj 316 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 122 0 R >> endobj 317 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 319 0 R 321 0 R 323 0 R 325 0 R 327 0 R 329 0 R 331 0 R 333 0 R 335 0 R 337 0 R 339 0 R 341 0 R 343 0 R 345 0 R 347 0 R 349 0 R 351 0 R 353 0 R ] /Contents 318 0 R >> endobj 318 0 obj << /Length 11703 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 796.474 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(34.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ryan?s )] TJ ET BT 102.344 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Tom Barry Story)] TJ ET BT 204.008 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cork, 1982\), is an earlier shorter 200 page biography of Barry, not to be )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confused \(though Morrison does, p. 174\) with the later 470 page, )] TJ ET BT 379.304 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(TBIFF)] TJ ET BT 411.968 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2003, 5\), which benefited )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from access to Tom Barry?s private papers and critiqued Hart. Ryan investigated the false surrender as )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part her earlier research and benefited from interviewing veterans she named. )] TJ ET BT 438.560 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(TBIFF)] TJ ET BT 471.224 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 428, n. 90.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(34\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 738.051 m 124.004 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 725.194 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(35.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In addition Ryan spoke to Denis Lordon about his brother John?s recollections as a Kilmichael )] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participant of the false surrender, )] TJ ET BT 225.968 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(TBIFF)] TJ ET BT 258.632 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 428, n. 90.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 327.632 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(35\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 327.632 709.539 m 387.620 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 696.682 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(36.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Southern Star, 3 December 1938. Forty three participants were named)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 400.280 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(36\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 400.280 695.283 m 460.268 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 682.426 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(37.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ryan, )] TJ ET BT 95.348 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(TBIFF)] TJ ET BT 128.012 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 69, 390?1.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 202.340 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(37\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 202.340 681.027 m 262.328 681.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 668.170 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(38.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Southern Star, 16 March 1968. Cornelius Kelleher, WS 1,654. After observing Auxiliary lorries )] TJ ET BT 64.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(travelling toward Kilmichael, Kelleher stated that, ?as night approached? he and a companion ?moved )] TJ ET BT 64.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(off towards the scene of the ambush where we could still see the flames of the burning lorries?. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kelleher never reached ?the scene? as he reports being waylaid by a scout who asked him to obtain a )] TJ ET BT 64.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(priest for the mortally wounded ambush participant Pat Deasy \(brother of the author of )] TJ ET BT 483.944 611.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Towards )] TJ ET BT 64.016 596.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ireland Free)] TJ ET BT 125.000 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), then dying some miles away in Gortroe.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 327.308 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(38\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 327.308 595.491 m 387.296 595.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 582.634 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(39.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 582.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Southern Star)] TJ ET BT 130.352 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 15 August 1970, 23 September 1972, 27 October 1973. Also controversially added in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1973 \(also, on this occasion only\) were four IRA members who arrived at the ambush scene on a horse )] TJ ET BT 64.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and cart just before the Auxiliary lorries. They were ushered up a side road by Tom Barry and did not )] TJ ET BT 64.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participate.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 117.668 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(39\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 117.668 538.467 m 177.656 538.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 525.610 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(40.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Meda Ryan, )] TJ ET BT 125.672 525.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(TBIFF)] TJ ET BT 158.336 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2012 printing, on sale November 2011\), pp. 59, 63, 429 \(n. 108\). I brought )] TJ ET BT 64.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Keohane?s statement to the attention of Meda Ryan in 2008. She contends that Keohane attended a )] TJ ET BT 64.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(post-ambush camp at Granure, letter to reviewer, 14 May 2008.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 369.284 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(40\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 369.284 495.699 m 429.272 495.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 482.842 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(41.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Enemies, p. 43, n. 58.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 168.344 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(41\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 168.344 481.443 m 228.332 481.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 468.586 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(42.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The fighting between the second lot of Auxiliaries and No. 2 section continued for about five minutes )] TJ ET BT 64.016 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by which time Battalion Vice-Commandant Michael McCarthy and at least one Auxiliary were )] TJ ET BT 64.016 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(killed.? ?Eyewitness? \(pseud. Tom Barry\), ?Kilmichael ? Part II?, )] TJ ET BT 383.612 440.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(An Cosantoir)] TJ ET BT 447.956 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 16 May 1941, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(republished in Terence O?Reilly, ed., )] TJ ET BT 246.644 425.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Our Struggle for Independence: Eye-witness accounts from the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 411.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(pages of An Cosantoir)] TJ ET BT 171.692 411.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cork, 2009\), pp. 93?108, see, esp., p. 103.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 381.332 411.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(42\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 381.332 410.163 m 441.320 410.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 397.306 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(43.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 397.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Morrison?s research relies to some extent on Fr Chisholm?s memory. Besides noting ?an untaped )] TJ ET BT 64.016 383.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(portion? of Jack O?Sullivan?s interview, Morrison refers to ?telephone discussion with Chisholm? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 368.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(176, n. 8; p. 178, n. 45; p. 179, n. 75\). These appear to include 40-year-old memories of unrecorded )] TJ ET BT 64.016 354.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of events almost 50 years earlier.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 275.648 354.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(43\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 275.648 353.139 m 335.636 353.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 340.282 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(44.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 340.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Enemies, pp. 22-23. Also in )] TJ ET BT 201.344 340.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Reality of the Anglo Irish War 192-21 in West Cork)] TJ ET BT 470.000 340.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cork, 1974\), p. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 326.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(16, Barry wrote that ?the Auxiliaries were firing again ? and two volunteers fell?. See also pp. 13?14, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 311.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where we find, ?two IRA men were killed? by the false surrender.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 380.924 311.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(44\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 380.924 310.371 m 440.912 310.371 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 297.514 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(45.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 297.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Enemies)] TJ ET BT 104.672 297.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 35, n. 61; thesis, p. 49 n. 55 ? text in bold-italic type in book only. Thesis text contained )] TJ ET BT 64.016 283.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?HJ? only at this point. In the thesis \(only\), Hart added, ?if anything, this underlines just how difficult )] TJ ET BT 64.016 268.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it is to reconcile the various accounts and perceptions?. Quite.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 361.628 268.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(45\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 361.628 267.603 m 421.616 267.603 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 254.746 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(46.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 254.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Apart perhaps from Hart again misattributing and also misreading Jack O?Sullivan?s testimony.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 525.296 254.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 525.296 253.347 m 552.956 253.347 l S BT 64.016 240.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(46\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 239.091 m 96.344 239.091 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 226.234 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(47.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 226.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paddy O?Brien, BMH WS 812.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 216.008 226.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(47\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 216.008 224.835 m 275.996 224.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 211.978 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(48.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 211.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tom Barry, )] TJ ET BT 123.008 211.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Guerilla Days in Ireland)] TJ ET BT 242.000 211.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cork, 1989\), p. 44. H. F. Ford, was left for dead, but survived, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 197.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while another Auxiliary named Guthrie who escaped was later shot dead.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 415.604 197.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(48\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 415.604 196.323 m 475.592 196.323 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 183.466 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(49.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 183.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12 Dec 1937, reproduced in 1947 edition of )] TJ ET BT 276.980 183.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rebel Cork?s Fighting Story)] TJ ET BT 414.644 183.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cork, 1947\), and in 2009 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 169.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(edition, pp. 140?3.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 153.680 169.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(49\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 153.680 167.811 m 213.668 167.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 154.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 154.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hart, )] TJ ET BT 91.340 154.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Enemies)] TJ ET BT 131.996 154.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 27, n. 21.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 194.996 154.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(50\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 194.996 153.555 m 254.984 153.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 140.698 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(51.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 140.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As the military historian, William Kautt, observed, absence of uniformity may add to, not subtract )] TJ ET BT 64.016 126.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from, credibility, )] TJ ET BT 148.676 126.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ambushes and Armour: The Irish Rebellion 1919?1921)] TJ ET BT 415.328 126.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cork, 2010\), p. 114. He )] TJ ET BT 64.016 112.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also noted, ?the truth is that eyewitnesses are horribly unreliable? the ferocity of fighting limit?s ones )] TJ ET BT 64.016 97.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(view, literally, to what is immediately in front. Soldiers usually have a very poor understanding of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 83.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what happened ? that?s why commanders are placed to the rear, so they aren?t caught up in that and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 69.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can make decisions based on the greater whole?, email to author, 30 March 2006. 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