%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 25 0 R 27 0 R 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 50 0 R ] /Count 8 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141221115816+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141221115816+00'00') /Title (The Black Hole of Empire: History of a Global Practice of Power) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 5019 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Black Hole of Empire: History of a Global Practice of Power)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Popular references to Calcutta \(now Kolkata\) ? once the gleaming capital of British India ? in Anglo-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American contexts often conjure images of poverty, crowded city streets, unbearable traffic, smog, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(residents that require a savior. Patrick Swayze and Lisa Niemi?s 2009 memoir )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 412.952 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 412.952 243.417 m 426.944 243.417 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 426.944 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( includes a description of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his performance in Roland Joffe? s 1992 )] TJ ET BT 231.644 230.555 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(City of Joy)] TJ ET BT 283.640 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the film adaptation of Dominique Lapierre?s 1985 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(novel of the same name. Swayze portrays Max, a jaded Texas doctor who searches for spiritual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enlightenment in Calcutta to work as serving the poorest of the poor. Not only did the film project the image )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Calcutta as a place beyond saving, but Swayze himself remarks about how he was assigned by the director )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to travel himself to Calcutta to prepare for his work. He diligently prepared for his role at home and then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?went to the black hole of Calcutta? \(p. 181\). After discussing the smog, the dirt, the eerie lighting at night, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he ends his description with a casual reference to ?the black hole?, which, for English readers, must link )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Calcutta with the characteristics of backwardness and poverty. In the 2012 film )] TJ ET BT 417.608 130.763 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Avengers)] TJ ET BT 462.260 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the savior Bruce )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Banner tries to keep his inner Hulk in control as he attempts to save leprosy victims in Calcutta, invoking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(familiar images of poverty, over-crowdedness, congested streets, and people in need of a savior. As critics of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Avengers)] TJ ET BT 78.668 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( have opined, the vision of Calcutta in the film was ?a complete throwback to an older idea of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(India, where the lights are dim and the televisions flicker feebly, where wide eyed children tug at the sleeves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the good )] TJ ET BT 91.676 59.483 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(phoren)] TJ ET BT 125.672 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( doctor?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 167.660 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 167.660 58.089 m 181.652 58.089 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 181.652 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Though the ?Calcutta? portions were shot in New Mexico, critics also stated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1307)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 23 August, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Partha Chatterjee)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780691152011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(440pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Princeton University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Princeton, NJ)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Neilesh Bose)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 412.9517 243.7315 426.9437 255.6115 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 167.6597 58.4035 181.6517 70.2835 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7558 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the city looked quite similar to the area depicted in )] TJ ET BT 301.652 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(City of Joy)] TJ ET BT 353.648 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, twenty years earlier ? ?cramped, squalid, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leprous?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 77.672 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 77.672 780.819 m 91.664 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A discursive coherence to the representations of Calcutta as cramped and squalid emanates not only from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular-cultural American Orientalism, but from a longer history of imperial practices in colonial India, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussed by Partha Chatterjee in )] TJ ET BT 196.328 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Black Hole of Empire: History of a Global Practice of Power)] TJ ET BT 512.636 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(story of the Black Hole of Calcutta, well known to historians of India, and well known to travelers to India )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the 18th century through the late 19th century, finds an odd place in the history of India and the history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of modern empires. Though probably cited in popular ways by many amateur Indian history buffs, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professional historians seem to have forgotten about it. The Black Hole refers to the site where allegedly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many Europeans \(the precise number has never been settled in the historiography, though the fact that some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people died is beyond dispute\) died by suffocation as prisoners of Nawab Siraj-ud-daulah, Bengal?s ruling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(nawab)] TJ ET BT 66.020 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, in 1756. This signature event led to a chain of conflicts and encounters that ultimately resulted in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English East India Company?s conquest of Bengal in the late 18th century, coinciding with their political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rise in Southern Asia and the loss of the American colonies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By the mid 19th century, most of what is now the nation-state of India, was conquered by the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Empire. The colonial encounters between Europeans and India at discursive and material levels generated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landmark debates and historical changes about issues central to the modern world, such as the nature of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capitalism, the spread and role of the modern state, the extent and desirability of imperialism, and the nature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of nationalism and decolonization in Asia. These modern encounters, at some level, derive their potency )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the starting point of conquest, during and immediately after the literal Black Hole incident in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1750s. The ?Black Hole of Calcutta?, therefore, comprises a story that not only commands lasting rhetorical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power in popular Anglo-American culture, but also refers to one of the most important events in the history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the modern world.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Partha Chatterjee, the pioneering political theorist, historian, and one of the pioneers of subaltern studies, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues that the ?forgetting? of the story by professional historians and the maintenance of a certain image of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Calcutta in the popular imagination, actually tells a larger story about the nature of empire in the modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world. In this book, he tells the story of how the narrative itself changed and impacted different writers ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European and Indian ? but also claims that the history of Empire is best understood through a coherent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(faithfulness to a certain type of )] TJ ET BT 185.984 361.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(mythos)] TJ ET BT 219.980 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Chatterjee tracks such a history of )] TJ ET BT 392.612 361.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(mythos)] TJ ET BT 426.608 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( through the history of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(story.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In ten chapters, Chatterjee provides a narrative of the Black Hole story and its physical manifestations, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they slip in and out of the historical record. Interspersed with the narrative are a series of critiques of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political thought and imperial historiography. His first chapter, ?Outrage in Calcutta,? includes a preface to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his narrative of ?the mythical history of the British Empire in the East? \(p. 1\) with a brief disquisition on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature of black holes, which establishes the claim upon which the entire book is built. Chatterjee offers an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analogy of the history of modern empires through a comparison with black holes in space: just like scientists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(infer the existence of black holes without direct observation, historians and present-day critics and political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysts often detect the presence of imperial practices, without a grasp of empire?s discursive history. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(order to address the discursive history of empires in the modern age, he pursues ?many layers of narrative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and doctrine that lay buried under our currently fashionable postimperial edifice of the global community of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nations? \(p. 1\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chatterjee begins with an analysis of a monument that represents how the )] TJ ET BT 390.632 151.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(mythos)] TJ ET BT 424.628 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of empire has impacted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indians, through a tour through the famous monument in Calcutta?s St. John?s Churchyard. Completed in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1902, under the direction of then Lord Curzon, Viceroy of India, this monument was erected in memory of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the victims of the ?Black Hole? incident in 1756. The monument leads him to reflect on how various place )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(names and relationships to space, empire, and nation are literally inscribed in the built environment of India. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From this point, he starts his story, as he claims that ?to trace the movement of the Black Hole Memorial is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to unravel the mythical history of empire? \(p. 6\).)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 77.6717 781.1335 91.6637 793.0135 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 6367 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In this first chapter, the author provides a detailed history of the conflicts between the English East India )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Company \(and in particular, Clive\) and Siraj-ud-daulah, as the newly ascendant )] TJ ET BT 419.612 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(nawab)] TJ ET BT 451.616 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of Bengal. His )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter two, ?A secret veil?, begins with an analysis of political theory regarding sovereignty in the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern period, by providing a schematic listing of the different positions on conquest and sovereignty in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussions amongst European powers. He also begins a critical literary history of how the Black Hole story )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and its representatives in literal structures \(the memorials\) changed over time.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Introducing Orme, the first author of English language histories of the Black Hole in 1763, Chatterjee )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(establishes how Orme sets the standard for how discussions about conquest would proceed, based on both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the idea that Indians were naturally servile to those in power and that Europeans had the right to retaliate and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reclaim territory if serving a higher purpose of conquest. But at this stage, in the late 18th century, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discursive meaning of empire still demonstrated ambivalence about its origins, as writers such as Burke and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others aimed for a ?a secret veil? to be shrouded over the signs of duplicity and treachery that accompanied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the conquest of Bengal by Europeans. It is in this context that the original memorial for the survivors of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Black Hole incident was taken down in 1821, as Chatterjee mentions at the end of chapter two.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In chapter three, ?Tipu?s Tiger,? Chatterjee continues to analyze the discursive history of conquest and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sovereignty \(how these important aspects of empire?s ?Black Hole?-ness were understood by historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actors\) through the late 18th-century history of European conquest in other regions of India, notably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(southern India, and the fall of Tipu Sultan, the ruler of the Sultanate of Mysore from 1782?99. An active )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diplomat and ally of the rising Napoleonic force in Europe and Africa, Tipu Sultan represents what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chatterjee delineates as one aspect of ?early modernity? in South Asian history. He introduces the idea of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?absolutist early modern? and the ?anti-absolutist early modern? and concludes that an ?absolutist early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern? formation appeared in various parts of India in the 17th and 18th centuries. For Chatterjee, this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?absolutist early modern? form included various elements such as the need to establish state sovereignty, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparability of power, creating new disciplines via the military, and focusing on effective leadership and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(skills, not lineage or status. This ?absolutist early modern? formation was most effectively harnessed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tipu Sultan, in his modernization of his military, fiscal revenue collection, trading practice, irrigation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultivation, and his gun and saltpeter factories developed in his domain.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter four, ?The liberty of subjects,? and chapter five, ?The equality of subjects? establish the other part )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Chatterjee?s characterization of early modern India, that of the ?anti-absolutist early modern?. As the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?absolutist early modern? form was taking shape in Tipu Sultan?s realm in south India, in Calcutta of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(late 18th and early 19th centuries, Chatterjee shows how a multi-racial intelligentsia of Bengali Hindus, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europeans, and mixed-race subjects of the British Empire started to press for radical and proto-democratic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representative institutions and privileges. In chapter four, he discusses the first movements to establish, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promote, and push for ?rights? ? here in the 1780s, by James August Hickey, who started )] TJ ET BT 464.948 278.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hickey?s Bengal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gazette)] TJ ET BT 70.676 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. In this publication, the editor and contributors aggressively pursued the right to critique corruption )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the Company as well as the liberty to publish and circulate journal copies outside of the Company?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interference. This, for Chatterjee, ?enunciated perhaps for the first time in a British colony in the East, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classic antiabsolutist statement of the innate and inalienable liberty of the freeborn British subject? \(p. 111\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Though a growing racialized order was visibly appearing in urban transformations of public space, as he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(details in these two chapters, he also discusses how Indians, such as Rammahon Roy, the pioneering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectual and social critic of the age, asserted the equality of subjects.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 6597 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In chapter six, ?The happiness of mankind?, Chatterjee returns to a critical textual analysis of how the Black )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hole figures in English-language writings from the late 18th century onward. Here, he dissects Macaulay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(infamous for his 1834 minute on education in which he professed his belief in the innate superiority of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Western literatures to Oriental literatures\) and his writings about Clive and the Black Hole incident in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1840s. Macaulay?s essay on Clive, read by schoolchildren in the metropole, turned the Black Hole story into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a founding myth of empire. This founding myth was sustained because for Macaulay, Clive?s moral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(improprieties \(ambivalently hidden in the ?secret veil? phase earlier\) were condoned because he initiated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what would later be good government in India. As Chatterjee states, Macaulay made)] TJ ET BT 64.016 646.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empire safe from its own infamous origins. The secret veil could now be lifted. Clive?s history )] TJ ET BT 64.016 632.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could be taught to British schoolchildren as a fable of moral instruction, to instill pride in their )] TJ ET BT 64.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hearts not merely for the valor of their compatriots but also for the selfless service they were )] TJ ET BT 64.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rendering to the people of the empire \(p. 167\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 565.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapters seven ?A pedagogy of violence? and eight, ?A pedagogy of culture? return to political theory and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 551.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the nature of imperial practice, after the periods of ?absolutist early modern? and ?antiabsolutist early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 536.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern? politics had faded. Chatterjee argues that by the 1840s empire functioned on pedagogic grounds, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 522.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and by one of two models only: violence, exemplified by rapacious territorial conquest in the mid to late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 508.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19th century, and culture, in which education, language and literature, the arts would all develop in tandem )] TJ ET BT 34.016 494.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with Europeans, but on segregated lines, refracted through the lens of colonial difference. In chapter eight, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 479.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chatterjee discusses the arena of Bengali popular theater, where cultural appropriations of various acts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 465.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretation of the Black Hole incident appeared from the 1870s through the 1900s. In these plays, by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 451.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writers such as Nabin Chandra Sen and Akshaykumar Maitreya, produced by the famed regisseur-director )] TJ ET BT 34.016 437.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Girishchandra Ghosh, Chatterjee traces a glimmer of resistance to the various discursive practices of empire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 422.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examined in earlier chapters. Sen?s 1875 )] TJ ET BT 233.636 422.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Palashir Juddhya)] TJ ET BT 318.632 422.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(The War of Palashi\))] TJ ET BT 64.016 384.466 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gestured, if only rhetorically, to the possibility that Bengal under Siraj, although badly)] TJ ET BT 64.016 370.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governed, was at least sovereign, and therefore free, and had a state where even though the ruler )] TJ ET BT 64.016 355.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a Muslim, Hindus nonetheless enjoyed positions in the highest echelons of government \(p. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 341.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(242\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 303.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In chapters nine ?Bombs, sovereignty, and football? and ?The death and everlasting life of empires?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 289.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chatterjee shifts the focus to the popular sport of football in late colonial Bengal as well as rising nationalist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 274.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sentiment against the Holwell monument marking a new memorialization of the Black Hole victims. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 260.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(last monument, built by Curzon, in 1902, appeared in the midst of rising nationalist agitation and four )] TJ ET BT 34.016 246.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decades later, as Chatterjee shows, immense public mobilization on behalf of Indian football teams )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(competing against European teams. By the early 1940s, Chatterjee argues, the public culture of Bengal?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 217.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sporting world and nationalist activists had merged, such that the nationalist opposition to the Holwell )] TJ ET BT 34.016 203.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monument, which began in earnest in 1940, included the large world of football fans. As he states in chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 189.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ten, ?it is quite certain that there was considerable overlap between the public that celebrated the victories of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mohun Bagan or Mohammadan Sporting Clubs on the Maidan, the public that agitated for the removal of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 160.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Holwell monument, and the murderous public that went on a rampage on the streets and in the slums of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 146.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Calcutta? \(p. 335\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 120.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The chapter, and the entire book, ends with an 11-page analysis of empire?s discursive and practical career )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the present day, along with a concise statement of the book?s anchoring claim, which is demonstrated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 91.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through his history of the conquest of India: ?the most reliable definition of an imperial practice remains that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 77.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the privilege to declare the exception to the norm? \(p. 337\). He lists examples of this privilege of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(declaring the exception to a norm constructed by those in pre-eminent nation-state power \(previously, by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those in imperial power\), such as the decision of who gets to sit on the UN Permanent Security Council, the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 30 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Length 7389 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decision of who acceptably may house nuclear weapons, the decision to allow for differential treatment of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(victims of tragedies. In this final example, he compares the way that American victims of the recent BP gas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spill have been treated compared to the victims of the Union Carbide gas leak in Bhopal, India, in 1984. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Furthermore, as a way to demonstrate how the career of empire?s technologies live in the present day, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mentions how imperial ventures today by powerful states like the United States proceed both by pedagogical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discourses of violence \(justified in Iraq by the United States\) and through non-violent means \(Saudi Arabia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Burma, as examples\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chatterjee has produced a virtuoso performance that integrates a powerful combination of narrative history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and political thought. He has mastered a diverse set of archives rare for historians, such as the treasures of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dramatic literature, fiction, historical writing, urban history, and histories of space. His extensively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(researched narrative history is fruitfully interrupted with exciting discussions related to present-day politics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and historiography.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chatterjee conducts a cultural history by employing various strategies of reading texts, aimed not at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empirical certitude or sociological clarity, but aimed at the resolution of the genealogy of enduring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discursive questions. The need for precise empirical research, then, does not accord the same meaning as it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would for a social history \(as an example of another methodological approach to history\). But might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions of social history complicate the way that Chatterjee interprets the history that is required to make )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense of his critique of political thought? There are two ways that questions of social history may complicate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his own presentation: one, through an exploration of alternative textual readings of the very same sources he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offers and two, an assessment of the global reach of the ?Black Hole? narrative. Chatterjee opens his book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the claim that ?the global phenomenon of modern empire? \(p. xi\) is represented by the history of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(story. Pursuing these avenues into his work opens a window into a larger question about the way hegemony )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is conceptualized in Chatterjee?s book and the implications of this conceptualization for the writing of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Though the texts Chatterjee interprets are certainly multi-faceted and deserving of close readings, do any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alternative reading strategies uncover underlying discursive elements that went into the making of those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(texts? In his section ?One the poetic and historical imagination?, he offers a wonderfully detailed analysis of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representations of Siraj-ud-daulah in the writings of Bengali Hindus, like Nabin Chandra Sen, and his play )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Palasir yuddha)] TJ ET BT 107.684 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, first published in 1875, produced in the 1870s and also in the 1890s. In this play, Siraj )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appears as a cutthroat tyrant, probably due to the English and English-inflected sources about him that Sen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(received. This depiction received a critique about 20 years later by Akshaykumar Maitreya, who countered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nabin Chandra Sen?s depictions of Siraj by using varieties of new evidence from the period. Maitreya )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(showed him as a ?absolutist ruler fighting to defend the sovereignty of the state, which he believed was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precondition for peace and prosperity in the kingdom? \(p. 245\). This move not only showed sympathy and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humanity for Siraj, countering Orientalist and stereotypical constructions of Muslim rulers, but created the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?foundations of nationalist anticolonial historiography? \(p. 243\). Chatterjee then discusses the ?dramatic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national popular,? worked out by playwrights and theater artists in the wake of these debates, as led by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Girishchandra Ghosh in the first two decades of the 20th century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chatterjee?s exposure of these debates and tracing of the origins of nationalist thought are detailed and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nuanced. But there are two areas in his presentation that cry out for more expansion. One, though he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mentions without any notes or references that ?Muslim critics had often complained about the unfair )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(portrayal of Siraj in Nabinchandra?s )] TJ ET BT 211.640 163.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Palasir yuddha?)] TJ ET BT 291.308 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(p. 242\), he devotes not a single line to any Muslim )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bengali writers, critics, or political figures who had a stake in this entire debate. It is not incumbent upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chatterjee to offer an analysis of each and every text and/or community that produced responses to these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sorts of discourses, but a history of discourse without any grappling with the social markers on the ground )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leaves readers wondering about the historicity of these moments. When discussing how such a nationalist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and idealized form of India?s past came to occupy these writers through the figure of Siraj, Chatterjee does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not discuss how this very form potentially )] TJ ET BT 239.012 78.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(excluded)] TJ ET BT 281.660 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Muslims from taking an active role in the nationalist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imagination in this particular way. As Chatterjee states, Nabin Chandra Sen provided)] TJ ET endstream endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 32 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Length 7097 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the key elements of the rhetoric of Hindu-Muslim fraternity that would ring out so loudly in the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(days of the Swadeshi movement?This was not the fraternity premised on the abstract citizen-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject, grounded in homogenous and equal citizenship, and then handed down as the liberal )] TJ ET BT 64.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideal of civic nationalism, most exemplarily since the French Revolution. Rather it was based on )] TJ ET BT 64.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hindus and Muslims constituting distinct communities that were nonetheless bound by the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(solidarity of naturalized kinship \(p. 249\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 674.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such a textual reading may provide quite insightful for understanding Nabin Chandra Sen as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 660.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalists who also reproduced this rhetoric, but does it apply to Muslim intellectuals of the same time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 646.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period? Or, for that matter, to intellectuals grappling with these ideas in other regions of India? Since )] TJ ET BT 34.016 632.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Muslims were the majority of Bengali speaking people at this time, readers have no way of assessing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manner in which these constructions actually represented anything beyond the Hindu intelligentsia. Or if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there were discursive and intellectual encounters that transcended the boundaries that Nabin Chandra Sen, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Akshaykumar Maitreya, and Girishchandra Ghosh represented.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(During the age of this nationalist thought-world, from the 1870s to the 1910s, many Muslim writers wrote in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 548.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bengali; like Mir Musharraf Hussein, who wrote novels, plays, and verse, in particular, the three-part )] TJ ET BT 523.256 548.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bishad-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sindhu)] TJ ET BT 67.352 534.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Ocean of Sorrows\) about the Battle of Karbala, and Ismail Hossain Shiraji, who traveled to Turkey )] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the Balkan Wars, wrote travelogues about Turkey in Bengali as well as seditious anti-colonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature. These writers were certainly also affected by the newly ascendant discourses of nation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community. Though not a particularly visible or remarkable part of the vernacular-educated Bengali middle-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class literati, these writers also grappled with issues of sovereignty, in particular through idealized )] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connections with the Islamic world as well as Islamic literary and ethical themes in Bengali that had been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(present in the language since at least the 17th century CE. Given that the Muslim portion of Siraj?s identity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was crucial for the stereotype of him as a tyrant, why not include any assessment of Muslim Bengali writing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the age of nationalist thought? Chatterjee mentions how by 1940, ?the Muslim public in Calcutta was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being mobilized for entirely new political futures? \(p. 323\), but without any sense of the exclusions that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were discursively operating in the thought-worlds of Bengali letters at the time. Inputting an awareness of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the exclusions operating at discursive levels would allow readers a sense of the texture of how hegemonic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas generate force and power. These questions reflect on the larger issue of how hegemony is understood )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in this work, for the broader audience of scholars of modern politics and political thought. Is hegemony )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(always already given and does it not have a history? What happens to the contingent moments of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(construction of the hegemonic ideas in the making of ?imperial practices??)] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Near the end of the book, Chatterjee mentions a way of disaggregating the Indian nation by presenting a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potential critique of its post-1947 career: ?there is no reason to believe that a postcolonial democracy such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(India would not harbor ambitions of playing such an imperial role, just as democracies of the nineteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century had done? \(p. 344\). Such a statement exposes the assumption that the making of Indian national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas itself was free from such ambitions and only the post-1947 set of state practices requires such a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disaggregation. Could one pursue the making of exclusions in India?s own past ? for example, the Bengali )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hindu writers that he discusses, and the particularly upper-caste Hindu nationalist community that is created )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by them ? through directly addressing areas of the Bengali and broader Indian landscape they systematically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ignored?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Besides an assessment of the social realm in the making of discourse and an appreciation of discursive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power, what also remains unaddressed is how a narrative like the Black Hole story of Calcutta is so powerful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that it, and its career, should assume the burden of representing the ?the global phenomenon of modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empire from the eighteenth to the twentieth century? \(p. xi\). In order to demonstrate the power of the Black )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hole story, Chatterjee uses the example of one third of 115 senior college students knowing about it and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most \(how many of the one third of 115 constituted the ?most? was not mentioned\) believing it to be true. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Does this exercise represent the extent of the power of this sort of ideology of empire that the Black Hole )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represents? Did the story resonate with colonized peoples and colonial officials elsewhere, as opposed to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 36 0 R 39 0 R 42 0 R 45 0 R 48 0 R ] /Contents 34 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Length 8394 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York college students in 1947? As Chatterjee mentions other types of imperial-modern forms, such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the settler colonial and the plantation types, do those types not require a discursive unpacking and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examination, or are readers to assume that the ideological bases for their imperial practices are easily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understood? In his laudable pulling of the curtain back from European political thought?s hypocritical self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representations and false universalisms, Chatterjee potentially inserts a comparable blindness in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generalization of ?African and Asiatic? peoples as represented by the particular place of Calcutta and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(various ways that Hindu elites in the modern age understood political power.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These questions aside, Chatterjee?s work proves relevant to post-colonial scholars, political theorists and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early modern historians, regardless of the region of specialization. His history is a discursive history of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern world, a post-colonial counterpart to synthetic world histories that have appeared in recent years, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as C.A. Bayly?s )] TJ ET BT 139.340 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Birth of the Modern World, 1780?1914 )] TJ ET BT 352.004 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Eric Hobsbawm?s many ?Age of ?? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(books, particularly his )] TJ ET BT 144.008 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Age of Empire, 1875-1914)] TJ ET BT 292.328 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 295.328 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 295.328 626.259 m 309.320 626.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In a manner that departs from these authors, he grapples with how imperial practices are imbricated in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge reproduction, much likes Nicholas Dirks? )] TJ ET BT 292.976 587.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Scandal of Empire: India and the Creation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Imperial Britain)] TJ ET BT 112.352 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 115.352 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 115.352 571.491 m 129.344 571.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 129.344 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( He achieves this particularly successfully in his reading of how the Black Hole story )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changed in the 19th century from requiring a ?secret veil? to creating a justification for conquest. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequent manners of appropriation of ideas of conquest in the Bengali Hindu intelligentsia are also, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similarly, parsed out in excellent detail. Doubtlessly, specialists of other regions of the world which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experienced discursive shifts in ideas of conquest will benefit from Chatterjee?s approach. His work would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be profitably read against Bayly, Marks, as well as contemporary theorists of global history, such as Bruce )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mazlish and recent debates about the ?new global history? )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 317.624 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 317.624 485.955 m 331.616 485.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 331.616 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in order to situate the role of empire in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of modernity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This work figures as a significant moment in Chatterjee?s career as a distinguished scholar of politics, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture, and history. Author of groundbreaking contributions to political thought and history, such as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1998 )] TJ ET BT 61.016 418.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nation and its Fragments)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 187.028 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 187.028 416.931 m 201.020 416.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 201.020 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, required reading for South Asian specialists of all stripes as well as post-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial theorists, Chatterjee has managed to develop new positions outside of his earlier works through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Black Hole)] TJ ET BT 108.668 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. For example, in his section on ?antiabsolutist early modern? politics, exemplified by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rammahon Roy, he offers a tour through many newly unearthed primary sources that have yet to be studied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together and uncovers modes of learning and thought that were not shaped directly by colonial education. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(His spotlight on how pre-colonial debates about monotheism and religion emanated not from the encounter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the ?West,? but from internal Indian debates that included Muslim, Hindu, and Zoroastrian thinkers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(warrants particular attention. This angle is a departure from his previous work, such as )] TJ ET BT 452.600 318.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nationalist Thought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and the Postcolonial World)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 169.352 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 169.352 302.883 m 183.344 302.883 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 183.344 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 206.672 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Nation and its Fragments)] TJ ET BT 340.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, in which the late 19th-century figurations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalism in the latter and key archetypal modern Indian nationalist figures in the former were the objects )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of study. Here, Chatterjee transcends the focus only on the colonial encounter and manages to include a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detailed analysis of intellectual debate in the Indian realm of letters before the rise of modern colonialism. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This work, for South Asian specialists, may be read as a profitable successor to many of his earlier works )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about hegemony, culture, and colonial and post-colonial politics.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chatterjee offers a wonderfully provocative ending to his book, about yet another )] TJ ET BT 428.276 206.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(mythos)] TJ ET BT 462.272 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, that of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national, as opposed to the imperial, through the interpretation of how Curzon?s plaque about the Black Hole )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had ended up in the Philatelic Museum. At least according to one of the museum?s staff members, Subhas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chandra Bose, the great late colonial Bengali nationalist, wanted it removed and so hammered it loose from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the wall. As Chatterjee states, ?the ground remains fertile for nationalist mythology? well after the formal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(careers of empires have come to a close. One wonders, though, whether such fertility is restricted to Indian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalists, like Bose, and those with the privilege of identifying with and therefore debating the contours of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an empire or nation. Or does it touch a wider swath of humanity across the spectrum of life touched by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rhetorical power of empire?)] TJ ET endstream endobj 35 0 obj [33 0 R /Fit] endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 295.3277 626.5735 309.3197 638.4535 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj [33 0 R /Fit] endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 115.3517 571.8055 129.3437 583.6855 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 41 0 obj [33 0 R /Fit] endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 317.6237 486.2695 331.6157 498.1495 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 44 0 obj [33 0 R /Fit] endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 187.0277 417.2455 201.0197 429.1255 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 47 0 obj [33 0 R /Fit] endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 169.3517 303.1975 183.3437 315.0775 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 52 0 R 54 0 R 56 0 R 58 0 R 60 0 R 62 0 R 64 0 R 66 0 R 68 0 R 70 0 R 72 0 R ] /Contents 51 0 R >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Length 4887 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 775.827 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 745.210 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 745.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Swayze, Patrick and Lisa Niemi. )] TJ ET BT 224.324 745.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Time of My Life)] TJ ET BT 321.656 745.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, NY, 2010\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 439.292 745.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 439.292 743.811 m 493.280 743.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 730.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sandip Roy, ?An Incredible Hulking shame: The Avengers go to Calcutta? <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://newamericamedia.org/2012/05/if-the-avengers-is-right.php)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 715.299 m 377.300 715.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 380.300 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 394.292 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> [accessed 17 July 2012].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 522.032 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 522.032 715.299 m 549.692 715.299 l S BT 64.016 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 701.043 m 90.344 701.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 688.186 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ibid.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 86.348 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 86.348 686.787 m 140.336 686.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 673.930 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(C. A. Bayly, )] TJ ET BT 127.352 673.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Birth of the Modern World, 1780?1914 )] TJ ET BT 340.016 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford, 2004\); Eric Hobsbawm, )] TJ ET BT 502.652 673.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Age of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Empire, 1875?1914 )] TJ ET BT 162.344 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1989\); )] TJ ET BT 244.004 659.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Age of Revolution, 1789-1848)] TJ ET BT 408.992 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1962\); )] TJ ET BT 493.652 659.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Age of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Capital, 1848-1875)] TJ ET BT 158.024 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1975\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 239.348 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 239.348 644.019 m 293.336 644.019 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 631.162 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nicholas Dirks, )] TJ ET BT 142.340 631.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Scandal of Empire: India and the Creation of Imperial Britain)] TJ ET BT 463.004 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, MA, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 615.507 m 149.000 615.507 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 602.650 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bruce Mazlish, )] TJ ET BT 140.336 602.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The New Global History)] TJ ET BT 258.008 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, NY, 2006\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 375.644 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 375.644 601.251 m 429.632 601.251 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 588.394 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Partha Chatterjee, )] TJ ET BT 152.996 588.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Nation and Its Fragments: Colonial and Postcolonial Histories)] TJ ET BT 478.352 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Princeton, NJ, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1993\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 572.739 m 149.000 572.739 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 559.882 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Partha Chatterjee, )] TJ ET BT 152.996 559.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nationalist Thought and the Colonial World)] TJ ET BT 366.032 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1986\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 447.356 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 447.356 558.483 m 501.344 558.483 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 543.151 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 525.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 525.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1307)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 523.977 m 328.316 523.977 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 499.000 Td /F3 12.0 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