%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 28 0 R 33 0 R 38 0 R 46 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818100137+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818100137+01'00') /Title (Cromwell?s Legacy) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4440 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Cromwell?s Legacy)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Out of what materials was ?Oliver Cromwell? shaped? )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 299.960 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 299.960 286.185 m 313.952 286.185 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 313.952 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( To what extent was he self-consciously shaping )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and reshaping himself? Did he record those self-constructing manoeuvres with some insight and effect? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Certainly his spiritual odyssey is documented although not as thoroughly as we would wish. It is, on one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(level, about his struggle to make ?the chief of sinners? into a chosen instrument of the living God. At the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same time, the outcome of that struggle, his final identity, was always at the disposal of that God. And his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perception of what he had become and had contributed in the civil sphere could waver, from a sense of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(himself as the drudge of others upon all occasions, to one who had fought consistently, and not without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(success, for civil and religious liberty. There is a complex process being worked out here and it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(incompletely\) documented in his letters and speeches. The problem for the historian is: how far should we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trust that record. If we take it at face value, do we become complicit in the ?myth? of Oliver Cromwell? In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which case our ?biography? is little more than an aide-mmoire to Cromwell?s art, a recycling of his myth. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Or, is it our task to deconstruct his myth ? to write biography as a corrective to autobiography? But on what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ground shall we stand to do such work? Since we reject his ground, the choice must be between ours or that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of his critics. Our biography becomes about us or them, not him. One way out of the dilemma is to write the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of the myth, its construction, deconstruction and reconstruction over time, to study Cromwell?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reputation.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 85.676 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 85.676 72.345 m 99.668 72.345 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1308)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 30 August, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jane A. Mills)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780719080890)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(65.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(336pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. C. Davis)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 299.9597 286.4995 313.9517 298.3795 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 85.6757 72.6595 99.6677 84.5395 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7913 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This dilemma has lurked behind Cromwell studies for the last decade or so. There has been a growing sense )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the biographies based on his letters and speeches, of which there have been some outstanding examples )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the last 20 years, have exhausted the possibilities and share too much common ground. In particular, there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has appeared to be the establishment of a \(not exactly cosy\) consensus that Cromwell was a sincerely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious man, who, despite his failings and lapses \(Drogheda and Wexford conspicuous amongst them\), did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his best in difficult circumstances. The gaps in the record ? as provided by Cromwell?s own words ? have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also led scholars to look in more detail at the contexts in which he operated and some brilliant archivally-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based reconstructions have been made of, for example, Cromwell?s early political associations and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(finances.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 77.000 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 77.000 669.027 m 90.992 669.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 90.992 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( But substantial gaps remain and the use of indirect evidence almost always carries with it a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cautionary conditionality. We turn from the reconstructed context and, without confirmation in Cromwell?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own words, resort to the formulae of ?it is likely that?, ?probably?, ?must have? and the rest.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Morrill?s introduction to this volume goes straight to the point. On the one hand, he argues, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cromwell?s self-image presents us with a man of principle, the advocate of religious liberty and equality, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against tyranny in church and state, for the accountability of governors, leading a people freed from slavery )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(toward a promised land. On the other, his critics then and since have observed a man bent on tyranny, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hypocrite, and an ambitious manipulator of his own image as well as of others \(p. 2?3\). It is, as we all know, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a contested image. But, mostly unexplored, there is another side to Cromwell?s public self identification and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it is one in which he casts himself as lacking capacities \(in oratorical skills, or numeracy or linguistic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ability\), as politically manipulated or frustrated, as sinful and weak. Of course, provided that we accept the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notion of his hypocrisy, all this can be rejected as self-serving and little more than a smoke-screen. But the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?weak? Cromwell is conspicuously absent from the Cromwell legend and it would be interesting to ask why.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The notion of ?legacy? raises some issues to which this review will turn later. The substance of the book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under review is divided into three section: ?The man himself?, ?Institutional legacies? and ?Reception?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Opening the first section Patrick Little, who has done so much to rebuild interest in Cromwell studies and, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular, the Protectorate, offers a dynastic interpretation of Cromwell?s ?intended? legacy. The argument )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is that 1656 presented him with dynastic opportunities. Moves towards what was to become the Humble )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Petition and Advice reopened the question of succession via protectoral nomination \(even by heredity\) rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than by conciliar election. In the summer of 1656 both Richard and Henry, Oliver?s sons, became fathers of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sons, both named Oliver. Little suggests that the combination of these developments enabled Cromwell )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(senior to begin thinking in dynastic terms. In the end, he concludes, ?Cromwell may have considered that it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would be safer to relinquish the crown, and in the process preserve what he really prized, the succession of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the House of Cromwell? \(p. 28\). Unfortunately, this remains pure speculation as there is no direct evidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that this was indeed in Cromwell?s mind or that it was his motivating intention, and as John Morrill points )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out in his introduction to the collection, Cromwell, unlike James II or Napoleon, ?had no heirs with political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ambitions? \(p. 4\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is not Dr Little?s most successful piece. He begins with the dubious statement that in the 1650s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cromwell ?certainly had the power to impose his will? \(p. 17\), yet the record is, in large part, one of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frustration. Legal reform, the reformation of manners, and collaborative parliaments all eluded him whether )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he willed them or not. Professor Blair Worden and myself are seen as contributing to an unbalanced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perception of Cromwell by emphasizing the significance of providence in his thinking. Consequently, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?sense that Cromwell was following a coherent religious and political programme has in recent years been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compromised by a renewed emphasis on providence? \(p. 17\). These are, alas, straw men being beaten by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Little, and he acknowledges as much in respect to his treatment of Worden?s view of Cromwell?s politics. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This, according to Little, involves a ?two track approach, allowing God?s will to be fulfilled through normal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political means as well as blind faith?. But one suspects that Professor Worden might want to know what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was blind about Oliver?s faith and to question whether his providentialism kept that faith and its application )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the world under constant scrutiny. As surely problematic is the question of what ?normal political means? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meant in the 1650s ? or at any time after 1641. My own position has been to depict Cromwell?s political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landscape as balanced between the good constable and ?the divinely chosen and providentially endorsed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instrument?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 93.680 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 93.680 48.531 m 107.672 48.531 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 107.672 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Or again, ?Cromwell could, and indeed had to weigh the secular arguments which humans )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 76.9997 669.3415 90.9917 681.2215 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 93.6797 48.8455 107.6717 60.7255 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 31 0 R ] /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 7755 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had to rely on when God?s guidance is not clear or was withheld?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 352.952 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 352.952 795.075 m 366.944 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 366.944 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Paradoxically, Little concludes with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the argument that Oliver?s ?dynastic ambitions? could themselves be seen in providential terms \(pp. 28?9\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although nowhere does Cromwell provide evidence that this was his reading of God?s will for his family.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Two essays follow which examine the relationship between Cromwell and the physical world. In the first of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these, John Goldsmith, Curator of the Cromwell Museum in Huntingdon, examines the survival or not of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material possessions allegedly associated with Cromwell. It is a meticulous, if somewhat depressing, story of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(misidentification and wishful thinking, a tale full of the evidence of negligible evidence. For example, we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are told that much of the Cromwell Bush Collection, central to that of the Huntingdon museum, cannot be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(directly linked back to Cromwell. Similar verdicts are pronounced on the collection at Chequers \(the prime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ministerial country retreat\), on William Fawkes? collection and that of Sir Richard Tangye. When the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge Antiquarian Society held an exhibition of Cromwell memorabilia in 1911, ?Credible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provenance?, we are told, ?was not a prerequisite for inclusion?. Goldsmith concludes, ?The likelihood of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the survival of a physical legacy of personalia of Cromwell?s over three hundred and fifty years is slight? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(53\). ?The man himself? \(let alone his ?legacy?\) appears to be heading for the exit.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second of the two essays on Cromwell?s physical ?legacy? is an examination by Peter Gaunt of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact on the rural and urban environment of Britain. We could not ask for a surer guide than Professor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gaunt, whose The Cromwellian Gazetteer \(1987\) provides the basis for much of what we know about where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cromwell was when. Setting this against local and historiographical beliefs is a salutary, not to say bracing, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exercise. From one perspective, Oliver seems to have been everywhere and blamable for everything. More )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(soberly, and in a case study of his travels and doings in just one county, Norfolk, Gaunt finds that we are in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?fog of truth, half truth and pure invention? generated by folklore and mythology \(p. 68\). Nationally, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(systematic slighting of castles between 1648 and 1651 was the work of parliament not of Cromwell. Equally, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the hard evidence linking him to acts of religious iconoclasm proves hard to find \(pp. 84?5\). Most tales of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his destructive doings arose, Gaunt concludes, from ?confusion, conflation, malice or pure invention, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not a shred of truth about them? \(p. 86\). Faced with this bleak conclusion, he ends by asking whether the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landscape, through which Cromwell had travelled so apparently tirelessly, had more impact on him than he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did on it. But the reader is also left to wonder whether this is not a study of the man quite other than himself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and what it might tell us about the pursuit of Cromwell?s material legacy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Under the heading ?Institutional legacies? Bernard Capp provides a shrewd and balanced examination of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious policy under the Republic and the Protectorate, Alan Marshall tracks the military reputation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(image of Cromwell down to the 20th century and Stephen Roberts looks at the use of Cromwell in both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parliamentary speechmaking and in the physical representations of the Cromwellian period in the Palace of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Westminster up to the present day. Capp?s stress is on the moderation of Cromwell?s religious policy \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(108, 110\), although he also argues that it was Pride?s Purge which ?saved religious freedom? by putting paid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to any prospect of a compulsory, Presbyterian church \(p. 96\). Nevertheless, it was the Instrument of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Government which gave constitutional guarantees of a degree of religious freedom and Cromwell showed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?none of the bitter spirit that many Anglicans were to visit on nonconformists after the Restoration? \(p. 108\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For Capp, Cromwell?s religious legacy was in providing the opportunity for nonconformity to embed itself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in British life \(pp. 94, 110\) ? whether that was his intention or not. Alan Marshall focuses not so much on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cromwell?s reputation as a soldier, as on the use of his name and historical persona in debates about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military presence in politics. Following William III?s emulation of his campaigning achievements, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cromwell very largely became a warning figure in the standing army controversies of the long 18th century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the perceived threat of politically ambitious military men, such as Marlborough and the Duke of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wellington. By contrast, he eventually became a more positive point of reference for military reformers in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the later 19th and early 20th centuries and for those who would reinvigorate society with military values, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as Baden Powell. Stephen Roberts argues that, for understandable reasons, Cromwell?s reputation has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tended to rise as that of Parliament falls \(p. 150\). Cutting against this is the lack of evidence for such a rise at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the present time when Parliament?s standing in public esteem is as low as it has been for very many decades. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Equally, the 20th-century high point of his reputation, the Second World War, was also a period when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parliament, seen as a bastion of freedom against the totalitarian threat from the Axis powers, was riding )] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 352.9517 795.3895 366.9437 807.2695 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 36 0 R ] /Contents 34 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Length 7284 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(high. Interestingly, Roberts suggests that in those years, Cromwell could, rather extraordinarily, be invoked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a figure of national unity because he was viewed in the 1940s as ?a uniquely English, and therefore )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acceptable despot? \(p. 152\). Amongst the most interesting parts of Roberts? essay is his discussion of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(visual representation of the interregnum and of Cromwell in the Palace of Westminster ? a more complex )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(story than it has often been portrayed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final section of the collection contains essays on Cromwell?s impact on Scotland, Ireland, Europe, New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England and revolutionary America, and early 19th-century Spanish America as it struggled for liberation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from Spanish control. In a fine essay, Laura Stewart suggests that the Cromwellian occupation of Scotland, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(partly because it involved no wholesale destruction and, more questionably, no fundamental change to Scots )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society, could be regarded as relatively benign. That the ?superiority? of English administration brought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(benefits to the Scots was a consistent theme of Scots commentators down to historians such as Rosalind )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mitchinson and William Ferguson as recently as the 1970s and 1980s. But, on balance, Stewart argues the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact of the occupation was slight. Cromwellian Britain remained marginal to Scots? perceptions.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?What happened in a handful of short-lived parliamentary sessions, in a faraway place, attended )] TJ ET BT 64.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by about two dozen people with connections to Scotland, arguably had a negligible direct )] TJ ET BT 64.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence on how most Scots experienced the daily realities of English rule? \(p. 179\) .)] TJ ET BT 34.016 508.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite various attempted reforms of Scottish life, it was the survival of Scottish legal and religious practice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 494.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that helped to persuade a conquered people that they retained some of the attributes of sovereignty. Not only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 479.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were English reforms rendered largely superfluous by those of the Covenanters earlier \(p. 180\) but, perhaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 465.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more critically, the wholesale restructuring of Scotland was incompatible with either political or fiscal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 451.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stability \(p. 177\). And, one might add, the already stretched resources of the English state. Much the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 437.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could, in the end, be said about Ireland. Horrific as they were, in conception and implementation, English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 422.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plans for post-conquest Ireland had to be accommodated to reality, including that of the limitations of even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 408.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Cromwellian regime. Toby Barnard?s is a masterly examination of that balance and the contrast between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?emollience with which he \(Cromwell\) addresses the generality of Irish catholics? and his more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notorious military actions \(p. 194\). The ?unexpected absence in Ireland of Cromwell from much of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical controversy of the next two centuries? \(p. 202\) ? a marginalisation comparable to that in Scotland )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? may be explained by the ?mutability of the land question? and perhaps by the overlay of the Williamite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conquests.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 311.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hugh Dunthorne opens the third section of the book, ?Reception?, with an attempt at rehabilitating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 296.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cromwellian foreign policy, in his essay on Cromwell and Europe. Contrary to those critics who since )] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Slingsby Bethel have argued that, in forging an alliance with France against Spain, Cromwell helped to tip )] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the balance of power in Europe in a way which was to be disadvantageous to Britain until the 19th century, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dunthorne sees the policy as defensible because it ensured that the two powers, France and Spain, would not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unite against him. The vigour, courage, shrewdness and cunning of Cromwellian foreign policy, admired in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 18th century by Cartaret, were the hallmarks of his legacy in terms of European policy. This essay is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primarily concerned with foreign policy but there is another story to be told about Cromwell and Europe, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from his image in contemporary Europe )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 229.316 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 229.316 195.603 m 243.308 195.603 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 243.308 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to the use of his ?example? by Hitler and Stalin to justify )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves against English opinion. In New England, as Frank Bremer shows, Cromwell?s reputation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fluctuated as a function of the colonies? changing relationship with the metropolis. The positive reception )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oliver?s doings enjoyed in the colonies in his own time evaporated with the establishment of royal control )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over their fortunes in 1685 and a negative image prevailed until the onset of the struggle for independence in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the later 18th century. When it became necessary again to justify defiance of a king and even the removal of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarchy it also became possible for patriots to address, the saviour of his nation, George Washington, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Great Cromwell? or ?Lord Protector? \(p. 251\). A similar pattern, though with variations, is observed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Karen Racine in her examination of the ways in which Cromwell could be used by both the Spanish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authorities and by independence-seeking Spanish-American colonists in the struggles between them in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early 19th century. On the one hand, he could be portrayed as a harbinger of civil conflict, military tyranny )] TJ ET endstream endobj 35 0 obj [33 0 R /Fit] endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 229.3157 195.9175 243.3077 207.7975 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R ] /Contents 39 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Length 7721 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and anarchy; on the other, as the champion of free speech, religious liberty and, more uneasily, of the virtues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of republicanism over monarchy. Both Simn Bolivar in Venezuela and Jose de San Martn in Argentina )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(found a Cromwellian mantle congenial for their campaigning. Racine also traces the fascinating appearance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Cromwell in Spanish-American novels, plays and dialogues of the period. A Chilean dialogue of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1820s, for example, engaged Cromwell with Cardinal Richelieu in a debate on democracy and its capacity to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unchain commercial enterprise \(pp. 268?9\). Racine effectively demonstrates how the invocation of the Lord )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protector could expose the issues and fault-lines between conservatives and liberals in a world of which he, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of course, knew nothing.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As a whole and despite its undoubted merits, the volume remains an uncomfortable mixture. In part, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engages with Cromwell in his own time \(Little, Gaunt, Capp, Dunthorne\). For the rest, it looks at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cromwell?s varying reputation and the uses to which it has been put at different times and in a variety of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contexts. But one might ask, ?What of the issue of Cromwell?s legacy?? Only one attempt, by Karen Racine, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is made to establish what the ?legacy? of an historic individual might entail. ?When?, she says, ?their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memory seeps into other cultures? political discourse historical figures become property for which future )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generations contend? \(p. 257\). This may have the virtue of some sense of transmission of ?property? but it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(still seems close to indistinguishable from ?reputation? or ?image? both of which may be in the control of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others while ?legacy? suggest something/s he allegedly but intentionally left to future generations. Patrick )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Little comes closest to this in his attempt to identify Cromwell?s intended legacy although his evidence for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this attribution appears slight. When, with John Goldsmith, we explore the legacy of his material possessions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his ?ownership? of them looks in the main like something later generations have fabricated. Similarly, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gaunt shows, his association with specific places has often been misattributed. All too soon, we are left with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the levers of approval and disapproval, with reputation rather than legacy. Is there a pattern, a story or a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history to the exploitation of the property which successive generations make of Cromwell or is it an endless )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recycling of old materials of doubtful provenance? And, if it is the latter, why does he offer such a tempting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject for such exploitation to so many generations in so many different locations? Alas, these are not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions pursued systematically here.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If we ask what Cromwell might have wished his legacy to be, I suspect that the first thing to spring to mind )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would not be the establishment of a new and secure dynasty. Rather, I suggest, it would have been a godly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nation, secure in its pursuit of God?s providential will and, under God?s guidance and without compelling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tender consciences, moving ever closer to Christian unity. It might have also embraced the notion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government, whatever its form, accountable to a saintly citizenry, the preservation, in this sense, of civil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberty. Where is that legacy now?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 295.635 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 265.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In these introductory remarks I follow the insights of Edward Acton, writing brilliantly about the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biographical construction of Alexander Herzen \(both by himself and by his biographers\) and about the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems of the biographical subject/object more generally. Edward Acton, ?La Biografa y el estudio )] TJ ET BT 64.016 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(de la identidad?, in )] TJ ET BT 158.336 222.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(El Otro, El Mismo: Biografa y Autobiografa en Europa \(siglos XVII-XX\))] TJ ET BT 515.324 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. J. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(C. Davis and Isabel Burdiel \(Valencia, 2005\) pp. 177?98. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 345.968 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 345.968 206.595 m 399.956 206.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 193.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See, for examples, Images of Oliver Cromwell: Essays for and by Roger Howell, Jr, ed. R. C. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richardson \(Manchester, 1993\); Timothy Lang, The Victorians and the Stuart Heritage: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Interpretations of a Discordant Past \(Cambridge, 1995\); J. C. Davis, Oliver Cromwell \(London and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York, NY, 2001\); Blair Worden, Roundhead Reputations: The English Civil Wars and the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Passions of Posterity \(London, 2002\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 245.348 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 245.348 135.315 m 299.336 135.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 122.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Morrill, ?The making of Oliver Cromwell? in Oliver Cromwell and the English Revolution)] TJ ET BT 527.324 122.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(, ed. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 108.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Morrill \(London, 1990\), pp. 19?48; Andrew Barclay, Electing Cromwell: The Making of a )] TJ ET BT 64.016 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Politician \(London, 2011\); Simon Healy, ?1636: the unmaking of Oliver Cromwell?, in Oliver )] TJ ET BT 64.016 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cromwell: New Perspectives)] TJ ET BT 203.996 79.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(,)] TJ ET BT 206.996 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ed. Patrick Little \(Basingstoke, 2009\), pp. 20?37; David Farr, ?Oliver )] TJ ET BT 64.016 65.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cromwell and a 1647 case in Chancery?, Historical Research, 71 \(1998\), 314?17; Ian Gentles, Oliver )] TJ ET BT 64.016 51.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cromwell: God?s Warrior and the English Revolution \(Basingstoke, 2011\), ch. 10.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 461.984 51.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 461.984 49.779 m 515.972 49.779 l S endstream endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 345.9677 206.9095 399.9557 218.7895 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 245.3477 135.6295 299.3357 147.5095 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 461.9837 50.0935 515.9717 61.9735 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R ] /Contents 47 0 R >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Length 2409 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 796.474 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. C. Davis, ?Cromwell?s religion?, in Oliver Cromwell and the English Revolution, ed. John Morrill )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1990\), p.188.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 175.340 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 175.340 780.819 m 229.328 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 767.962 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. C. Davis, Oliver Cromwell \(London, 2001\), p. 128; see also pp. 122, 125?7, 138, 173. I hope to )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publish shortly an essay in which I argue that Cromwell?s politics, while always engaged under God?s )] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supervision and final determination, were essentially about coalition building and in critical respects )] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represented a new form of politics \(rather than a return to normal political means ? whatever that may )] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be held to signify\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 154.676 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 154.676 709.539 m 208.664 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 696.682 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For the surprisingly complex and comparatively sophisticated perception of Cromwell in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary Italy see the excellent study by Marco Barducci, Oliver Cromwell Negli Scritti Italiani )] TJ ET BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(del Seicento \(Firenze, 2005\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 202.988 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 202.988 666.771 m 256.976 666.771 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 651.439 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 633.659 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 633.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1308)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 632.265 m 328.316 632.265 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 607.288 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 592.888 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/30638)] TJ ET endstream endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 175.3397 781.1335 229.3277 793.0135 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 154.6757 709.8535 208.6637 721.7335 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 30 0 R >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 202.9877 667.0855 256.9757 678.9655 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 35 0 R >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 55 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 632.5795 328.3157 644.4595 ] >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1308) >> endobj xref 0 56 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000534 00000 n 0000000630 00000 n 0000005122 00000 n 0000005231 00000 n 0000005341 00000 n 0000005450 00000 n 0000009011 00000 n 0000009139 00000 n 0000009223 00000 n 0000009252 00000 n 0000009380 00000 n 0000009416 00000 n 0000009445 00000 n 0000009569 00000 n 0000009605 00000 n 0000009696 00000 n 0000017662 00000 n 0000017692 00000 n 0000017818 00000 n 0000017854 00000 n 0000017884 00000 n 0000018009 00000 n 0000018045 00000 n 0000018129 00000 n 0000025937 00000 n 0000025967 00000 n 0000026095 00000 n 0000026131 00000 n 0000026215 00000 n 0000033552 00000 n 0000033582 00000 n 0000033710 00000 n 0000033746 00000 n 0000033844 00000 n 0000041618 00000 n 0000041746 00000 n 0000041801 00000 n 0000041929 00000 n 0000041984 00000 n 0000042110 00000 n 0000042165 00000 n 0000042270 00000 n 0000044732 00000 n 0000044860 00000 n 0000044915 00000 n 0000045043 00000 n 0000045098 00000 n 0000045226 00000 n 0000045281 00000 n 0000045409 00000 n trailer << /Size 56 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 45505 %%EOF