%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 23 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818074503+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818074503+01'00') /Title (Sexual Politics: Sexuality, Family Planning and the British Left from the 1880s to the Present Day) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4430 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Sexual Politics: Sexuality, Family Planning and the British Left )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(from the 1880s to the Present Day)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the past 40 years the history of sexuality has gone from being an insurgent force, questioning the very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature of what can be studied as history, to an established part of the field. This book underlines that point, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for it is rare today to find such a )] TJ ET BT 190.988 223.427 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(traditional)] TJ ET BT 242.336 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( political history. In order to investigate the interactions between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sexuality and socialism Stephen Brooke?s new work concentrates on a central political institution, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Labour Party, its sub-committees and fringe organisations, accessed through their publications, archival )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paper work and media coverage ? with a heavy sprinkling of )] TJ ET BT 327.608 180.659 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hansard)] TJ ET BT 369.608 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( on top. The book focuses on policy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and legislative achievement with its linear narrative pivoting around the parliamentary reforms of 1967. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However it is these factors and concerns which make )] TJ ET BT 292.280 152.147 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sexual Politics )] TJ ET BT 366.944 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a much needed intervention in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of politics and sexuality in the 20th century - a book which students and researchers of the subject )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will find essential and also, due to the clarity of the argument and lucidity of tone, enjoyable.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Brooke points out, )] TJ ET BT 142.352 97.379 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sexual Politics)] TJ ET BT 214.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is the first single study looking the interactions between party politics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and sexuality over the entire 20th century. Brooke concentrates on the development of three areas of policy ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(birth control, abortion and gay rights ? which all have a rich pre-existing historiography. However, by tying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his work to the Labour Party and parliamentary reform, Brooke is able to consider the process by which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1309)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 30 August, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stephen Brooke)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199562541)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(65.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(304pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles Smith)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7460 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radical ideas of sexuality both changed and were changed by mainstream politics. By considering a century-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(long period )] TJ ET BT 92.012 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sexual Politics)] TJ ET BT 163.676 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( also has to engage with the vexed question of chronology, not merely content )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with disrupting and complicating a popular narrative of a 1960s sexual revolution, as authors such as Matt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Houlbrook and Frank Mort have done so successfully, but constructing a long account of change. In doing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so Brooke has set himself the unenviable task of writing a history which tries to find continuities between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figures as disparate as Tony Blair and Edward Carpenter.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carpenter features heavily in the first chapter, which considers the connection between emerging socialist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought and sexual reform between the 1880s and the 1920s. According to Brooke two strands of socialist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought on sex emerged in this era. The first, exemplified through authors such as Carpenter, Karl Pearson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Olive Schreiner, was utopian and saw sex as ?a transformative force in the remaking of the world? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p.35\). The second was more quotidian and concentrated on improving the day-to-day experiences of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working-class women. By highlighting this second strand Brooke sets out one of his central interventions ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an emphasis on the enduring significance of class in the politics of sexuality. He shows how organisations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as the Fabian Women?s Group \(FWG\) challenged the centrality of the male breadwinner to the nascent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement?s analysis by arguing for action to improve the material conditions of working-class mothers. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The supply of contraception was vital to this, leading to Stella Browne to declare that ?[n]o economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changes would give equality or self determination to any women unable to chose or refuse motherhood? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(33\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the subsequent chapters we see how this concentration on the working-class family and the working-class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mother in particular translated into calls for a change in the inter-war Labour Party?s policies on both birth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control and abortion. It is here where another of the key themes of the book emerges, the tendency of Labour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activists to campaign for sexual reform by expanding and redefining the existing ideas of society rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aiming to completely overturn them. In the 1920s and 1930s, as unemployment was placing long-term )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pressure on the dominant ideology of the male breadwinner model, family groups such as the Workers Birth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Control Group \(WBCG\) sought to highlight the burdens which child birth and child rearing placed on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working-class women. They challenged the concentration of the labour movement on the body of the male )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worker by drawing equivalence between domestic, reproductive labour, and manual, industrial labour. They )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therefore argued for placing the material conditions of women at the centre of the Labour Party?s policy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(programme, declaring, in Brooke?s words, that ?Citizenship had to include workers of hand, mind and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(womb? \(p. 55\). The WBCG argued for women?s rights and citizenship with the existing language of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(socialism, underpinned by the in some ways conservative concept of maternalism. Similar arguments came )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up in the case of abortion, the subject of chapter four. Using the debate around the 1938 Bourne case and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subsequent Interdepartmental Committee on Abortion as his basis, Brooke shows how the Abortion Law )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reform Association \(a pressure group he argues was uniquely close to the Labour Party\) and East Midlands )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Working Women?s Association \(EMWWA\) presented the case for wider access to terminations. The mostly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middle-class advocates of ALRA emphasised both the necessity of abortion for controlling family size in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depression, and the way in which working-class women were especially forced towards unsafe terminations. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The EMWWA by contrast emphasised the way that the depression had changed the structure of working )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(families, leading to far more women taking on a wage earning role. In Brooke?s words ?[t]hese working-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class women stressed the complexity of the female body and their desire for agency to reconcile its various )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(roles in a modern society and economy? \(p. 111\). Bodily autonomy, and therefore access to abortion, was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seen as a vital part of this new vision of working-class femininity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In between these two accounts lies chapter three, which considers sexual politics through the lives and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writings of two socialist women, Dora Russell and Naomi Mitchinson. This forms something of an anomaly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the book, looking at the interactions between the personal lives of specific activists and their emerging )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political philosophy rather than the development of the case for specific reforms. Brooke acknowledges this, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pointing out that despite Russell?s important role in the WBCG, her personal life story and writings did not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have a large influence on either sexual reform or socialist politics. Indeed the political philosophy developed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in this chapter is in stark contrast with the rest of the book. These authors? ?belief that sex offered an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience of personal transcendence that could permeate society? \(p. 66\) and particularly Russell?s )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7447 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concentration on the importance of pleasure, shows a different focus to mainstream sexual politics which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasised the material consequences and dangers of sex. The chapter recognises the difficulty with which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people with radical sexual philosophies acted out such beliefs, describing Dora Russell?s marriage to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philosopher Bertrand Russell and how eventually ?[t]he power relations that Russell hoped would be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assuaged through love eventually overwhelmed that love? \(p. 90\). The chapter is an intriguing addition, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sensitively exploring the connection between the personal and the political in a general account which leans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heavily on the institutional.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The middle section of the book deals with the legislative reforms of the Wilson governments: the Sexual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Offences Act which decriminalised some homosexual offences, the Abortion Act which widened access to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terminations, and the National Health Service \(Family Planning\) Act which allowed the NHS to supply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contraception to women regardless of age or marital status. Rejecting a simplistic popular narrative of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?permissive society? as an outburst of libertinism located solely in the late 1960s, Brooke shows the long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(term antecedents of the reforms and the decades-long shifts in the UK and Labour polity that led to them. By )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1940s and 1950s arguments which had been marginal in the inter-war period became accepted parts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mainstream debate; the discussion of birth control in particular went from being an issue many within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Labour Party were weary of discussing to a regular, accepted part of family life, as Brooke shows by looking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at the evidence submitted to the Royal Commission on the Population. At the same time affluence and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasing number of women \(including married women\) entering the work place changed how the working-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class woman was viewed. The ability to control fertility was no longer seen as vital for ameliorating poverty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but instead was to keep the working-class family within the sphere of modernisation. By protecting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women?s new found role outside of the home making, birth control became ?central to the protection of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new protagonist of post war society, the working women; in this way, reproductive control was moving from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one understanding of class rooted in the family to another understanding of class rooted in the individual? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(143\). Class, and indeed the heterosexual family, remained central to reproductive politics in the 1950s ? but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there were hints of the later move towards individualism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brooke argues for four specific shifts in polity which brought long standing issues of sexual reform to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fore in the 1960s, and led some at the top of the Labour Party to make them a priority for legislation. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first is the rise of labour revisionism, personified in Antony Crosland, which sought to reconsider Labour?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class and ideological base in the light of the election defeats of the 1950s. This led figures such as future )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Health Secretary Kenneth Robinson to declare, echoing the WBCG, that family planning had to be a central )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part of any family welfare policy. Secondly the sociological ?rediscovery of poverty? brought attention to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fact that wide number of women and children had been missed out by the post-war boom. Thirdly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(controversy around the arrests of several prominent men for homosexual offences and the subsequent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wolfenden report into homosexual offences and prostitution had revealed the limits of the post-war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(settlement when considering the issue of individual liberty. Fourthly, an increase in the explicitness of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular culture meant that such subjects were more widely and comfortably discussed. Whilst agreeing with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the historical consensus that both the Abortion Act and the Sexual Offences Act were primarily utilitarian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reforms, as notable for their limits as their achievements, Brooke argues for their chronological importance. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1967 represented a peak of sexual politics, where pressure groups such as the Homosexual Law Reform )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Society and ALRA were at the centre of the political process, and after their limited successes sexual politics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would retreat to the periphery for a time. Also, because of their limited nature, the compromises achieved in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1967 would have an important role in determining patterns of sexual politics for years to come.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The continuing effect of the settlement of 1967 is one of the main insights of part three which considers the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emergence of Women?s and Gay Liberation. Brooke sees the absorption of the policy case for gay and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women?s rights, and many feminist and gay rights activists, in the mainstream of the Labour party as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(product of the space created by the divisions in the Labour party of the 1970s and 1980s. Whilst agreeing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the historical consensus that these movements fundamentally challenged the assumptions of socialism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he emphasises the compromise and adaption required for their absorption into the mainstream. In chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seven he describes how although free access to abortion was officially adopted as an aim by the party in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mid 1970s, actual parliamentary activity was based around defending the Abortion Act. Attacks from )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 21 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7612 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(various MPs such as John Corrie in 1979 and David Alton in 1987?8 attempted to restrict the Abortion Act )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than repeal it, by chipping away at term limits and the circumstances in which an abortion could be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allowed. This meant that the primary focus of parliamentary action was between the extremes of being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(completely anti-abortion and wanting to keep the act as it was, leaving little space for arguments about a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(genuine extension of women?s rights.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter eight seeks to explore how gay rights came into the mainstream of the Labour Party. Working )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within the Labour Party both required an engagement with the reformism, which was something the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radical, and most frequently celebrated, parts of the Gay Liberation movement had rejected, instead wanting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to change the whole nature of society. It was the direct challenge of the Thatcher Government?s Section 28 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which convinced both the gay movement to engage with the parliamentary centre and the Labour Party to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(launch its first full-throated defence of gay rights. In order to work within the Labour Party the gay rights )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement had to abandon its more millenarian ideas about the destruction of sexual categories and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abolition of the nuclear family. Instead it embraced identity as a basis for political action, arguing not for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutionary change in society but for gay rights to be seen as a natural part of a modern civilised society. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gay rights, like pro-choice politics, therefore gained a place at the centre of the Labour party through a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rhetoric of individual rights, rather than more utopian social change.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Readers of books with subtitles including the phrase ?to the present day? will be used to approaching final )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters with a degree of caution. Brooke?s account of the Blair years, both in opposition and in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government, describes both how gay rights became a central part of his administration and how Parliament )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fell into the, by now usual, defensive pattern on the issue of abortion. The chapter demonstrates how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sexually autonomous individual became the basis of New Labour sexual reforms. Such an individual was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(now seen, in contrast to the socialist utopians of the 1880s, as someone who could be absorbed into existing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(societal \(and economic\) structures. The family was not destroyed, as revolutionary gay activists had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proposed in the 1970s, but its definition was expanded to include gay people. Therefore the adoption of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gay rights agenda was fully compatible with the Labour Party?s move to the centre and adoption of a more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individualistic stance. Brooke argues his case well but it slightly undermined by the unfortunate decision to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make this final narrative chapter the book?s conclusion. This at first glance gives the book a teleological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feel, making the nature of the Blair reforms seem like the inevitable outcome of debates which preceded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them rather than the historically specific and contingent actions they were. Brooke carefully argues against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this in the final page of the chapter which attempts a synoptic consideration of the changing nature of sexual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics during his century-long time period. In it he argues that the most ?powerful and far reaching change )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(came from the shifting understanding of traditional ideas? \(p. 268\); sexual reform was secured through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adapting to changing definitions of family and gender in society rather than aiming to revolutionise society )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entirely.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is entirely convincing on the centrality of socialist thought to sexual politics, showing clearly how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(calls for sex reform have evolved in line with socialism and the Labour Party. However it might have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(improved by a more focused concentration on those socialist voices who sought to stop sex being part of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(socialist programmes. Sex reform has a unique place within Labour Party programmes due to the use of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unofficial constitutional tool of the ?conscience? vote on all abortion and many gay rights votes. Abortion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(access may have been Labour policy since 1976, and membership of the Labour Party is still a more reliable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indicator that an MP will vote pro-choice than any other factor \(including gender )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 425.612 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 425.612 188.835 m 439.604 188.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 439.604 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), but, unlike other parts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the programme, issues of sexuality are almost unique in having a procedure to allow individual MPs, from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(back bench to cabinet, to vote against the line of either leadership or the party. Sex reform, unlike say )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe, nuclear defence or nationalism, has never been seen as worth splitting the party over, or converted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into a shibboleth of membership. Brooke gives us a clear image of the socialist politics of sexual reform, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the socialist of politics of sexual conservatism remain under explored.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The decision to limit the work to its three chosen areas also elides certain wider issues. Brooke specifically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(declares he is leaving aside venereal disease, sex education and divorce ?in part because some of these issues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were not covered in detail or consistency by the Left? \(p. 3\). Which provokes the obvious question: why? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given the importance of family structure to Brooke?s argument, the silence on the issue of divorce is )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj [18 0 R /Fit] endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 425.6117 189.1495 439.6037 201.0295 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R 27 0 R 29 0 R ] /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 4064 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly perplexing. One possible explanation is that such issues did not have either the clear material )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(need seen in the case of birth control, or the clear and vocal constituency which emerged in the case of gay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rights; but a more detailed analysis of these silences would be useful. Furthermore, the topics on which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brooke concentrates are those where some form of ?liberal? policy consensus has emerged, on which most, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the caveats above, of the Labour Party \(and indeed, historians of sexuality\) would agree; he doesn?t )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consider more consistently divisive issues such as the regulation of pornography and prostitution. In the case )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of pornography, even if we ignore the extra-parliamentary left, Labour figures have hardly been silent on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issue ? from Roy Jenkins? backing of the Obscene Publications Act and the Callaghan government?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commissioning of the Williams report, through Claire Short?s campaign on page three, to New Labour?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legislation on ?extreme pornography?. Why this activity never cohered into any consistent socialist, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Labour, line on so fraught an issue is worthy of historical exploration.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brooke makes an enlightening case about areas of consensus, where reforms were fought for loudly and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achieved; however the book raises the questions of the silences, the disagreements and the failures which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were equally important characteristics of the relationship between the Labour Party and sexual reform. These )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are not, as the clich goes, mere quibbles, but examples of the fruitful lines of enquiry that Brooke?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach can inspire; he has written a book which should provoke debate and focus minds for years to come.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 535.731 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 505.114 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Phillip Cowley and Mark Stewart, ?Party rules, ok: voting in the House of Commons on the Human )] TJ ET BT 64.016 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fertilisation and Embryology Bill?, )] TJ ET BT 237.692 490.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Parliamentary Affairs)] TJ ET BT 343.364 490.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 349.364 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(63, 1 \(2010\), 173?81.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 452.684 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 452.684 489.459 m 506.672 489.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 464.597 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 450.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Times Literary Supplement)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 436.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.the-tls.co.uk/tls/public/article1063730.ece)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 434.691 m 293.336 434.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 296.336 436.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 431.359 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 413.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 413.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1309)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 412.185 m 328.316 412.185 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 387.208 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 372.808 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/30650)] TJ ET BT 34.016 358.408 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.the-tls.co.uk/tls/public/article1063730.ece)] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 452.6837 489.7735 506.6717 501.6535 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 20 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 435.0055 293.3357 446.8855 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.the-tls.co.uk/tls/public/article1063730.ece) >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 412.4995 328.3157 424.3795 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1309) >> endobj xref 0 31 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000608 00000 n 0000000690 00000 n 0000005172 00000 n 0000005281 00000 n 0000005391 00000 n 0000005500 00000 n 0000009061 00000 n 0000009189 00000 n 0000009273 00000 n 0000009338 00000 n 0000016851 00000 n 0000016916 00000 n 0000024416 00000 n 0000024500 00000 n 0000032165 00000 n 0000032195 00000 n 0000032323 00000 n 0000032359 00000 n 0000032457 00000 n 0000036574 00000 n 0000036702 00000 n 0000036757 00000 n 0000036884 00000 n 0000036990 00000 n 0000037118 00000 n trailer << /Size 31 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 37214 %%EOF