%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 28 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 57 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140730114029+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140730114029+01'00') /Title (Robespierre: A Revolutionary Life) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4206 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Robespierre: A Revolutionary Life)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Like his spiritual hero, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Robespierre retained an enduring affection for dogs. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(delighted in their companionship, and after long days spent toiling in the National Convention, was often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seen walking his beloved hound, Brount, through the Champs-lyses in Paris. Such a detail might seem )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immaterial to other biographers, but it represents the kind of factual embellishment that captures the tone of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter McPhee?s new and highly accomplished study of the person who came to be known as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Incorruptible. McPhee, a specialist on revolutionary France, guides us assuredly from Robespierre?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upbringing in Arras, a provincial town in northeast France, through the stormy crucible of the Revolution, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which saw him reach the apex of power, to his painful execution in 1794.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In tracing this narrative arc, McPhee?s primary endeavour, in which he succeeds admirably, is to humanise a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figure commonly depicted as a murderous tyrant, presiding over the bloody maelstrom that swept across )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France between September 1793 and July 1794. Such a view has traditionally seen Robespierre take on a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role analogous to the Roman deity Saturn, ravenously devouring the children of the Revolution, severing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heads of ?fripons? whose counter-revolutionary instincts threatened France?s inexorable march toward )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(republican rhapsody. He was the blood-spattered forefather to the despotic progenies of the 20th century, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and, according to Lord Action, ?the most hateful character in the forefront of history since Machiavelli?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 535.904 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 535.904 60.345 m 549.896 60.345 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1311)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 30 August, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter McPhee)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780300118117)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(352pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Haven, CT)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gavin Jacobson)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 535.9037 60.6595 549.8957 72.5395 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7631 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McPhee rescues Robespierre from such venom, stripping away the layers of myth and prejudice that have set )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over the years to show us a somewhat tragic figure, more slave than master to the events of his time.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Likewise, McPhee is able to present his subject in a sincere and sympathetic light without drifting into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(realms of hagiography that has defined a competing, if slightly fainter, historiographical trend, which cast )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robespierre as a virtuous lawgiver dressed in the robes of Lycurgus. In the 20th century, for instance, it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under the scholarship of academic titans like Albert Mathiez, founder of the Socit des etudes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(robespierristes, and his successor Georges Lefebvre, that Robespierre?s reputation reached the highest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(registers of acclaim with Lefebvre describing him as the ?immovable and incorruptible head of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolutionary resistance?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 161.324 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 161.324 669.027 m 175.316 669.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So the life of this Advocate of Arras \(as Thomas Carlyle called him\) has been vehemently contested between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those who see him as the vain and paranoid dynamic at the heart of the Terror, and those who believe him to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personify a politics of virtue, uncompromising in his pursuit to defend the principles of )] TJ ET BT 454.988 615.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(libert)] TJ ET BT 486.320 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 492.320 615.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(galit)] TJ ET BT 524.984 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(fraternit)] TJ ET BT 79.352 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. With respect to both his defenders and his decriers, Robespierre?s portrait has always been at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mercy of their contrasting ideological palates, and is often tethered to the oscillating fortunes of the radical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(left in republican France. McPhee?s study, however, refuses to be weighed down with any of this ideological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(baggage, and is defined by an interpretive steadiness that has proved elusive for many.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Like all other studies, McPhee subscribes to the central idea that Robespierre remains central to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding the story of the Revolution. As Ruth Scurr has argued in her excellent, and highly acclaimed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study: ?Robespierre?s self and the Revolution cannot be separated?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 360.284 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 360.284 502.467 m 374.276 502.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 374.276 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Likewise, one of the most influential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians of the French Revolution, and certainly no admirer of Robespierre, Franois Furet, argued that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robespierre incarnated the Revolution, and was able to articulate its message and meaning better than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anyone else.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 93.332 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 93.332 459.699 m 107.324 459.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 107.324 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( McPhee?s message is no different.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McPhee begins with Robespierre?s formative years in Arras. Born on 6 May 1758, his father, Franois )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Derobespierre, was a local lawyer, and while never affluent the family was financially comfortable. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, tragedy struck five years later when young Maximilien?s mother died in childbirth. Not long after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that his father left in order to take a job in another town, and although making sporadic trips back to Arras )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(never took responsibility for raising Robespierre, and his three younger siblings. Having been farmed out to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(various aunts and grandparents, Robespierre eventually left Arras in October 1769 to take up a place at an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elite secondary school in Paris.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robespierre?s time at Lyce Louis-le-Grand is the focus of chapter two. McPhee describes the thoroughly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humanist programme of study that he pursued for the next 12 years. In addition to the traditional Christian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writings of Boussuet and Fnelon, it was Latin, and the history of the Roman Republic that dominated the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(curriculum. Compared to the absolutism and hyper decadence of the French monarchy, the classical virtues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(described in the works of Tacitus, Livy, Sallust, and Cicero, resonated powerfully in the imagination of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robespierre. \(These were to become the intellectual referents that peppered his political speeches during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolution\). He was a gifted student, and his proficiency in Latin earned him the sobriquet ?The Roman?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He left the college in 1781 and returned to Arras to begin his career a provincial lawyer. In chapter three, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McPhee notes that it was during this time that the content of his core moral assumptions began to take shape, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and he utilised the forum provided by the courts to defend the underprivileged, and attack the frivolous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wealth of the rich. His legal speeches were pitched in a decidedly accusatory key, and were loaded with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broad and bold pronouncements concerning the wider inequalities he perceived in society. But it was only a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(short time before it became obvious he had reached the zenith of cultural and intellectual life in Arras, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exhausted his potential in the Artois province.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When the Estates-General was formally summoned by Louis XVI in 1789, Robespierre was given the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chance to articulate these grievances to a national audience. Chapter four details Robespierre?s successful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(campaign to be elected as a deputy to attend this historic gathering in Versailles. He presented himself as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defender of the interests of working people, fulminating against the poverty from which the poor suffered, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 161.3237 669.3415 175.3157 681.2215 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 360.2837 502.7815 374.2757 514.6615 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 93.3317 460.0135 107.3237 471.8935 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 31 0 R ] /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 8016 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and his writings and speeches were laced with a rich odium towards the moneyed and powerful.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter five takes us to Versailles and the beginning of the Revolution. McPhee describes Robespierre?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reactions to the momentous events of that year, such as the storming of the Bastille, the municipal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutions \(known as )] TJ ET BT 143.672 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(la Grand Peur)] TJ ET BT 213.668 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), the August decrees on feudalism, and the drafting of the )] TJ ET BT 495.944 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Declaration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen)] TJ ET BT 220.028 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. In the latter case, Robespierre played a distinctly minimal role ? this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was the time of Sieys ? other than the occasional intervention in support of progressive taxation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(freedom of the press, and to advocate that office holders reflect the will of the people. However, even if his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thumbprints were light on the Revolution?s early days, McPhee notes how Robespierre was more attuned to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the revolutionary forces at work than many of his contemporaries. In comparison to others, stunned by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dizzying speeds with which France was changing politically and socially, ?Robespierre was one of those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who understood what the Revolution might entail? \(p. 68\). He was not indifferent to the initial outburst of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violence that accompanied the Bastille?s fall, but he was prepared to accept that the downfall of stubborn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oppression would not transpire without some inevitable episodes of bloody retribution. During these first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years of constitutional monarchy Robespierre also began to elaborate on his conception of political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legitimacy, attempting to reconcile Rousseau?s ideal of direct participation in political life with the genuine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exigencies of governing a large country. He also confronted the enduring tension faced by many republicans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at this time, namely that only a virtuous citizenry could enable a true democracy to thrive, but the people, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while naturally good, had been morally corrupted beyond recognition by centuries of monarchical and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(despotic rule.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From the middle of the 1790s, Robespierre began to receive increased attention and popularity. In chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(six, McPhee describes his steady rise in the public conscience. We are treated to neat anecdotes regarding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robespierre?s seeming popularity with women, and the new friendships be formed with other aspiring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figures of the day, such as the young lieutenant colonel of the National Guard, Louis-Antoine Saint-Just. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robespierre was never charismatic, and he never possessed the rhetorical thunder that his friend Danton did, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but his increased stature in the Jacobin Club, and in the Assembly, was based on ?a combination of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extraordinary resolve and compelling argument? \(p. 97\). He was relentless, and his untiring commitment to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the principles of the Revolution had led to a new sobriquet in 1791: Incorruptible)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In October 1791 Robespierre left Paris, and returned briefly to his hometown of Arras. But after a fairly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mixed reception both publically and personally, he decided to leave again, and travel the surrounding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(countryside to see friends, and ponder the tumultuous events of the last couple of years. It was at this time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that he penned his most passionate and heartfelt reflection: )] TJ ET BT 318.968 332.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dedication to the Spirit of Jean-Jacques )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rousseau)] TJ ET BT 80.012 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. While McPhee draws the parallels between two men who had lost their mothers in childbirth, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then seen their fathers desert them, he argues that the source of Robespierre?s affection was not based on any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparable domestic experience. Instead, Robespierre, no different from many of his generation, identified )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with Rousseau?s republic of virtue, and the extraordinary manner in which his writings served as a means of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpreting the Revolution. One aspect of this reverence that McPhee skims over is the notion of emulation. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The concept, and practice, of emulating heroes of former times is central to the republican tradition \(and in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much need of further investigation\), and was key for many of the revolutionaries, especially Robespierre. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With a kind of Cynic determination, he wished to emulate the example of Rousseau ? ?that subtle Diogenes? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as Kant called him ? by living in accordance with the principle maxims of his own moral doctrine.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 505.952 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 505.952 203.091 m 519.944 203.091 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 519.944 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something that McPhee does not explore enough, but which might have brought into sharp relief a side of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robespierre that was central to his moral and political behaviour.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Towards the end of 1791 the issue of war began to rear its head. Chapter eight examines Robespierre?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critical engagement with Brissot and the Girondins who advocated an expansionary war of liberation. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrast, Robespierre argued for a war of defence, advocating the armed mobilisation of the National Guard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to defend )] TJ ET BT 82.004 106.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(la patrie)] TJ ET BT 123.008 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( if its frontiers were breached. But on this issue he cut a rather lonely figure in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Legislative Assembly, facing a torrent of personal invective over his position on both this issue, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general direction of the Revolution. Overall, McPhee tells us, it was a ?difficult period for Robespierre? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(116\). It is around this time that he began to complain about his physical health; the constant demands of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work, coupled with the strains of propelling the revolutionary project further, beginning to take their toll. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 505.9517 203.4055 519.9437 215.2855 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 34 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Length 7088 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After France declared war against Austria on 20 April 1792, Robespierre focused his efforts on ensuring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(firstly that France would triumph, and secondly that it was done in the name of universal principles against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tyrants, and not in the name of aggressive expansion against peoples. Indeed such hostility towards territorial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expansion fed into his initial hesitations over the idea of a republic. From the writings of Plutarch, Tacitus, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Livy, and, of course, Rousseau, Robespierre knew that the survival of republics was fixed to their size, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were unlikely to function effectively, if at all, across large territorial regions. This was the source of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reluctance to call for a republic following Louis XVI?s capture at Varennes in June 1791.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By the middle of 1792 Robespierre?s brand of politics, with its emphasis on popular sovereignty, direct )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political action, mass mobilisation, and civic virtue began to dovetail with the prevailing concerns and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demands of the Parisian masses. Chapter nine describes Robespierre?s reactions to the seminal events of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early 1790s, all of which marked a turning point in the Revolution. The first was the overthrow of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarchy in August 10 1792, while second was the trial and execution of the king. In the latter case, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robespierre had to reconcile his proclaimed abhorrence of the death penalty with the certainty that ?Louis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(must die because the homeland must live?. Louis Capet was eventually executed, but in accomplishing this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(act of revolutionary justice, the French invited a new set of dangers. It intensified the threat of foreign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invasion on the part of Europe?s remaining royal powers, and opened up the ideological cleavages across the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nation; fissures that would soon come to define Robespierre?s mental landscape. It was also during this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tumultuous period that Robespierre offered a restatement of his political philosophy by drafting a new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen)] TJ ET BT 281.024 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. McPhee gives us a thorough overview of the various )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dimensions to this document, including the powerful sense of internationalism and fraternity that shaped it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By the summer of 1793 the Republic was truly )] TJ ET BT 261.668 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(en danger)] TJ ET BT 309.992 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Insurrection had erupted in the Vende while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreign armies were swarming into the country. Robespierre was worn out, and as his physical strength )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(waned the enemies of the revolution, disguised in the costumes of patriots, grew inexorably in his mind. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(now catalogued the forces of the Revolution into a dangerous set of binary distinctions: friends and enemies, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patriots and traitors, liberty and tyranny. Such a mind-set typified the members of the Committee of Public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Safety, which Robespierre joined in July 1793 as a member without portfolio. Chapter ten explores )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robespierre?s first month as a member of this de facto government, focusing on his endeavour to devise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modes of civic regeneration for the nation. McPhee also explores the nature of what is known as ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Terror?. Instead of casting Robespierre as prime architect he argues that it was ?the desperate nature of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crisis of mid-1793, and the lack of resources to deal with it, that forced the deputies into reluctant suspension )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of civil liberties they would normally have seen as untouchable? \(p. 165\). ?The Terror?, McPhee argues, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should not be seen as a ?monolith? but as a)] TJ ET BT 64.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(series of emergency measures designed to defeat invading armies and counter-revolution in all )] TJ ET BT 64.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its guises, to meet the grievances of urban and rural people, and to control the actions of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(militants who claimed to represent the people?s will \(pp. 165?6\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By 1794 Robespierre was physically and emotionally shattered, and long bouts of illness meant that he was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(away from the Committee and National Convention. The Republic was struggling for its very survival, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robespierre saw conspiracy and threat lurking in all places, including in the words and deeds of some of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(closest associates, Danton and Camille Desmoulins. Appeals to terror as an escort to virtue became more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frequent, and the war had ?fundamentally changed Robespierre?s attitude to bloodshed?; it was now seen as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?part of the machinery of government? \(p. 194\). Chapter 11 explores the last year of Robespierre?s life, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pays particular attention to his final strategy to accelerate the process of civic regeneration: the Cult of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Supreme Being. For McPhee this represented an attempt to ?resolve the central conundrum in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of the Revolution? \(p. 197\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final chapter \(titled ?The unhappiest man alive?\) looks at July 1794, Robespierre?s last month. By this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stage of McPhee?s study we are reading the story of a somewhat tragic figure; paranoid, on the brink of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(physical collapse, with no family life to speak of, and who had become unable, McPhee states, ?to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 38 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R 51 0 R 53 0 R 55 0 R ] /Contents 36 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Length 9545 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinguish between dissent and treason? \(p. 216\). His death was equally painful. During his arrest he was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shot in the jaw, and after lying in agony for 17 hours was executed by guillotine, but not before the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(executioner ripped away the bandages holding his jaw together, prompting a ?hideous roar of pain? \(p. 220\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McPhee marshals a mass of primary and secondary materials to give us a marvellously compelling, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highly erudite study of Robespierre \(although, as he makes clear in the acknowledgements, recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acquisitions of Robespierre?s first drafts of some of his speeches by the Archives Nationales happened too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(late to be included in his study\). The question is: what distinguishes McPhee?s book from the others, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially that of Scurr?s, which arguably gives a more complete picture of 18th-century France, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context in which Robespierre rose to power?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The answer comes in three parts. First, McPhee continually draws us back to Robespierre?s upbringing in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arras, and at the Lyce Louis-le-Grand. He accentuates the importance of these formative years not only on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robespierre?s philosophical development, but also on his political considerations. ?From the outset of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolution?, McPhee remarks, ?Robespierre had been caught between his commitment to the general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(direction that the revolutionary reform should take and his role as a deputy of a province with distinctive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characteristics and privileges? \(p. 98\). The vector of Robespierre?s thoughts and actions is continually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assessed with reference to his past, making for a richer, more complicated Robespierre, one possessing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerns and considerations outside of the violent world of Year II.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is certainly a more complete image than we have been treated to in the past. Second, McPhee?s study )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows the central dynamo at the heart Robespierre?s thoughts and actions, which was a determination to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(propel the revolutionary enterprise forward, and avoid at all costs its stagnation.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 417.620 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 417.620 488.211 m 431.612 488.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 431.612 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( For Robespierre, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jacobins, the revolution must move forward or face collapse. Yet while he helped to accelerate that progress, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McPhee shows us that Robespierre never stood back or above it. Just like everyone else, he was swept up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and tossed around in the Revolution?s powerful torrents, often unable to control the revolutionary forces that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he unleashed from the centres of power. Finally, the clue of McPhee?s great contribution lies in the book?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(title. It was a real ?Revolutionary Life? because while the Revolution made Robespierre it also destroyed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(him. More than any other biographer, McPhee focuses on Robespierre?s fading physical condition, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humanising a man who was slowly stripped of his Incorruptibility. Colin Jones sums this up well in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book?s cover blurb: ?Robespierre emerges less as the man who ruined the Revolution than as a man the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolution ruined?. Writing in 1941, the historian Marc Bloch wrote: ?Robespierrists, anti-Robespierrists, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we?ve had enough. We say, for pity?s sake, simply tell who was Robespierre?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 409.604 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 409.604 345.651 m 423.596 345.651 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 423.596 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McPhee?s excellent book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reminds us that behind all of the myth, all of the hatred and the praise, he was a man of flesh and blood.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 297.891 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 267.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 267.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lord Acton, )] TJ ET BT 125.672 267.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lectures on the French Revolution)] TJ ET BT 292.316 267.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. J. N. Figgis & R. V. Laurence, \(London, 1910\), p. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 253.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(300.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 85.016 253.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 85.016 251.619 m 139.004 251.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 238.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Georges Lefebvre, ?Remarks on Robespierre?, trans. B. F. Hyslop, in )] TJ ET BT 400.616 238.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(French Historical Studies)] TJ ET BT 524.612 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 1, 1 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1958\), 10.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 117.008 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 117.008 223.107 m 170.996 223.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 210.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ruth Scurr, )] TJ ET BT 122.348 210.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fatal Purity: Robespierre and the French Revolution)] TJ ET BT 378.320 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(London, 2006\), p. 6.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 486.644 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 486.644 208.851 m 540.632 208.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 195.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Franois Furet, )] TJ ET BT 139.676 195.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(La Penser la Rvolution franaise)] TJ ET BT 303.668 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(Paris, 1978\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 374.660 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 374.660 194.595 m 428.648 194.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 181.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the concept of the philosophical life see Pierre Hadot, )] TJ ET BT 342.296 181.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Qu?est-ce que la philosophie antique?)] TJ ET BT 527.612 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Paris, 1995\) & idem., )] TJ ET BT 174.344 167.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(La Philosophie comme manire de vivire)] TJ ET BT 371.312 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(Paris, 2003\). On Rousseau and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philosophy as a way of life see Bernard Groethuysen, )] TJ ET BT 323.960 153.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Philosophie de la Rvolution franaise)] TJ ET BT 510.620 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(Paris, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1956\); Jean Starobinski, )] TJ ET BT 183.344 138.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Jean-Jacques Rousseau: Transparency and Obstruction)] TJ ET BT 452.636 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, trans. A. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Goldhammer \(Chicago, 1988\); Raymond Trousson, )] TJ ET BT 314.996 124.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rousseau et sa fortune littraires)] TJ ET BT 474.332 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(Ducros, 1971\). )] TJ ET BT 64.016 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On Rousseau and Robespierre see Carol Blum, )] TJ ET BT 292.652 110.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rousseau and the Republic of Virtue: The Language of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 96.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Politics in the French Revolution)] TJ ET BT 223.340 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(Ithaca, NY, 1986\), chapters 8 and 13.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 413.288 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 413.288 94.803 m 467.276 94.803 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 81.946 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This aspect of Jacobinism has been well made by Patrice Higonnet in his )] TJ ET BT 416.972 81.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Goodness Beyond Virtue: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 67.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Jacobins during the French Revolution)] TJ ET BT 251.996 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(Cambridge, MA, 1998\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 377.648 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 377.648 66.291 m 431.636 66.291 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 53.434 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marc Bloch, )] TJ ET BT 127.004 53.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Apologie pour l?histoire, ou mtier d?historien)] TJ ET BT 354.344 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(Paris, 1949\), p. 70.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 455.336 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 455.336 52.035 m 509.324 52.035 l S endstream endobj 37 0 obj [35 0 R /Fit] endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 417.6197 488.5255 431.6117 500.4055 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 40 0 obj [35 0 R /Fit] endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 409.6037 345.9655 423.5957 357.8455 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 85.0157 251.9335 139.0037 263.8135 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 117.0077 223.4215 170.9957 235.3015 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 486.6437 209.1655 540.6317 221.0455 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 374.6597 194.9095 428.6477 206.7895 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 52 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 413.2877 95.1175 467.2757 106.9975 ] >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 30 0 R >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 54 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 377.6477 66.6055 431.6357 78.4855 ] >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 37 0 R >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 56 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 455.3357 52.3495 509.3237 64.2295 ] >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 40 0 R >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 59 0 R 61 0 R 63 0 R 65 0 R ] /Contents 58 0 R >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Length 1995 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Guardian)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2012/feb/12/robespierre-revolutionary-peter-mcphee-review)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 766.563 m 488.252 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 491.252 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The New Republic)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.tnr.com/book/review/robespierre-revolutionary-life-peter-mcphee)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 738.051 m 407.264 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 410.264 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historyextra.com)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.historyextra.com/book-review/robespierre-revolutionary-life)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 709.539 m 382.616 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 385.616 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 706.207 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 688.427 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 688.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1311)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 687.033 m 328.316 687.033 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 662.056 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 647.656 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/30657)] TJ ET BT 34.016 633.256 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2012/feb/12/robespierre-revolutionary-peter-mcphee-review)] TJ ET BT 34.016 618.856 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.tnr.com/book/review/robespierre-revolutionary-life-peter-mcphee)] TJ ET BT 34.016 604.456 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4] http://www.historyextra.com/book-review/robespierre-revolutionary-life)] TJ ET endstream endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 60 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 766.8775 488.2517 778.7575 ] >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2012/feb/12/robespierre-revolutionary-peter-mcphee-review) >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 62 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 738.3655 407.2637 750.2455 ] >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.tnr.com/book/review/robespierre-revolutionary-life-peter-mcphee) >> endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 64 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 709.8535 382.6157 721.7335 ] >> endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.historyextra.com/book-review/robespierre-revolutionary-life) >> endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 66 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 687.3475 328.3157 699.2275 ] >> endobj 66 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1311) >> endobj xref 0 67 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000550 00000 n 0000000639 00000 n 0000004897 00000 n 0000005006 00000 n 0000005116 00000 n 0000005225 00000 n 0000008786 00000 n 0000008914 00000 n 0000008998 00000 n 0000009027 00000 n 0000009153 00000 n 0000009189 00000 n 0000009287 00000 n 0000016971 00000 n 0000017001 00000 n 0000017129 00000 n 0000017165 00000 n 0000017195 00000 n 0000017323 00000 n 0000017359 00000 n 0000017389 00000 n 0000017516 00000 n 0000017552 00000 n 0000017636 00000 n 0000025705 00000 n 0000025735 00000 n 0000025863 00000 n 0000025899 00000 n 0000025964 00000 n 0000033105 00000 n 0000033245 00000 n 0000042843 00000 n 0000042873 00000 n 0000043001 00000 n 0000043037 00000 n 0000043067 00000 n 0000043195 00000 n 0000043231 00000 n 0000043358 00000 n 0000043413 00000 n 0000043541 00000 n 0000043596 00000 n 0000043724 00000 n 0000043779 00000 n 0000043907 00000 n 0000043962 00000 n 0000044089 00000 n 0000044144 00000 n 0000044270 00000 n 0000044325 00000 n 0000044451 00000 n 0000044506 00000 n 0000044611 00000 n 0000046659 00000 n 0000046786 00000 n 0000046927 00000 n 0000047054 00000 n 0000047180 00000 n 0000047307 00000 n 0000047429 00000 n 0000047557 00000 n trailer << /Size 67 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 47653 %%EOF