%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 32 0 R 43 0 R 60 0 R 95 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140830120233+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140830120233+01'00') /Title (Biography of an Empire. Governing Ottomans in an Age of Revolution) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R 21 0 R 24 0 R 27 0 R 30 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 5137 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Biography of an Empire. Governing Ottomans in an Age of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Revolution)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In modern Ottoman and Balkan history as in other fields, biographical studies have enjoyed a rather mixed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fortune. Earlier studies tended to be focused on ?great rulers?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 331.604 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 331.604 236.289 m 345.596 236.289 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 345.596 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In Britain, where there was a sentimental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tradition epitomized by Trevelyan?s writings on Garibaldi, historians often chose to write about figures from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the national revivals in individual Balkan countries or Turkey itself.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 359.984 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 359.984 207.777 m 373.976 207.777 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 373.976 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Some American-trained scholars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(used biography as a vehicle for writing about political ideas in the Balkans and the Near East, but continued )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to focus on characters associated with the national movements.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 336.296 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 336.296 179.265 m 350.288 179.265 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 350.288 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Things changed somewhat in the 1990s, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with reputed Ottomanists drawing attention to the potential utility of a biographical approach in shedding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(light on broader issues of social and cultural change.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 286.304 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 286.304 150.753 m 300.296 150.753 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 300.296 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In the course of that decade, scholars such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paschalis Kitromilides, Virginia Aksan and Katherine Fleming made skilful use of individual life-stories to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ask wider questions, not just about their subjects but also about the world in which they lived and which they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could be claimed to illustrate.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 176.336 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 176.336 107.985 m 190.328 107.985 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 190.328 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( More recently, others have given detailed treatment to a number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting personalities, particularly from the period of transition between the heights of Ottoman power )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the emergence of the national states.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 228.968 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 228.968 79.473 m 242.960 79.473 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In her book, Christine M. Philliou continues and consolidates this tradition with an extended reflection on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1312)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 6 September, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christine Philliou)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780520266353)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(320pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of California Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Berkeley, CA)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alex Drace-Francis)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 331.6037 236.6035 345.5957 248.4835 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 359.9837 208.0915 373.9757 219.9715 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 336.2957 179.5795 350.2877 191.4595 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 23 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 286.3037 151.0675 300.2957 162.9475 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 176.3357 108.2995 190.3277 120.1795 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 228.9677 79.7875 242.9597 91.6675 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 35 0 R 38 0 R 41 0 R ] /Contents 33 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Length 8544 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changing modes of governance in the Ottoman Empire, built around the figure of Stephanos Vogorides )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(c.1778?59\). The son of a livestock trader from Kotel \(in today?s south-central Bulgaria\), Stefanos was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(baptised ?Stoiko? but, under the influence of his uncle, Bishop of Vratsa, hellenized his name, made his way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first to Bucharest, where he studied at the Princely Academy, and thence to Istanbul, where he continued to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make progress and connections. He ended up in a position of great influence as a mediator between the Porte )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Western diplomats, so much so that he was nicknamed ?the Talleyrand of the East?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The lack of a book-length study on Vogorides was once lamented in an astute but regrettably unheeded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(footnote.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 77.012 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 77.012 683.283 m 91.004 683.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 91.004 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Half a century later, the idea behind it has been brought to fruition, and in an impressive and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imaginative fashion. Vogorides? career exemplifies aspects of social and cultural change which can be more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(easily ? and more vividly ? understood through biography than through sociological clichs such as ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transition from feudalism to capitalism? or ?the emergence of national consciousness?. However, it is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exactly a conventional biography. Rather, episodes from Vogorides? long and complicated life are given as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vignettes at the end of longer chapters detailing political, cultural and social transformation of the Ottoman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(polity. In her preface, Philliou proposes to focus not simply on ?the state? and its destabilization, but on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiences, institutions, networks and individual personalities \(p. xviii\). She sees family and patronage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationships as stretching across formal institutions and confessional divides \(p. xix\). And she seeks to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analyse Ottoman political order through identifying locations where formal and informal modes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governance intersect \(p. xxiv\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter one provides a revisionist overview of the much-discussed phenomenon of the Phanariots, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Orthodox Christians residing in the Phanar quarter of Istanbul who, in the 18th century, acquired control )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over the four key functions of Great Dragoman, )] TJ ET BT 266.288 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(voyvoda)] TJ ET BT 306.272 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of Moldavia, )] TJ ET BT 374.264 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(voyvoda)] TJ ET BT 414.248 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of Wallachia, and Dragoman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Fleet. This involved Christians in roles of tax collection, information-gathering and diplomatic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(negotiation, as well as considerable cultural and intellectual functions. Philliou gives insight into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(functioning of the Phanariot system through examination of a series of different sources. The first consists in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a list of subscribers to a )] TJ ET BT 150.668 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History of Old Dacia)] TJ ET BT 252.332 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( published in Greek in Vienna in 1818 and giving an idea of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complex range of ethnic, regional and social groups affiliated to a book publishing enterprise.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 483.608 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 483.608 414.675 m 497.600 414.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 497.600 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( A second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(section sees the Phanariots as viewed from the Ottoman chancery. While it is argued that there was no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(systematic policy towards them, a number of very interesting attitudes are quoted towards the ?Phanariot )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clique? \()] TJ ET BT 75.668 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(fenarl? tak?m?)] TJ ET BT 148.664 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). They are partly seen as a group prized for their loyalty, but also suspected for their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relations with Russia and Austria. Philliou then turns her attention to Phanariot investiture ceremony and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other aspects of court ritual. The final section of this chapter compares the Phanariots with Muslim notables, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notably the )] TJ ET BT 90.680 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ayans)] TJ ET BT 118.676 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of the Balkans and the Egyptian )] TJ ET BT 278.324 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(hanedans )] TJ ET BT 327.320 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(households\). The former then appear not as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unique phenomenon but as part of a more widespread process of transfer of power from the central Court to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the peripheral elites; and more especially a process that affected both Christian and Muslim peripheries in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similar ways.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter two, entitled ?Volatile synthesis?, continues the exploration of Ottoman governance in the period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after 1788. Rather than subscribe to the classic narratives of decline, modernization and ongoing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?backwardness?, Philliou continues with her micro-biographical method, providing fascinating insights into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the age by viewing the complex chain of events from 1788?1821 through the figures of Nicholas Mavroyeni, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Prince of Wallachia from 1786?90; Osman Pazvano?lu, formerly a mercenary in the service of the former, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and from 1794 Pasha of Vidin; and finally Halet Efendi \(c. 1765?1822\), a high Ottoman official who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(masterminded a number of important Phanariot appointments to office \(and depositions from them\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter three, ?Demolitions? is dedicated to what has since become known as the Greek War of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Independence. In contrast to most accounts, however, Philliou takes the step of narrating the course of events )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the location of Istanbul. Besides well-known sources such as the account of the British chaplain Robert )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Walsh, and British consular reports )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 206.660 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 206.660 105.555 m 220.652 105.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 220.652 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Philliou uses anonymous Greek-language narrative sources as well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as Ottoman archival documents. Ottoman reprisals targeted not only Christian elites but their Muslim )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abetters such as Halet Efendi, the former high official, beheaded and a note attached to his nose \(it is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exactly clear how\), calling him ?the man generally accused of being the cause of all the present distresses of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Empire?. Philliou shows the Ottoman reaction to be a complex process, linked with and simultaneous to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 34 0 obj [32 0 R /Fit] endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 77.0117 683.5975 91.0037 695.4775 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 37 0 obj [32 0 R /Fit] endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 483.6077 414.9895 497.5997 426.8695 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 40 0 obj [32 0 R /Fit] endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 206.6597 105.8695 220.6517 117.7495 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 46 0 R 49 0 R 52 0 R 55 0 R 58 0 R ] /Contents 44 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Length 8737 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the reform of the janissary corps and their eventual abolition in 1826. As such, the Greek Revolution can be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understood as ?one of several civil conflicts? rather than as a unique national war of secession \(pp. 80?1\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While some Phanariots fled after 1821 and integrated themselves into new states, there was a group of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(second-tier officials who seized their opportunity at this time, and constituted themselves into what might be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(called a )] TJ ET BT 74.000 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Phanar aprs Phanar)] TJ ET BT 178.664 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 181.664 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 181.664 726.051 m 201.656 726.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 201.656 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Chapters four to six continue the story in the period from 1821 to 1859. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first of these is somewhat miscellaneous, initially covering the dispersal of the Phanariot families after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1821: some enter the new Greek state, some flee to Russia, some continue to work in Moldavia and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wallachia. Moving on to consider Ottoman foreign relations in the 1830s and after, Philliou focuses on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Translation Bureau \()] TJ ET BT 133.328 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tercme odasi)] TJ ET BT 204.320 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), which historically has been seen as a site of modernization and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Western influence?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 135.308 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 135.308 654.771 m 155.300 654.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 155.300 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Here, however, it is seen as a logical necessity in the wake of the collapse of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Phanariot system, which had been one of the key mechanisms through which the Ottoman state conducted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relations with Western powers. She describes one or two cases in which an experienced phanariot might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?shadow? a newly-appointed Muslim \(in this case a convert, Yahya Efendi\) to ensure continuity and quality )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of work. However, as the story moves on into the 1850s, the influence of Vogorides and other ?post-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Phanariots? maintains itself, particularly in the realm of ecclesiastical affairs, which, we are reminded, was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ground of contention which led to British and French military intervention on behalf of the Ottoman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Empire against Russia, in the form of the Crimean War.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philliou?s work poses important and fascinating questions for the understanding not just of an individual life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but of how the Ottoman Empire continued to function after the major blows to its authority in the 18th and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early 19th centuries. Vogorides has usually been read simplistically as one of Ottoman history?s ?villains?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who backed the wrong horse, failing to understand the inevitability of Ottoman decline and the emergence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national states. The subject is intricate in its nature and needs studying slowly, but it is also vividly and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entertainingly presented: Philliou?s )] TJ ET BT 210.008 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(vignette)] TJ ET BT 248.000 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( method, alternating with more general political narrative or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social analysis allows the reader to see things, as it were, through different lenses \(the metaphor of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspective occurs frequently\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some readers might question the representativeness of Vogorides as a figure through which to write a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?biography of an empire?. His career tells us a lot about Ottoman governance, but can it really be said to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(symbolize it? Many similar ?neophanariot? figures went in other directions, eventually siding with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(causes of national independence in Greece, Romania and Bulgaria. Indeed Vogorides is sometimes credited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with having helped the Bulgarian national cause in ways not indicated here.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 397.292 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 397.292 345.651 m 417.284 345.651 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Particularly interesting are Vogorides?s ambitions for his children, which Philliou notes diligently at various )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stages. His first-born son, Nikolaki, was made to marry \(and take the name of\) the only daughter of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moldavian nobleman, Konaki.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 180.668 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 180.668 290.883 m 200.660 290.883 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 200.660 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Nikolaki tried to get himself elected governor of that principality in 1857. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vogorides?s second son, Aleko, had a longer and more successful life \(1822?1910\). Having served in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe in the Ottoman diplomatic corps, Aleko became governor of Eastern Rumelia in 1879, and served )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there until the province was annexed to Bulgaria in 1886, when he stood as candidate for the Bulgarian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throne. Meanwhile, Stefanos married his eldest daughter to the Prince of Moldavia in 1834, his middle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(daughter in the 1840s to the Ottoman Ambassador to Greece, and his youngest in the 1850s to a future )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governor of Crete. The latter wedding was, Philliou tells us \(p. 143\), the first such Christian ceremony ever )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attended by a Sultan. )] TJ ET BT 137.672 192.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Alii bella gerunt)] TJ ET BT 216.344 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: it was as if the Porte, having lost on the battlefield and at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(negotiating table, was trying through its epigone Vogorides to marry its way back together again.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Amidst mostly skilful handling of a vast mass of genealogical, chronological, sociological and diplomatic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information, some errors of dating were perhaps inevitable. For instance, the dates given for Vogorides? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(birth vary, from 1780 \(back cover of paperback edition\) to ?the 1770s? \(p. 38\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 412.592 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 412.592 122.067 m 432.584 122.067 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 432.584 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The Princely Academy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Bucharest is described as having been ?founded by Mavrokordatos in the early eighteenth century? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17\), whereas it dates back somewhat earlier. Nicholas Mavroyeni?s death date is given as 1791 \(p. 43\) ? the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correct date is September 1790. The attribution \(p. 63\) to Vogoridi of the title of )] TJ ET BT 422.300 80.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(kaymakam)] TJ ET BT 473.612 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of Craiova )] TJ ET BT 530.600 80.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Galatsi in 1812 is surely incorrect, as Craiova and Galatsi were in different principalities. It was not Skarlato )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kallimaki, Prince of Moldavia, who ?fled abruptly to Pisa? \(p. 82\) on the eve of hostilities in 1821, but his )] TJ ET endstream endobj 45 0 obj [43 0 R /Fit] endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 181.6637 726.3655 201.6557 738.2455 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 48 0 obj [43 0 R /Fit] endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 135.3077 655.0855 155.2997 666.9655 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 51 0 obj [43 0 R /Fit] endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 397.2917 345.9655 417.2837 357.8455 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 54 0 obj [43 0 R /Fit] endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 56 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 180.6677 291.1975 200.6597 303.0775 ] >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 57 0 obj [43 0 R /Fit] endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 59 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 412.5917 122.3815 432.5837 134.2615 ] >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 63 0 R 66 0 R 69 0 R 71 0 R 73 0 R 75 0 R 77 0 R 79 0 R 81 0 R 83 0 R 85 0 R 87 0 R 89 0 R 91 0 R 93 0 R ] /Contents 61 0 R >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Length 11561 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wallachian counterpart Ioannis Karaca, in 1818. Vogorides?s arrival in Bucharest to appease the rebel leader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tudor Vladimirescu \(p. 216, n.1\) happened in February 1821, not 1820. Prince Michael Sturdza was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deposed in 1849, not 1848 \(p. 148\). Italian, not Latin, was the original language of Dante?s )] TJ ET BT 474.956 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Inferno)] TJ ET BT 510.284 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(p. 170\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On one or two occasions Philliou slightly overstates her case for originality. While she significantly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advances our understanding of the Phanariot phenomenon, she is perhaps not quite justified in claiming \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6\) that this is an ?all but ignored? social group.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 259.328 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 259.328 711.795 m 279.320 711.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 279.320 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Her criticism of historians? failure to treat the period of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Crimean war from the perspective of the Ottoman Christians \(p. 157\) is based on scholarship more than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50 years old.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.672 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(16\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.672 683.283 m 115.664 683.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 115.664 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( More recent studies have gone some way to filling this gap.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 404.960 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(17\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 404.960 683.283 m 424.952 683.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philliou?s other achievements, however, are still major. She has taken hypotheses and ideas about studying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Ottoman Empire in a cross-cultural perspective, combined theoretical reflection with impressive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(linguistic and archival skills, and advanced them to a new stage. For this she deserves our rich thanks. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book is also methodologically attractive, situated as it is at the intersection of biographical, social, cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and political history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 566.499 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 535.882 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 535.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For example, Franz Babinger, )] TJ ET BT 210.656 535.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mehmed the Conqueror and his Time)] TJ ET BT 390.308 535.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, trans. R. Manheim \(Princeton, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 521.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(NJ, 1978\), a translation of a work first published in German in 1953.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 393.644 521.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 393.644 520.227 m 447.632 520.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 507.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 507.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For example, Mercia Macdermott, )] TJ ET BT 231.980 507.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Apostle of Freedom. A Portrait of Vasil Levsky Against a )] TJ ET BT 64.016 493.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Background of Nineteenth-Century Bulgaria )] TJ ET BT 281.336 493.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1967\); Duncan Wilson, )] TJ ET BT 443.984 493.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Life and Times of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 478.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vuk Stefanovi? Karad?i? )] TJ ET BT 188.348 478.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford, 1970\); C. M. Woodhouse, )] TJ ET BT 361.328 478.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kapodistria, the Founder of Greek )] TJ ET BT 64.016 464.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Independence )] TJ ET BT 133.652 464.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1973\); idem, )] TJ ET BT 245.312 464.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rhigas Velestinlis. The Proto-Martyr of the Greek Revolution )] TJ ET BT 64.016 450.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Limni, 1995\); Andrew Mango, )] TJ ET BT 219.332 450.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ataturk )] TJ ET BT 258.332 450.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1999\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 336.656 450.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 336.656 448.947 m 390.644 448.947 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 436.090 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 436.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For example, Woodford D. McClellan, )] TJ ET BT 253.988 436.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Svetozar Markovi)] TJ ET BT 338.972 436.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(?)] TJ ET BT 344.972 436.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( and the Origins of Balkan Socialism )] TJ ET BT 64.016 421.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Princeton, NJ, 1964\); Gale Stokes, )] TJ ET BT 237.332 421.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Legitimacy through Liberalism. Vladimir Jovanovi? and the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 407.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Transformation of Serbian Politics)] TJ ET BT 231.704 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Seattle and London, 1975\); Keith Hitchins, )] TJ ET BT 448.688 407.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Orthodoxy and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 393.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nationality. Andreiu ?aguna and the Rumanians of Transylvania )] TJ ET BT 379.028 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, MA, 1977\); David )] TJ ET BT 64.016 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mackenzie, )] TJ ET BT 122.660 379.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ilija Gara?anin, Balkan Bismarck )] TJ ET BT 289.652 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Boulder, CO, 1985\); Duncan M. Perry, )] TJ ET BT 484.292 379.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Stefan )] TJ ET BT 64.016 364.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Stambulov and the Emergence of Modern Bulgaria, 1870-1895 )] TJ ET BT 370.316 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Durham, NC, London, 1993\))] TJ ET BT 513.632 364.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 519.632 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 519.632 363.411 m 559.628 363.411 l S BT 64.016 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 349.155 m 78.008 349.155 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 336.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For example, Roderic Davison, )] TJ ET BT 217.328 336.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Essays in Ottoman and Turkish history, 1774?1923)] TJ ET BT 464.336 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1990\), p. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(xvi.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 82.352 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 82.352 320.643 m 136.340 320.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 307.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paschalis M. Kitromilides, )] TJ ET BT 195.020 307.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Englightenment as Social Criticism. Iosipos Moisiodax and Greek Culture )] TJ ET BT 64.016 293.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(in the Eighteenth Century )] TJ ET BT 190.676 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Princeton, NJ, 1992, based on an earlier, 1985 book in Greek\); Virginia H. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aksan, )] TJ ET BT 100.676 279.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(An Ottoman Statesman in War and Peace. Ahmed Resmi Efendi, 1700?1783 )] TJ ET BT 469.640 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Leiden, 1995\); )] TJ ET BT 64.016 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Katherine Fleming, )] TJ ET BT 160.340 265.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Muslim Bonaparte. Diplomacy and Orientalism in Ali Pasha?s Greece )] TJ ET BT 64.016 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Princeton, NJ, 1999\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 170.336 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 170.336 249.363 m 224.324 249.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 236.506 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For example, Antonio d?Alessandri, )] TJ ET BT 241.328 236.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Il pensiero e l'opera di Dora d'Istria fra Oriente europeo e Italia)] TJ ET BT 64.016 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Rome, 2007\); Stella Ghervas, )] TJ ET BT 213.332 222.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rinventer la tradition. Alexandre Stourdza et l?Europe de la Sainte-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 207.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Alliance )] TJ ET BT 107.012 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Geneva, 2009\); Stefan Lemny, )] TJ ET BT 261.644 207.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Les Cantemir)] TJ ET BT 326.648 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET BT 332.648 207.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(L?aventure europenne d?une famille )] TJ ET BT 64.016 193.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(princire au XVIIIe sicle)] TJ ET BT 188.312 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Paris, 2009\); Angela Jianu, )] TJ ET BT 328.628 193.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Circle of Friends )] TJ ET BT 424.628 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Leiden, 2011\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 498.944 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 498.944 192.339 m 552.932 192.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 179.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stevan K. Pavlowitch, ?British diplomacy and the Serbian constitution of 1838?, )] TJ ET BT 454.664 179.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Slavonic and East )] TJ ET BT 64.016 165.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(European Review)] TJ ET BT 149.000 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 38 \(Dec. 1959\), 149, n. 15: ?There is unfortunately no monograph on this )] TJ ET BT 64.016 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting personality?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 179.336 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 179.336 149.571 m 233.324 149.571 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 136.714 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Also analysed in N. Iorga, )] TJ ET BT 192.992 136.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Histoire des roumains)] TJ ET BT 299.660 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(10 vols., Bucharest, 1937?44\), vol. 8, pp. 254, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(259?63.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 102.344 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 102.344 121.059 m 156.332 121.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 108.202 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 108.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Well-known through the collections: )] TJ ET BT 243.332 108.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The movement for Greek independence)] TJ ET BT 431.276 108.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Richard Clogg )] TJ ET BT 64.016 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Basingstoke, 1976\); and )] TJ ET BT 187.340 93.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British Consular Reports from the Ottoman Levant in an Age of Upheaval)] TJ ET BT 543.008 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( )] TJ ET BT 64.016 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ed. Theophilus Prousis \(Istanbul, 2008\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 256.340 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 256.340 78.291 m 310.328 78.291 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 65.434 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 65.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cf. Nicolas Iorga, )] TJ ET BT 152.996 65.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Byzance aprs Byzance )] TJ ET BT 268.628 65.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Bucharest, 1935\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 357.608 65.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 357.608 64.035 m 417.596 64.035 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 51.178 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 51.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For example, Bernard Lewis, )] TJ ET BT 207.320 51.173 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Emergence of Modern Turkey )] TJ ET BT 374.948 51.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1961\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 453.272 51.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 453.272 49.779 m 513.260 49.779 l S endstream endobj 62 0 obj [60 0 R /Fit] endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 64 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 259.3277 712.1095 279.3197 723.9895 ] >> endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 65 0 obj [60 0 R /Fit] endobj 66 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 67 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.6717 683.5975 115.6637 695.4775 ] >> endobj 67 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 68 0 obj [60 0 R /Fit] endobj 69 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 70 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 404.9597 683.5975 424.9517 695.4775 ] >> endobj 70 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 71 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 72 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 393.6437 520.5415 447.6317 532.4215 ] >> endobj 72 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 40 0 R >> endobj 73 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 74 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 336.6557 449.2615 390.6437 461.1415 ] >> endobj 74 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 75 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 76 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 519.6317 363.7255 559.6277 375.6055 ] >> endobj 76 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 20 0 R >> endobj 77 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 78 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 349.4695 78.0077 361.3495 ] >> endobj 78 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 20 0 R >> endobj 79 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 80 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 82.3517 320.9575 136.3397 332.8375 ] >> endobj 80 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 23 0 R >> endobj 81 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 82 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 170.3357 249.6775 224.3237 261.5575 ] >> endobj 82 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 26 0 R >> endobj 83 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 84 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 498.9437 192.6535 552.9317 204.5335 ] >> endobj 84 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 29 0 R >> endobj 85 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 86 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 179.3357 149.8855 233.3237 161.7655 ] >> endobj 86 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 34 0 R >> endobj 87 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 88 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 102.3437 121.3735 156.3317 133.2535 ] >> endobj 88 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 37 0 R >> endobj 89 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 90 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 256.3397 78.6055 310.3277 90.4855 ] >> endobj 90 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 91 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 92 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 357.6077 64.3495 417.5957 76.2295 ] >> endobj 92 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 45 0 R >> endobj 93 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 94 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 453.2717 50.0935 513.2597 61.9735 ] >> endobj 94 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 48 0 R >> endobj 95 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 97 0 R 99 0 R 101 0 R 103 0 R 105 0 R 107 0 R 109 0 R 111 0 R 113 0 R ] /Contents 96 0 R >> endobj 96 0 obj << /Length 7118 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 796.474 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Krumka Sharova, ?B?lgarski diplomaticheski aktsii pred Evropa v nachaloto na 40-te godini na XIX )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(v.?, in )] TJ ET BT 96.680 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bulgariia i evropeiskite strani )] TJ ET BT 244.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Sofia, 1975\), pp. 32-6; Pierre Voillery, ?Un centre bulgare anti-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(russe Paris?, )] TJ ET BT 135.332 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cahiers du monde russe et sovitique)] TJ ET BT 314.984 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 23, 1 \(1982\), 33?43; R. J. Crampton, )] TJ ET BT 500.312 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bulgaria )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford, 2007\), p. 68.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 169.664 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 169.664 752.307 m 229.652 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 739.450 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The name is given variously as Conaki or Konaki in the index. The Phanariot practice of marrying )] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into Moldavian families was an old one: see Radu G. P?un, ?Stratgies de famille, stratgies de )] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pouvoir. Les grco-levantins en Moldavie au XVIIe sicle?, in )] TJ ET BT 366.944 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Social behaviour and family strategies )] TJ ET BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(in the Balkans)] TJ ET BT 132.680 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Ionela B?lu??, Constan?a Vintil?-Ghi?ulescu and Mihai-R?zvan Ungureanu )] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Bucharest, 2008\), pp. 15?38. This makes me question whether Vogorides ?borrowed? \(p. 10\) )] TJ ET BT 517.928 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ayan )] TJ ET BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and )] TJ ET BT 84.344 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(vezir)] TJ ET BT 107.672 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( kinship practices; it is probably a matter of long-term structural commonalities.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 491.636 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 491.636 666.771 m 551.624 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 653.914 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Surprisingly, Philliou overlooks the older article by Ioan Filitti \(?Notice sur les Vogoridi?, )] TJ ET BT 500.996 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Revue )] TJ ET BT 64.016 639.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(historique du sud-est europen)] TJ ET BT 212.336 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 4, 10?12 \(1927\), 314?20\) which established the interval 1777?9 fairly )] TJ ET BT 64.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearly. She acknowledges, but does not make very much use of, the only other article in a Western )] TJ ET BT 64.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language ? Maria Todorova, ?Stefan Bogoridi, een Bulgaarse fanarioot in het Ottomaanse rijk?, in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 596.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oost-Europa in het verleden)] TJ ET BT 200.996 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. A. P. Goudoever \(Groningen, 1987\), pp. 171?87. Todorova follows )] TJ ET BT 64.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Filitti and Bulgarian scholarship to venture a ?probable? 1778.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 364.316 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 364.316 581.235 m 424.304 581.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 568.378 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is true that little attention is given to the Phanariots in, for example, )] TJ ET BT 401.336 568.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Cambridge History of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 554.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Turkey, Vol. 3. The Later Ottoman Empire , 1603?1839)] TJ ET BT 331.340 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ed. Suraiya Faroqhi \(Cambridge, 2006\) or in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the otherwise excellent volume )] TJ ET BT 216.656 539.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Early Modern Ottomans)] TJ ET BT 354.980 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Virginia Aksan and Daniel Goffman )] TJ ET BT 64.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 2007\). But the older literature on Phanariots is extensive and was surveyed by, among )] TJ ET BT 64.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others, ?tefan Lemny, ?La critique du rgime phanariote. Clichs mentaux et perspectives )] TJ ET BT 64.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiographiques?, in )] TJ ET BT 177.008 497.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Culture and Society)] TJ ET BT 272.336 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. A. Zub \(Ia?i, 1985\), and Panayotis Alexandrou )] TJ ET BT 64.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Papachristou, )] TJ ET BT 132.008 482.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Three Faces of the Phanariots. An Inquiry into the Role and Motivations of the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 468.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Greek Nobility under Ottoman rule, 1683?1821)] TJ ET BT 293.336 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(MA thesis, Simon Fraser University, 1992\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 510.992 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 510.992 467.187 m 550.988 467.187 l S BT 64.016 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 452.931 m 84.008 452.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 440.074 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(16.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Respectively, R. W. Seton-Watson and A. J. P. Taylor. Their work dates from much earlier than the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1969 and 1971 editions used by Philliou.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 260.360 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(16\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 260.360 424.419 m 320.348 424.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 411.562 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 411.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For example, )] TJ ET BT 130.340 411.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ottoman Greeks in the Age of Nationalism)] TJ ET BT 335.000 411.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ed. Dimitris Gondicas and Charles Issawi )] TJ ET BT 64.016 397.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Princeton, NJ, 2000\), which figures in Philliou?s bibliography but seems not to have been cited.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 528.644 397.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 528.644 395.907 m 556.304 395.907 l S BT 64.016 383.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(17\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 381.651 m 96.344 381.651 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author accepts this review, appreciates the reviewer's critical engagement, and does not wish to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comment further.)] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 325.807 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 308.027 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 308.027 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1312)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 306.633 m 328.316 306.633 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 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