%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R 25 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140721030813+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140721030813+01'00') /Title (Reuse Value. Spolia and Appropriation in Art and Architecture from Constantine to Sherrie Levine) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 1986 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Reuse Value. Spolia and Appropriation in Art and Architecture )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(from Constantine to Sherrie Levine)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1313)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 6 September, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Brilliant)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dale Kinney)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781409424222)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(65.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(280pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ashgate)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Farnham)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lex Bosman)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8577 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One can hardly imagine that several decades ago the concept of )] TJ ET BT 342.260 784.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(spolia)] TJ ET BT 371.600 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( did not yet indicate a field of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(widespread research in the history of architecture, art and archaeology. The title of this volume with 12 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essays and a fascinating introduction, points to this change in research focus, since the value of reuse of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(objects and materials has not always been recognized. As the cover text indicates, modern society has a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fascination for recycling and appropriation in which the idea of reuse seems to fit rather well. The field was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opened up with the famous article published in 1969 by historian Arnold Esch, ?Spolien. Zur )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wiederverwendung antiker Baustcke und Skulpturen im mittelalterlichen Italien?, as Dale Kinney analyzes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in her introduction to the present volume. Another impetus came several years later with Richard Brilliant?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(article on sculptures in the Florentine Boboli Gardens. Since those days indeed a flow of publications, both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(articles and books, has been produced, addressing smaller and larger items in the field, and focusing both on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(objects and on the concept of what the word )] TJ ET BT 248.972 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(spolia)] TJ ET BT 278.312 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( may have meant. These publications have shown, as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essays in the present volume illustrate once again, that the field is much wider and much more varied than it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may have seemed some 40 years ago, though on the other hand Esch had already described and analyzed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many different forms and examples of )] TJ ET BT 220.640 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(spolia)] TJ ET BT 249.980 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The volume originates in a colloquium held in 2006, to the contributions of which another six essays were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(added. The variety of themes addressed here is exciting and a very positive element of the book, although it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also bounces the reader back and forth through various periods and from one continent to another. A wide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(variety of interesting items is addressed in the chapters, ranging from problems of definition \(chapter four, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Greenhalgh, but also chapters two and eight, by Paolo Liverani and Richard Brilliant\), to questions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of ideology and of perception \(chapters two, three and ten\). In her introduction Kinney sketches the field, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dealing with notions of reuse, spoliation and appropriation, and elegantly positions the various chapters of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this volume in the historiography of the relevant field. The well-known ?Letter \(or Report\) to Pope Leo X? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Raphael and Castiglione is quoted and one could argue about the interpretation. In this Letter the quality )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the sculptures from various periods used on the Arch of Constantine is brought forward as a major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problem, although Kinney states that ?the reuse of materials was a sign of the miserable existence, ?without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(art?, of Romans in the post-classical Dark Ages? \(p. 7\). However, the most striking element is that it is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so much the reuse of material \()] TJ ET BT 182.648 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(spolia)] TJ ET BT 211.988 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) that incited the authors to their critical remarks, but the quality of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sculptures themselves. This subtle, yet interesting, distinction is hinted at by Michael Koortbojian \(p. 162\) as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well. As I read the Letter the use of )] TJ ET BT 206.636 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(spolia)] TJ ET BT 235.976 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as such is not criticized by the authors.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the first chapter Arnold Esch explores the different points of view of archaeologists, art historians and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians. He describes how the use of )] TJ ET BT 224.648 332.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(spolia)] TJ ET BT 253.988 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in the Middle Ages, for instance, should not be viewed as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ruining, but instead as reviving, parts of Antiquity. Gradually unfolding layers of questions about the use of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(spolia)] TJ ET BT 63.356 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( from Antiquity, Esch explores the different kinds of explanations to close his chapter with some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seemingly basic, yet very important observations: ?It did not suffice to )] TJ ET BT 375.980 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(have)] TJ ET BT 398.636 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( antiquity, one also had to )] TJ ET BT 525.632 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(want)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(antiquity? \(p. 27\). In several of the collected essays these notions are elaborated, in as far as they treat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material or references to western antiquity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Problems of authenticity and historical past and present, which are so vital to an understanding of the use of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(spolia)] TJ ET BT 63.356 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and of a notion of appropriation, are discussed by Richard Brilliant. Wherever )] TJ ET BT 444.284 220.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(spolia)] TJ ET BT 473.624 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( are used, parts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of some historical past are transferred to another historical level, the presence of the new creation. By )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inserting a new historical notion in a structure by means of )] TJ ET BT 318.980 192.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(spolia)] TJ ET BT 348.320 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, another context is of course damaged or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(destroyed, in order to make a new context possible.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the second chapter Paolo Liverani expands on earlier writings about the Arch of Constantine and succeeds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in developing a fascinating yet sometimes difficult to understand reasoning. The interpretations of the )] TJ ET BT 525.620 137.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(spolia)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the Arch of Constantine have been Liverani?s subject in earlier publications as well, and he picks up his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thoughts about ?reuse without ideology?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 231.668 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 231.668 107.811 m 245.660 107.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 245.660 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( But instead of a mere repetition Liverani offers new insights, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aided by semantic theory. Taking the ideological interpretation of the reliefs of the Arch of Constantine by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(L?Orange as a starting point, Liverani counters this kind of interpretation with solid arguments. However, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his reading of the sources he turns the 4th century \(of which the written sources are rare, Liverani correctly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(states\) into one unity, which it never really was. Written sources of this period may be negative on reuse, but )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 231.6677 108.1255 245.6597 120.0055 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 8470 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a more clear distinction between the first and the last quarters of the century should be made in my opinion. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In fact there are no indications that the use of )] TJ ET BT 253.964 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(spolia)] TJ ET BT 283.304 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in the time of Constantine was frowned upon, or if a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difference between new and )] TJ ET BT 171.956 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(spolia)] TJ ET BT 201.296 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(-material was made at all, a point not touched upon by Liverani. From a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more theoretical standpoint, the author mentions the ?historical diplopia? coined earlier by Kinney, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pleads for ?triplopia?: next to the vision of a spectator who observed the reliefs in their original Trajanic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context, and that of the Constantinion spectator who saw them on the Arch, there is the reading of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary viewer of today. Also building on the notions of Richard Brilliant about )] TJ ET BT 451.316 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(spolia in se)] TJ ET BT 505.988 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(spolia in re)] TJ ET BT 88.688 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? with the first one referring to the reuse of actual elements and the second to the use of older )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(images, motifs or styles without the material reuse ? Liverani adds a third kind with the )] TJ ET BT 456.308 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(spolia in me)] TJ ET BT 514.976 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reference to this type ?has to be subjective, dictated by a convention accepted by the observer or reader?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the next two chapters Hugo Brandenburg and Michael Greenhalgh agree that there is a lack of ideology in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many instances in the use of )] TJ ET BT 172.664 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(spolia)] TJ ET BT 202.004 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in both late antiquity and the Middle Ages. Brandenburg uses his expert )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge of Late Antique and Early Christian material in Rome and elsewhere to describe changes in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mentality, which made it a common practice to reuse various kinds of material. By analyzing such changes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over a longer period, he inserts the practice of reuse and the combination of new and older material into a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mentality where neither ideological appropriation nor a notion of ?varietas? were guiding principles ? the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most important factor was simply an appreciation of the material. Brandenburg?s conclusion is intriguing: a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combination of conservatism and a more loose way of using traditional norms in architecture may be the key )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elements. The importance of his analysis again shows that a non-prejudiced discussion of the material is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessary, in order to avoid, or counter too much weight being placed on the notion of ?varietas?. This term )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was introduced by Beat Brenk and repeatedly used by him in several publications since 1987. According to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(him, in Early Christian architecture the use of )] TJ ET BT 256.316 485.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(spolia)] TJ ET BT 285.656 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( points at a new aesthetics, infusing the reused material )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with a new, Christian ideology. However, recent scholarship has been increasingly critical about the notion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of ?varietas?, and has strongly argued against such an interpretation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Greenhalgh explores problems of definition in a fascinating way, although a slightly negative tendency )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seems to permeate his text. Although asking for ?evidence? is crucial in any scholarly undertaking, it is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kind of evidence that should be tried and tested. Written sources never give the answers to the questions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern scholars come up with, since those sources \(if they exist at all\) were not produced to serve any kind )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of scholarly question. In his conclusion Greenhalgh returns to the questions why the reuse of marble in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Middle Ages should be studied, and he explains that the selection of the material, as well as its transportation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from sometimes greater distances, indicates a more than superfluous interest in such material. The quality )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and feel of luxury of the material links it to Antiquity, even though the author remains very skeptical about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meaning and the ideological use of )] TJ ET BT 204.656 316.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(spolia)] TJ ET BT 233.996 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dale Kinney takes the famous Cross of Herimann in Cologne as the starting point for a discussion of ancient )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gems in the Middle Ages, not so much trying to explain this particular object, but to ?use the history of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretation to think about the status of gems in the discourse of medieval use? \(p. 99\). The combination of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the body of the crucified Christ with a female head, the cameo, produces a fascinating yet puzzling object. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the rear an inscription states that the archbishop Herimann ordered the object to be made, and in addition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on its bottom his sister Ida is shown. Most of the contradictions in this object were explained away in older )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature by bending several of the elements into a unified Christian interpretation, to which the family of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Herimann and Ida was added. Recent research has shown that in fact the Cross of Herimann has more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complicated origins than the older literature suggests: the incised copper sheets do not fit completely, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oak cross to which all the elements are attached is modern, the crucifix seems to have been nailed in the past )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on what is now considered to be the rear. The oddity of adding a beautiful, antique female head to complete )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the crucifix was interpreted as a rational act in attempts to explain away the contradictions and absurdities of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this and several other examples. Although indeed most often an ?interpretatio Christiana? in the Middle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ages was meant to bend all the elements in one and the same direction, as if to deny the fact that )] TJ ET BT 501.272 104.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(spolia)] TJ ET BT 530.612 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(used and that they were very visible, only recently has the )] TJ ET BT 315.296 90.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(spolia)] TJ ET BT 344.636 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(-character of such objects been taken into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consideration anew.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the contribution by Michael Koortbojian three examples of )] TJ ET BT 332.972 49.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(spolia)] TJ ET BT 362.312 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(-use in buildings in Rome are discussed, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 7844 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all three located in each other?s vicinity. The Palazzo Mattei di Giove \(1598?1617\) is the showcase for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Asdrubale Mattei?s collection of )] TJ ET BT 193.988 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(spolia)] TJ ET BT 223.328 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, but his fascination for antiquity also made him order new products )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in ancient style. The emulation of classical sculptures in new products was shown on the exterior faade, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whereas the classical remains \(sometimes completed\) were placed in the private courtyard. Not far from this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(palazzo Lorenzo Manlio adorned the exterior of his house by fragments of ancient sculptures, the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(striking of which is the enormous inscription dated 1476, which clearly advocates Manlio as a proud Roman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(citizen with a clear, yet new historical consciousness. Bernardo Gamucci described what is now known as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Portico d?Ottavia in such a way as to capture it in a historical phase, or rather to restore it in that way. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gamucci showed and described the church of Sant?Angelo in Pescheria, but the building he showed was an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(image of a pagan structure before its transformation into a Christian one. Koortbojian compares these three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cases of familiarization with the antique past very cleverly and rightly points out how each of them lacks the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deep historical interest in the classical past that was fundamental in the Letter to Pope Leo X.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of a completely different nature is the Qutb Mosque in Delhi, which is the main subject of two chapters, by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finbarr Barry Flood and Mrinalini Rajagopalan respectively. The question of the validity of such labels as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hindu, Jain, and Muslim are particularly relevant to this structure, in that it incorporates material from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(various periods and from different cultural and religious contexts. However, not only has this blurred the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vision of 19th-century scholars and preservationists, but it has also rendered problematic the appropriation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this building complex by specific religious and cultural groups in their search for identity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The use of material from various kinds of buildings in 20th-century architecture is the topic discussed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hans-Rudolf Meier and Annabel Wharton \(on the Chicago Tribune Tower\). In the examples presented by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Meier an important difference with most older reuse of material is revealed. The origin of the )] TJ ET BT 484.916 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(spolia)] TJ ET BT 514.256 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insignificant, or the )] TJ ET BT 130.676 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(spolia)] TJ ET BT 160.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( are reused at their original site, as happened with the elements that were reused in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the rear of the City Hall in Utrecht, designed by Miralles around 2000. Meier shows how the use of older )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material sometimes created a kind of artistic freedom for the architects, which their regular architectural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(idiom would not allow. Such reuse bears on both the conception of architecture and on the actual buildings, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though this was not the case with the tower for the Chicago Tribune, where pieces of stone of particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(venerated places all over the world and from different states were assembled and put on display. One is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reminded somehow of Richard Brilliant?s thoughts about authenticity: somehow the original structures have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been mutilated in order to obtain these pieces, which in turn fail to impress contemporary passers-by.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This volume presents a very interesting collection of essays on )] TJ ET BT 337.976 347.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(spolia)] TJ ET BT 367.316 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and appropriation, discussed using )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examples from different cultures and periods. This broad scope is important, since the various contributions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incite us to think and rethink notions and positions we all use, consciously or otherwise. At the same time, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, the agility of the reader who wishes to grasp the volume as a whole is put to the test, particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the example of Donald Kuspit?s chapter on postmodern appropriation art, which seems slightly out of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(place. The notion of reuse in general cannot very well be considered without reference to )] TJ ET BT 464.564 275.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(spolia)] TJ ET BT 493.904 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turn necessitates one to think about appropriation. Such a line of thought also opens up various other topics, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as authenticity, reception, originality and several others, and that is what sometimes neatly and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sometimes more loosely connects most of the essays assembled in this exciting volume. Richard Brilliant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Dale Kinney, as indefatigable pioneers in the field of )] TJ ET BT 311.624 218.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(spolia)] TJ ET BT 340.964 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(-studies, have inspired many colleagues to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(think and rethink their positions and notions; this collections of essays attests to that inspiration. As with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many such volumes this book does not present one theme or one line of thought which other scholars can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(use, but the chapters are showcases for specific problems, inducing the reader to apply various approaches in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their own field of research. On top of that the book is well-sized, with black-and-white illustrations of good )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quality.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 112.563 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 81.946 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(P. Liverani, ?)] TJ ET BT 128.672 81.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reimpiego senza ideologia)] TJ ET BT 257.996 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: la lettura antica degli spolia dall'arco di Costantino all'et )] TJ ET BT 64.016 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(carolingia?, )] TJ ET BT 123.332 67.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rmische Mitteilungen)] TJ ET BT 234.320 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 111 \(2004\), 383-434.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 342.308 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 342.308 66.291 m 396.296 66.291 l S endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 342.3077 66.6055 396.2957 78.4855 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 27 0 R ] /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 767 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The editors appreciate Lex Bosman's thorough and judicious review, which they accept without further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comment.)] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 753.487 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 735.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 735.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1313)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 734.313 m 328.316 734.313 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 709.336 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 694.936 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/31485)] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 734.6275 328.3157 746.5075 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1313) >> endobj xref 0 29 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000606 00000 n 0000000688 00000 n 0000002726 00000 n 0000002835 00000 n 0000002945 00000 n 0000003054 00000 n 0000006615 00000 n 0000006743 00000 n 0000006827 00000 n 0000006911 00000 n 0000015541 00000 n 0000015571 00000 n 0000015699 00000 n 0000015735 00000 n 0000015800 00000 n 0000024323 00000 n 0000024407 00000 n 0000032304 00000 n 0000032430 00000 n 0000032485 00000 n 0000032569 00000 n 0000033388 00000 n 0000033516 00000 n trailer << /Size 29 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 33612 %%EOF