%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 58 0 R 75 0 R 77 0 R 97 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150227235852+00'00') /ModDate (D:20150227235852+00'00') /Title (Germany and the Holy Roman Empire) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 2906 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Germany and the Holy Roman Empire)] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is a brave man who would take on the job of writing a history of Germany and the Holy Roman Empire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between 1493 and 1806. Many historians would maintain that neither Germany nor even German national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1315)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 6 September, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joachim Whaley)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780198731016)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(85.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(752pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joachim Whaley)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199693078)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.067 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.555 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(85.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.043 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(784pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.531 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.019 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.763 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.251 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alan Sked)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R 23 0 R 26 0 R 29 0 R 32 0 R 35 0 R 38 0 R 41 0 R 44 0 R 47 0 R 50 0 R 53 0 R 56 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 10782 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consciousness \(certainly not German nationalism\) existed during this period; as for the Holy Roman Empire, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there is a long-running dispute over what it actually amounted to. Voltaire quipped famously that it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?neither holy, Roman nor an Empire? while the student Frosch in the )] TJ ET BT 368.312 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Keller)] TJ ET BT 398.312 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( scene of Goethe?s )] TJ ET BT 491.612 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Faust)] TJ ET BT 518.948 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ask, ?The dear old Holy Roman realm, what holds it still together?? It was abolished almost immediately )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after the play was released. In the 19th century, an age of nationalism, the Empire was dismissed as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitutional anachronism that had possessed little significance during most of its existence, a viewpoint )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which prevailed for most of the 20th century. Partly this was because it had been defended by Austrian, pro-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Habsburg historians such as Onno Klopp )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 233.996 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 233.996 695.283 m 247.988 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 247.988 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and Julius Ficker )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 335.984 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 335.984 695.283 m 349.976 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 349.976 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and later by Kaindl )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 448.292 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 448.292 695.283 m 462.284 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 462.284 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Srbik )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 497.288 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 497.288 695.283 m 511.280 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 511.280 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hantsch )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 76.340 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 76.340 681.027 m 90.332 681.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 90.332 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( against the dominant )] TJ ET BT 196.328 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(kleindeutsch)] TJ ET BT 256.316 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( school of German historians represented by Droysen )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 514.928 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 514.928 681.027 m 528.920 681.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 528.920 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Treitschke )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 87.668 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 87.668 666.771 m 101.660 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 101.660 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which saw German history culminating in the rise of the Hohenzollerns and Bismarck?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unification of the country under that dynasty. Insofar as this )] TJ ET BT 324.308 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(kleindeutsch)] TJ ET BT 384.296 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( school had anything good to say )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the medieval empire, it restricted it to the Hohenstaufen, more or less airbrushing the Habsburgs out of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German history, accusing them of being selfish foreigners who simply exploited the Reich for their own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dynastic benefit. Srbik, it is true, famously endeavoured to reconcile both Austrian and Prussian schools by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creating a )] TJ ET BT 83.996 596.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gesamtdeutschgeschichte)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 210.968 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 210.968 595.491 m 224.960 595.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 224.960 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which proved attractive in the interwar and Nazi periods, but after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1945 the Empire became unfashionable in the official circles of the Second Austrian Republic, whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(present ambassador to the UK, the historian, Emil Brix, recently confessed after a lecture at the Reform Club )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that contemporary Austrians find the fascination of foreigners and foreign historians with the Habsburgs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather incomprehensible.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Still, there has been something of a revision in historical writing on the subject of the Empire since the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1960s, dating from the work of the German historian von Aretin.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 345.308 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 345.308 497.955 m 359.300 497.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 359.300 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This revisionism has to a certain extent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been favoured by historical change. With the establishment of a Federal Republic of Germany, the idea has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taken shape that federalism, rather than Prussian-style autocratic rule has been the natural form of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government for Germany, while the development of a European Union, which enjoys considerable legal and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitutional powers but which lacks a common government and possesses few military or financial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resources of its own, has made the Holy Roman Empire seem a more normal phenomenon.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 470.612 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 470.612 426.675 m 490.604 426.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 490.604 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In any case, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the German historian Georg Schmidt )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 214.328 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 214.328 412.419 m 234.320 412.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 234.320 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( has proposed that the Holy Roman Empire, as an elective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarchy and decentralised ?composite state? not unlike other early modern European monarchies, should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be viewed as a German nation-state which provided a legal framework for the German nation. There are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certain objections to this, not least the fact that the Empire contained several non-German territories and that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German princes often allied with foreign powers, particularly France, against the Emperor, even if some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authorities will concede that monarchy, federalism, and hierarchy provided the empire with some sort of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national state structure. There are also severe doubts as to how similar the Empire was constitutionally to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(states such as England \(Britain\), France and Spain. In any case, Schmidt?s whole approach has been rejected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by others, among them Barbara Stollberg-Rilinger )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 278.324 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 278.324 298.371 m 298.316 298.371 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 298.316 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, who sees the Empire as ?strange?, with no political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(norms, fixed procedures, constitution or regulations to enforce decrees. It did not represent a German nation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but merely the princes, dukes, counts and imperial cities represented in its Diet, which itself lacked formal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(procedures. Instead, according to this interpretation, the Empire depended on face-to-face encounters and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interactions, indeed, on ritual, and was thus merely a ?collectively-shared fiction? which was about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ceremony not politics. I?m not sure one can accept this either. Ceremonials usually have a political purpose. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(All early modern and medieval states had ceremonials. Courts were all about ceremony. But courts were also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about politics and power as all the actors involved were well aware. On the other hand, it is true that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Emperor had to depend on his own lands ? his hereditary lands ? for troops and finance. His ability to award )] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(titles and to settle territorial disputes gave him some extra influence and prestige, but the fact cannot be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(escaped that, compared to other monarchs, his executive powers scarcely existed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In East Germany after 1945 the view was that the Reformation had reflected a ?general crisis of society? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Luther?s protest had been directed against feudalism as well as against Rome. Be that as it may, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failure of the peasants? revolt in any case merely reinforced feudalism, whereas the role of the princes led to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Thirty Years? War and culminated in the establishment of absolutism, yet another form of feudalism. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(None of this influenced western historiography very much except that it provided a spur to more research by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic historians, whose leading lights became Peter Blickle )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 342.980 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 342.980 58.275 m 362.972 58.275 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 362.972 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and Thomas Brady )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 460.292 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 460.292 58.275 m 480.284 58.275 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 480.284 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Indeed, as )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 233.9957 695.5975 247.9877 707.4775 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 335.9837 695.5975 349.9757 707.4775 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 448.2917 695.5975 462.2837 707.4775 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 497.2877 695.5975 511.2797 707.4775 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 76.3397 681.3415 90.3317 693.2215 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 514.9277 681.3415 528.9197 693.2215 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 87.6677 667.0855 101.6597 678.9655 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 37 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 210.9677 595.8055 224.9597 607.6855 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 40 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 345.3077 498.2695 359.2997 510.1495 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 43 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 470.6117 426.9895 490.6037 438.8695 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 46 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 214.3277 412.7335 234.3197 424.6135 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 49 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 278.3237 298.6855 298.3157 310.5655 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 52 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 54 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 342.9797 58.5895 362.9717 70.4695 ] >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 55 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 57 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 460.2917 58.5895 480.2837 70.4695 ] >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 61 0 R 64 0 R 67 0 R 70 0 R 73 0 R ] /Contents 59 0 R >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Length 8737 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whaley points out \(vol. 1, p. 8\), the early modern history of the Reich is now experiencing a ?boom time?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cultural and intellectual history has also been researched, with the result that, due to the investigation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pietism for example, the story we have of German intellectual development no longer skips from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reformation to the Enlightenment and the )] TJ ET BT 239.336 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Goethezeit. )] TJ ET BT 296.660 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The end result though is still that Germany is seen to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have experienced no revolution or nation-state. Early modern historians, however, tend not to see this as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abnormal or signifying backwardness, unlike Hans-Ulrich Wehler )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 353.948 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 353.948 723.795 m 373.940 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 373.940 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and his school who see this as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(definitely constituting a )] TJ ET BT 151.016 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sonderweg)] TJ ET BT 204.344 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in German history, leading to the warping of German political, social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and constitutional development and ultimately to the First World War and Nazism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Outside France )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 110.000 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(16\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 110.000 669.027 m 129.992 669.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 129.992 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, there has been a resurgence of interest in the affairs of the Holy Roman Empire in both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe and America. In Britain the leading authority has been Peter Wilson )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 400.952 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(17\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 400.952 654.771 m 420.944 654.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 420.944 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, whose small book on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject holds the field. Yet Joachim Whaley has been contributing an enormous number of articles to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specialised literature and now has produced two stout volumes, which should become standard works. How )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(definitive, though, are they likely to prove? How does he see the Holy Roman Empire? How does he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpret Austrian and Prussian history ?indeed the history of the other German states ? in relation to it? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Does he have anything essentially new to say in his one and half thousand pages? If so, does he convince?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Volume one sets the scene in 1500 and takes the reader through the Reformation and the Thirty Year? War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the Peace of Westphalia. It has extremely useful notes on terminology and usage, absolutely indispensable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ones on maps and on-line resources, a list of abbreviations and two maps. Its introductory chapter on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?narratives of early modern German history? contains a couple of statements which from the very outset )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(give a hint that Whaley has distinct points of view. First, when discussing the reforms attempted by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maximilian I, he writes that these ?resulted in the emergence of a new kind of polity in the Reich? \(p. 1\) and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that, even if the emperor?s demands for financial and military support failed, the agreement he secured on a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general peace and the creation of a higher court of law to protect it, not to mention the continuing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(negotiations with the Reichstag, ?marked a decisive turning point? \(p. 2\). Indeed, the Reich ?was set upon a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new course of development that continued through to the end of the eighteenth century? \(p. 2\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Still, according to Whaley, the constitutional balance, if similar perhaps to that in Poland-Lithuania, ?was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quite unlike that which characterised the British, French and Spanish monarchies? \(p. 2\). In the Empire, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formula )] TJ ET BT 75.008 375.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kaiser und Reich)] TJ ET BT 158.336 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(really Emperor and Imperial Estates ? the territories constituting the Reich\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meant that the constitution of the Empire was a dual one, which developed as feudal relations between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Emperor and his vassals, based on personal relationships, turned increasingly into something approaching a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(federal system, in which, however, the Emperor?s powers were more severely constrained than in other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European monarchies. Whaley concedes that modern research has shown the ?composite monarchies? of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England, France and Spain had also to pay due respect to mighty subjects, subordinate kingdoms, duchies, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(principalities and provinces. None the less, German princes ?retained a far greater degree of autonomy from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the monarch? \(p. 2\). It was these territorial princes, moreover, who first developed regular systems of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(finance and conscription, even if they lacked the sovereignty of the Emperor, to whom even their meanest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subjects could appeal for legal protection over their heads. There is not much support for Schmidt here. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whaley?s basic thesis is that the early modern history of the Reich should not be seen as one of failure and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stagnation and that after 1500 came 300 years of transformations, including the Reformation and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Westphalian settlement, which established a )] TJ ET BT 249.320 192.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(modus vivendi)] TJ ET BT 318.308 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, enabling the Reich to act both as the centre of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European balance of power and stable framework for constitutional development: ?Indeed, the unity of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early modern period is underlined by the fact that it is characterised by a remarkably persistent sequence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(phases of reform at the level of both the Reich and territories. The dates 1517, 1555, 1648, 1700, 1740-50 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and finally, 1789, around which sections of this book \(sic\) are organised, all mark watersheds in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process? \(p. 11\). He believes that due to the work of the German historians, Schmidt )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 442.616 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(18\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 442.616 119.811 m 462.608 119.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 462.608 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and Press )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 514.268 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(19\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 514.268 119.811 m 534.260 119.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 534.260 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1648 can no longer be seen as ?the great watershed? \(p. 11\) as most German historians have assumed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(According to Whaley, each reform period, always complicated in itself, was ?always broadly resolved or at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(least accommodated, in ways that cannot be adequately described as conservative? \(p. 11\). Some periods )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were indeed progressive, leading to an imperial framework that allowed various Christian denominations to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 60 0 obj [58 0 R /Fit] endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 62 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 353.9477 724.1095 373.9397 735.9895 ] >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 63 0 obj [58 0 R /Fit] endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 65 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 109.9997 669.3415 129.9917 681.2215 ] >> endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 66 0 obj [58 0 R /Fit] endobj 67 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 68 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 400.9517 655.0855 420.9437 666.9655 ] >> endobj 68 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 69 0 obj [58 0 R /Fit] endobj 70 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 71 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 442.6157 120.1255 462.6077 132.0055 ] >> endobj 71 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 72 0 obj [58 0 R /Fit] endobj 73 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 74 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 514.2677 120.1255 534.2597 132.0055 ] >> endobj 74 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 75 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 76 0 R >> endobj 76 0 obj << /Length 7929 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(co-exist and ?preserved an independent existence of even the smallest subsidiary unit against the predatory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inclinations and ambitions of the largest ones? \(p.11\), not to mention a system of imperial courts through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which subjects could appeal to the Emperor against and over the heads of their overlords. Meanwhile the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(territorial states often offered greater legal and social protection to individual subjects than western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarchies. As in the latter, of course, German absolutist princes were often less absolute than they would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have liked. Hence Germans believed that they did enjoy ?German liberties? and ?German freedom?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This led in turn to a certain German patriotism by the late 18th century: ?Indeed, most German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commentators of the late eighteenth century and even those who wrote in 1805 and 1806, insisted that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reich was a state, a limited monarchy, albeit with individual traditions that distinguished it from its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neighbours? \(p. 12\). Thus although it had no imperial capital and in 1780 contained 314 territorial units, not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to mention over 1000 more not represented in the Diet, although it covered a huge area of Central Europe, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and was divided by religion, and although Germans often referred to their own locality as their )] TJ ET BT 491.600 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vaterland)] TJ ET BT 539.600 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?yet )] TJ ET BT 57.008 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vaterland)] TJ ET BT 105.008 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( did often refer to the Reich and there is ample evidence for a strong sense of identification )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the Reich throughout the early modern period? \(p. 13\). Did this amount to nationalism? Certainly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(according to Whaley, the early modern period saw a growing awareness of the Reich as a German Reich, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process reinforced by the wars against Louis XIV and the Turks. Such sentiments, however, were more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common among educated groups, but were there as early as the reform movement around 1500 \(helped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps by the discovery of Tacitus?s )] TJ ET BT 217.976 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Germania)] TJ ET BT 266.636 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). They reflected less modern nationalism than ? an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(awareness of varying levels of interlocking and overlapping ?fatherlands?, expressed in the contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formula of ?unity in diversity? \(p. 14\). Still, the early modern Reich gave rise to ?a pervasive national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patriotic discourse? \(p. 14\). At the end of his introduction, Whaley sums up his view of early modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German history as follows: ?If the history of the German lands in the period is the history of localities and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(territories, it is also the history of the union of those entities. It is the history of their survival as a legal and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural community in the face of challenges from the Reformation onwards that might have been expected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to destroy any such thing. It is the history of their solidarity in the face of perennial external threats. Not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(least, it is the history of a central European polity that played a key role in the politics of early modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe as a whole. Perhaps inevitably a work such as this might seem to emphasise union if not unity. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of general trends will inevitably appear to ignore many of the exceptions to every rule. Yet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(variety and, at times, the appearance of incoherence, are fundamental to any understanding of early modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German history. Indeed, the essence of the system was the preservation of individuality and difference?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If Whaley is not quite at one with Schmidt, he is certainly on a different wavelength from Stollberg-Rilinger. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He sees the Reich as a continually reforming, diverse but legally ordered polity, rather than some kind of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bizarre monstrosity or collective fiction. His two volumes are exceptionally well written and highly nuanced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and reflect the latest scholarship. Indeed, they represent a huge personal achievement.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, they are not the last word on the subject and may even come to be seen to represent a sort of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sanitised, post-war version of German history reflecting the ethos of the Federal Republic and the European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Union. No one will quibble with the idea that the Reich ? certainly in theory, although the practice was very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slow ? represented an intricate sort of legal unity which sought to protect all its subjects. How far this gave )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rise to a common patriotism can be argued over. \(Did Prussians revere the Reich?\) However, when Whaley )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(talks about ?external foes? and the Reich being at the centre of a European balance of power, one begins to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wonder what happened to that much more traditional model of German history, the one in which Emperors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of whatever dynasty ? and for centuries before 1500 ? struggled to maintain their power and dignity in face )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the particularism of the German princes. Whaley really does not examine particularism at all in his survey )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of German historiography, leaving it rather like Hamlet without the prince. His ?eras of reform?, after all, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(derive mainly from settlements after wars between these princes. The history of the Reich during the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern period is in fact one of German civil wars, i.e. the wars of the Reformation followed by the Thirty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Years? War, followed in turn by the wars against Louis XIV \(in which Brandenburg, Bavaria and Saxony )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were at key points on the side of the French against the Emperor\), followed by the wars between Austria and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Prussia in the 18th century, and, finally, the wars against the French Revolution and Napoleon \(in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(until 1806 Prussia and the South German states did more to aid the French than the Empire\). In the end, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 47.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(second )] TJ ET endstream endobj 77 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 79 0 R 81 0 R 83 0 R 85 0 R 87 0 R 89 0 R 91 0 R 93 0 R 95 0 R ] /Contents 78 0 R >> endobj 78 0 obj << /Length 9486 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Confederation of the Rhine brought about the demise of the Reich after which the German states )] TJ ET BT 500.600 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(including )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Austria!\) never wanted to resurrect it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the ?reforms? of the 1648 settlement had been to make France the guarantor of the new independence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the German princes who looked to her to protect their rights from the Emperor. Soon ? from 1683 ? the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Diet at Regensburg had turned into a permanent congress of delegates dominated by the French ambassador. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The German princes, meanwhile, acted independently. They made a separate peace treaty with France after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the War of the Spanish Succession and although legally forbidden in 1648 to act against the Empire or the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Emperor, ignored this provision. Bavaria backed France in the War of the Spanish Succession. The Empire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(itself was not involved as a body in the War of the Austrian Succession; Prussia fought the Empire in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Seven Years? War; while during the Revolutionary Wars she remained neutral. 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Clearly there was no spirit of German nationalism at the time and the princes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(saw themselves as equals of the Emperor whom they treated with contempt by tolerating Louis XIV?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aggressions. In the light of all this, it is perhaps more convincing, therefore, to see the story of the Reich, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less as a cumulative process of reform and patriotism than as a cumulative determination of the German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(princes to betray and undermine it altogether. Whaley does not seem to see this. All disputes are ?resolved? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or ?accommodated? \(p. 11\). Frederick the Great never translated his challenge to the Reich into reality \(p. 6\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Really? If not, he certainly tried hard enough!\) while Joseph II ?arguably challenged the constitution more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radically and more openly than Frederick the Great ever did? \(p. 6\). \(How? Frederick attacked the Habsburg )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monarchy without warning or excuse and agreed to split it up with France and other states; Joseph had a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mutual agreement with the ruler of Bavaria to peacefully swap the Austrian Netherlands ? a richer territory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than Bavaria ? for Bavaria itself, which was to become part of Austria and so strengthen the Reich.\) In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(end, therefore, Whaley?s two fine volumes will not put the argument over the Holy Roman Empire to rest. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, they will certainly provide a standard of scholarship against which all future works will be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(measured.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 336.147 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 305.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See for example his )] TJ ET BT 164.996 305.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Der Knig)] TJ ET BT 218.996 305.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Friedrich II von Preuen und die Deutsche Nation, )] TJ ET BT 467.960 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Schaffhausen, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1860\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 289.875 m 149.000 289.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 277.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For the dispute over the medieval Kaiserreich between Sybel and Ficker see Friedrich Schneider, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 262.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Universalstaat oder Nationalstaat, Macht und Ende des ersten deutschen Reiches. Die Streitschriften )] TJ ET BT 64.016 248.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(von Heinrich von Sybel und Juilius Ficker zur deutschen Kaiserpolitik des Mittelalters)] TJ ET BT 479.648 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Innsbruck, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1942\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 232.851 m 149.000 232.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 219.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See Raimund Friedrich Kaindl, )] TJ ET BT 217.004 219.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oesterreich, Preuen, Deutschland. Deutsche Geschichte in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 205.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(grodeutscher Beleuchtung)] TJ ET BT 196.328 205.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Vienna, 1926\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 274.976 205.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 274.976 204.339 m 328.964 204.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 191.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 191.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See in particular the four volumes of his )] TJ ET BT 259.988 191.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Deutsche Einheit. Idee und Wirklichkeit vom Heiligen Reich )] TJ ET BT 64.016 177.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(bis Kniggrtz )] TJ ET BT 138.032 177.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(vols. 1 and 2, Munich 1935, vols. 3 and 4, Munich 1942\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 418.352 177.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 418.352 175.827 m 472.340 175.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 162.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 162.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See his )] TJ ET BT 101.348 162.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Die Geschichte sterreichs)] TJ ET BT 233.984 162.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(2 vols., Graz, Vienna and Cologne, several editions, 1952/1959\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 148.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 147.315 m 118.004 147.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 134.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 134.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See footnote 2.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 136.340 134.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 136.340 133.059 m 190.328 133.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 120.202 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 120.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See his )] TJ ET BT 101.348 120.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Deutsche Geschichte im 19 Jahrhundert)] TJ ET BT 294.644 120.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(5 vols., Berlin 1886\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 406.640 120.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 406.640 118.803 m 460.628 118.803 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 105.946 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 105.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See his ?Gesamtdeutsche Geschichtsauffassung?, )] TJ ET BT 304.292 105.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Deutsche Vierteljahrsschrift fr )] TJ ET BT 64.016 91.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Literaturwissenschaft und Geistesgeschichte)] TJ ET BT 278.012 91.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 8 \(1930\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 328.004 91.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 328.004 90.291 m 381.992 90.291 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 77.434 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 77.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See Karl Otmar von Aretin, )] TJ ET BT 199.988 77.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Heiliges Rmisches Reich, 1778?1806)] TJ ET BT 384.632 77.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 390.632 77.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reichsverfassung und )] TJ ET BT 64.016 63.173 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Staatssouvernitt)] TJ ET BT 153.356 63.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2 vols., Wiesbaden, 1967\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 288.668 63.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 288.668 61.779 m 342.656 61.779 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 48.922 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 48.917 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See )] TJ ET BT 84.344 48.917 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(inter alia)] TJ ET BT 128.684 48.917 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 134.684 48.917 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(German Federalism: Past, Present and Future,)] TJ ET BT 362.324 48.917 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ed. Maiken Umbach \(Basingstoke, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 79 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 80 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.0117 290.1895 148.9997 302.0695 ] >> endobj 80 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 81 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 82 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.0117 233.1655 148.9997 245.0455 ] >> endobj 82 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 83 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 84 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 274.9757 204.6535 328.9637 216.5335 ] >> endobj 84 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 85 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 86 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 418.3517 176.1415 472.3397 188.0215 ] >> endobj 86 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 87 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 88 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 147.6295 118.0037 159.5095 ] >> endobj 88 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 28 0 R >> endobj 89 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 90 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 136.3397 133.3735 190.3277 145.2535 ] >> endobj 90 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 31 0 R >> endobj 91 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 92 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 406.6397 119.1175 460.6277 130.9975 ] >> endobj 92 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 34 0 R >> endobj 93 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 94 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 328.0037 90.6055 381.9917 102.4855 ] >> endobj 94 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 37 0 R >> endobj 95 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 96 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 288.6677 62.0935 342.6557 73.9735 ] >> endobj 96 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 40 0 R >> endobj 97 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 99 0 R 101 0 R 103 0 R 105 0 R 107 0 R 109 0 R 111 0 R 113 0 R 115 0 R 117 0 R 119 0 R 121 0 R 123 0 R 125 0 R ] /Contents 98 0 R >> endobj 98 0 obj << /Length 6295 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2002\) and Abigail Green, ?The federal alternative? A new view of modern German history?, )] TJ ET BT 511.892 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical Journal)] TJ ET BT 153.020 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 46, 1, \(March 2003\), 187?202.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 305.660 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 305.660 780.819 m 365.648 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 767.962 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Among many works, see his )] TJ ET BT 203.336 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Geschichte des Alten Reichs. Staat und Nation in der Frhen Neuzeit, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1495-1806,)] TJ ET BT 119.012 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Munich, 1999\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 200.336 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 200.336 752.307 m 260.324 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 739.450 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See her )] TJ ET BT 102.668 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Des Kaisers alte Kleider. Verfassungsgeschichte und Symbolsprache des Alten Reiches)] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Munich, 2008\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 142.340 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 142.340 723.795 m 202.328 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 710.938 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See among many works, his )] TJ ET BT 202.004 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Von der Leibeigenschaft zu den Menschenrechten: Eine Geschichte der )] TJ ET BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Freiheit in Deutschland)] TJ ET BT 178.676 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Munich, 2003\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 260.000 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 260.000 695.283 m 319.988 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 682.426 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See among several works, his ?)] TJ ET BT 214.652 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Turning Swiss. Cities and empire, 1450?1550)] TJ ET BT 434.336 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1985\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 531.656 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 531.656 681.027 m 559.316 681.027 l S BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 666.771 m 96.344 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 653.914 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See his )] TJ ET BT 101.348 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Deutsche Gesellschaftsgeschichte )] TJ ET BT 266.648 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5 vols., Munich, 1987?2008\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 412.304 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 412.304 652.515 m 472.292 652.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 639.658 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(16.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For the French lack of interest see, Christophe Duhamelle, ? Das alte Reich im toten Winkel der )] TJ ET BT 64.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(franzsischen Historiographie?, in )] TJ ET BT 231.980 625.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Imperium Romanum?irregulare corpus?Teutscher Reich-Staat. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 611.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Das Alte Reich im Verstndnis der Zeitgenossen und der Historiographie,)] TJ ET BT 422.336 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ed. Matthias Schnettger )] TJ ET BT 64.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Mainz, 2002\), pp. 207?19.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 194.996 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(16\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 194.996 595.491 m 254.984 595.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 582.634 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Wilson, )] TJ ET BT 132.344 582.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Holy Roman Empire, 1494?1806)] TJ ET BT 311.996 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1999\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 393.320 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(17\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 393.320 581.235 m 453.308 581.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 568.378 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(18.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See footnote 11.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 142.340 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(18\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 142.340 566.979 m 202.328 566.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 554.122 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See Volker Press, )] TJ ET BT 152.000 554.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kriege und Krisen: Deutschland 1600?1715)] TJ ET BT 365.324 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Munich, 1991\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 446.648 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(19\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 446.648 552.723 m 506.636 552.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Telegraph)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/books/bookreviews/9160915/Germany-and-the-Holy-Roman-Empire-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 497.955 m 542.276 497.955 l S BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Volumes-1-and-2-by-Joachim-Whaley-review.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 483.699 m 281.624 483.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 284.624 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 480.367 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 462.587 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source 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