%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 32 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150729045629+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150729045629+01'00') /Title (The Meaning of White: Race, Class, and the ?Domiciled Community? in British India 1858-1930) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4325 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Meaning of White: Race, Class, and the ?Domiciled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Community? in British India 1858-1930)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some years ago, in the midst of a conversation about tourism and travelling, a friend from one of Britain?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(former colonies remarked how shocked she had been to see ?white people begging? during her first trip )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abroad to Australia. The comment puzzled me, but my friend explained that she had grown up surrounded by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a widespread belief that poverty was a predominantly ?non-white? condition and it was only after leaving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her country to travel abroad that she came to realize how inaccurate this idea was.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I was reminded of this episode while reading Satoshi Mizutani?s stimulating book on the meaning of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?whiteness? in colonial India. While I do not wish to suggest that my friend?s opinion could be traced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exclusively to former British colonial policies of race and class in her country, I do think that this episode )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can be interpreted as a testimony to the timeliness and social relevance of Mizutani?s work. To be exact, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book is not without precedent in its choice of topic. Three decades ago, David Arnold?s pioneering study on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(orphans and vagrants in 19th-century India drew attention to the many divisions of class, race and gender )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which challenged the ?illusion?, as he called it, of a homogenous, elite European community in colonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(India. The last decade has witnessed a renewed interest in the topic, with more research being produced on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European ?subaltern? or marginal groups such as prostitutes, ?loafers? or vagrants, sailors and railway )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(workers.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 75.668 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 75.668 53.217 m 89.660 53.217 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 89.660 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( As Mizutani himself confesses \(pp. 3?4\), much of this research is theoretically indebted to Ann )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1317)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 13 September, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Satoshi Mizutani)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199697700)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(256pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Amelia Bonea)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 75.6677 53.5315 89.6597 65.4115 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7734 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Laura Stoler?s seminal work on colonial Southeast Asia, in which she examines racism as a pervasive and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutionalized practice of the colonial state ? rather than the simple manifestation of a peculiar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(psychological disposition ? which intersected with ideologies of gender, sexuality and class to produce )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subjects of imperial rule and simultaneously conceal the colonizers? own anxieties.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 433.616 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 433.616 752.307 m 447.608 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In )] TJ ET BT 47.012 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Meaning of White)] TJ ET BT 154.004 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Mizutani challenges conceptions of ?whiteness? in colonial India, more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specifically the period from 1858 to 1930, as a universal or generic category. His analysis focuses on India?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so-called ?domiciled community?, which consisted of persons of mixed Indian and European descent, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as Europeans of unmixed parentage who made the subcontinent their permanent place of domicile, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opposed to the bulk of civil servants, businessmen and army officers for whom the country represented only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a temporary destination. According to Mizutani, members of the domiciled community were ?identified as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problem? \(p. 3\) ? commonly described as the ?Eurasian Question? ? by colonial administrators on account of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their race and place of domicile, but also due to their widespread pauperism which set them apart from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?respectable? strata of British colonial society. As a result of this ideological differentiation, members of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domiciled community came to be perceived as ?ambiguous? whites, whose position within the colonial order )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a matter of intense debate and negotiation. Focusing on the categories of race and class, but making )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occasional reference to gender as well, the book documents the specific ways in which the colonial state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constructed the domiciled community as a problem and the strategies it devised to solve it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter one begins by identifying the ?ideal? British colonizer in India with those Britons who did not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reside permanently in the subcontinent and shows how the domiciliary criterion came to be regarded as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sine qua non)] TJ ET BT 95.348 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of ?whiteness? through its association with hierarchical notions of race and class. Following a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common line of argument among historians of South Asia, Mizutani describes the Indian revolt of 1857 as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turning point in British self-perceptions of their rule in India. If, during the early decades of the 19th century, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial prestige was still largely connected to the romanticized figure of the wealthy, partly-naturalized )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British ?nabob?, after 1857 racial boundaries became increasingly rigid and imperial prestige came to rest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(predominantly on an ideology of difference and distance. Distinctions existed not only between Europeans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Indians but, significantly for Mizutani?s argument, within the British colonial society as well. Thus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certain sections of the British society, in particular labourers and subordinate soldiers, came to be regarded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as unworthy exponents of Britain?s civilizing mission, quite unlike members of ?respectable? professions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as civil servants, doctors, lawyers or missionaries. The preservation of British prestige in the colony )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depended on the ability to avoid ?degeneration?, which could result from exposure to the unfavourable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(climate of India, as well as miscegenation and the failure to provide suitable education for children in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain, away from the physical, cultural and moral dangers of India and its domestic servants. According to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mizutani, ?whiteness? in India was very much a ?middle-class affair? \(p. 46\), one that reflected the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bourgeois sensibilities of Victorian Britain and rested significantly on the spatial differentiation of colony )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and metropolis.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(More concretely, who were the people subsumed under the category of the ?domiciled community? and how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did their numbers compare with those of the non-domiciled European population in India? Chapter two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides an answer to these questions. Based on the reports of two committees on pauperism, as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(census returns \(which did not actually use the domiciliary criterion to distinguish between Europeans\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mizutani estimates that at the beginning of the 20th century there were approximately 93,000 non-domiciled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europeans, 47,000 domiciled Europeans and 160,000 Eurasians in India \(p. 72\). Due to the impoverished )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state of many of its members, the domiciled community sometimes overlapped with another colonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(category, that of the ?poor whites?. The latter consisted mainly of sailors, soldiers, railway workers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vagrants, widows and orphans, whose numbers increased steadily after the abolition, in 1833, of the licence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system which had allowed the East India Company to control the entrance of Europeans into India. Unlike )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?poor whites?, members of the domiciled community were classed as ?Natives of India? under the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Government of India Act of 1870, a denomination which also included Eurasians or persons of mixed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(descent. As Mizutani argues, colonial commentators justified the ?otherness? of the domiciled and Eurasian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(group by appeal to an ?ideology of colonial degeneration? \(p. 67\). In terms of policy, one consequence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this distinction was that poor, non-domiciled whites could be repatriated to Britain, whereas domiciled )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 433.6157 752.6215 447.6077 764.5015 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7492 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europeans and Eurasians could not. Despite such differences, it is important to emphasize the high degree of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overlapping between the ?poor whites?, ?domiciled Europeans? and Eurasians, which is evident throughout )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the book. The pauperism which afflicted many domiciled Europeans and their gradual assimilation, through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marriage, into the Eurasian population were largely responsible for these flexible boundaries.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter three turns to the discussion of the so-called ?Eurasian Question?, a term used by colonial officials )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to describe the problems associated with poverty among persons of British descent in India. Significantly for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the author?s argument about the ambiguous ?whiteness? of the domiciled community, the ?Eurasian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Question? did not concern only people of mixed descent, as the term would seem to imply, but also racially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unmixed, domiciled Europeans. According to Mizutani, the above-mentioned committees on pauperism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(launched in Calcutta in 1891 and 1918 to inquire into the problems of the European poor, framed their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusions in a rhetorical language strikingly similar to the arguments about ?urban degeneration? which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had informed the activity of similar committees in late 19th-century Britain \(p. 95\). The pauperism of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domiciled population was explained either as a ?psychological disorder?, which stemmed from its members? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inability to reconcile their mixed racial background with their \(inappropriate\) desire to identify with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bourgeois, non-domiciled Britons, or as a disorder of environment, both colonial and urban, since many of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the domiciled poor lived in slums where they were exposed to dirt, vice and immorality. In reality, Mizutani )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues, the persistent poverty of the domiciled and Eurasian group was caused largely by the employment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discrimination they faced, since both government institutions and private European businesses proved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reluctant to recruit them. Instead of rectifying this situation, the colonial state devised alternative solutions to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?Eurasian Question? based on the principles of discipline and isolation. Unsurprisingly, some of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strategies, such asmaritime training, the establishment of farm colonies and migration, mirrored British or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European antecedents in dealing with the problems posed by the urban poor.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These strategies are discussed in more detail in chapters four and five. Chapter four focuses on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(educational policies of the colonial state aimed at the younger members of the domiciled community. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mizutani argues that, due to the high number of children among the domiciled poor, as well as the fact that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administrators regarded poverty as a problem which perpetuated itself across generations, education emerged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a key solution to the ?Eurasian Question?. However, the form such education was supposed to take was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(far from clear. Some of the efforts to educate the domiciled children originated with the ecclesiastical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(establishment, with the support of the Government of India. One such example was the so-called Bishop )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cotton?s Scheme launched in Calcutta in the early 1860s with the help of the Viceroy, Lord Canning, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(led to the establishment of ?European schools? in hill stations, as well as plain towns such as Howrah, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Allahabad, Meerut and Cuttack. Like the European Education Code introduced in 1887, the scheme failed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(solve the ?Eurasian Question? since many children remained illiterate or outside the remit of these measures. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Mizutani points out, the education provided was of a general nature, not a practical one, and it was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compulsory. Furthermore, the children who attended such schools continued to be exposed to the damaging )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influences of their ?non-European? environment, a fact which seriously jeopardized their ?correction? in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eyes of the non-domiciled community \(p. 136\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Under these circumstances, as chapter five shows, child removal and juvenile emigration emerged as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only viable solutions to the problems posed by the domiciled poor. Through the example of St Andrew?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Colonial Homes, established by the Scottish missionary John Graham at Kalimpong at the beginning of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20th century, Mizutani documents the turn in anti-poverty policies from education to ?housing reform, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tighter regulation of charitable relief, collective discipline and ? collective migration and resettlement? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(137\). According to him, unlike previous attempts, the Homes had the double advantage of removing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children both ?from India as a space of native influence and the city as a place of slums? \(p. 179\). The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kalimpong children were isolated from their biological families and grew up in ?artificial families? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organized according to Victorian and Edwardian ideas of domesticity, motherhood and discipline. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children were regarded as having been ?abandoned?, despite the fact that in many cases their parents were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(still alive. This logic was applied to children of both mixed and unmixed descent, whose mothers were often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dismissed as ?prostitutes?. Since the children were expected to ?labour back into the Empire? \(p. 160\), albeit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as subaltern whites and potential migrants to Australia, New Zealand and Canada, great emphasis was placed )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 27 0 R 30 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 8372 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on teaching them to perform domestic chores and training them as future farmers, seamen and artisans. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, chapter six discusses the ways in which leaders of the domiciled community contested the colonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state?s policy of whiteness. Predictably, some of the most important debates surrounded the issue of civil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(service employment and were voiced via organizations such as the Eurasian and Anglo-Indian Association )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the Anglo-Indian and Domiciled European Association. As Mizutani shows, during much of the 19th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century the domiciled community was caught between the colonial government?s policies of Indianizing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lower ranks of the civil service on one hand and recruiting Oxbridge graduates for the higher positions on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the other. In this context, members of the domiciled community were dismissed as unfit for such jobs: their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repeated claims that they were white, Christian and spoke English as their mother tongue could not counter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fact that they had been educated in India and were ?not white enough? \(p. 218\). After the turn of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, as the Home Rule Movement intensified, the rhetoric of the domiciled community changed from an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasis on their ?whiteness? to an emphasis on their minority status. As Mizutani concludes, this was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simply a ?politics of racial proximity? but a serious contestation of British imperial privileges built on race )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and class and enforced through the ?ideology of ?domicile?? \(p. 218\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Meaning of White)] TJ ET BT 141.008 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is an engaging and well-written book which achieves its proclaimed aim of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?demystify[ing] the ideology of whiteness [and] situating it within the concrete social realities of colonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history? \(p. 3\). One wishes, however, that the author had paid more attention to the internal stratifications of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the domiciled community itself, instead of choosing to focus on that part of it which was characterized as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?poor?. Anticipating such criticism, Mizutani writes that his argument should be interpreted as an ?)] TJ ET BT 510.620 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(immanent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(critique)] TJ ET BT 71.348 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of a form of colonial power that simultaneously highlighted and controlled poverty among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Domiciled Europeans?, not as a claim that ?its members were invariably poor? \(pp. 5?6, original emphasis\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet, one could turn the argument of the book around and ask: if the point is to show that ?whiteness? in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial India was an ambiguous category, then is such neglect of difference within the domiciled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community itself really justified?This is especially the case whensuch differences keep suggesting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves throughout the book, for example when one attempts to identify the common thread which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connected members of the domiciled community who lived in urban slums with the Eurasian and Anglo-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indian Association?s requests for middle-range positions in the civil service \(p. 193\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A similar argument could be made with regard to Mizutani?s use of newspapers as sources of colonial views )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the topic he examines. One is reminded here of Robin Jeffrey?s pertinent statement in a different context )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that newspapers are ?often treated as if [they] were the same, and had the same effects, no matter the place )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or time?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 76.676 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 76.676 331.395 m 90.668 331.395 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 90.668 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This criticism can also be applied to the way in which Mizutani uses )] TJ ET BT 425.300 332.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Friend of India)] TJ ET BT 519.632 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(known under a variety of other names such as )] TJ ET BT 256.964 318.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Friend of India, and Statesman)] TJ ET BT 427.628 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 433.628 318.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Statesman and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Friend of India)] TJ ET BT 107.348 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, etc., as a source of British, colonial, public opinion on the domiciled community. As the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plethora of names themselves suggest, this newspaper went through significant transformations from its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inception at the beginning of the 19th century as a missionary paper in Srirampur, to its rebirth as )] TJ ET BT 504.296 275.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Statesman)] TJ ET BT 83.348 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( a century later \(Mizutani uses issues which cover roughly the period 1858?1930\). More )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significantly, the newspaper was edited by a number of editors \(sometimes co-editors\) whose views were not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(always consistent with each other or unconditionally supportive of the British imperial project. It is certainly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting that a person like Robert Knight, who bought the )] TJ ET BT 325.664 218.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Friend of India)] TJ ET BT 398.996 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in 1875, merged it with his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Statesman)] TJ ET BT 83.348 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and edited it with a few gaps until his death in Calcutta in 1890, could criticize the government )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for impoverishing the Indian population and excluding Indians from the higher ranks of the civil service, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while also dismissing the pleas of the domiciled poor, as Mizutani argues. As is well known, Knight was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notorious among his Anglo-Indian peers for his ?pro-native? views and was even accused at one time of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being a ?socialist?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 125.000 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 125.000 146.067 m 138.992 146.067 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 138.992 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Given the fact that Knight himself struggled to send his sons to study in Britain, one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wonders whether he was not in fact negotiating his own ?whiteness? within the colonial order, coming as he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did from a modest social background and belonging to an occupational group ? journalists ? whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?professional? or ?respectable? status was far from obvious in 19th-century India.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These observations notwithstanding, Satoshi Mizutani?s book is an enviable achievement and a valuable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution to our understanding of the politics of race and class in colonial India. The book is part of a )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 76.6757 331.7095 90.6677 343.5895 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 124.9997 146.3815 138.9917 158.2615 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R ] /Contents 33 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Length 4579 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(long and productive engagement with the study of South Asian history by Japanese scholars and deserves to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(receive wide attention from specialists and the general public alike.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 747.315 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 716.698 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Arnold, ?European orphans and vagrants in India in the nineteenth century?, )] TJ ET BT 465.932 716.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 702.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Imperial and Commonwealth History,)] TJ ET BT 246.680 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 7 \(1979\), 104?27. More recent scholarship on this topic )] TJ ET BT 64.016 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(includes: Sarmistha De, )] TJ ET BT 181.340 688.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Marginal Europeans in Colonial India, 1860?1920)] TJ ET BT 427.352 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Kolkata, 2008\); Harald )] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fischer-Tin, )] TJ ET BT 131.336 673.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Low and Licentious Europeans: Race, Class and ?White Subalternity? in Colonial India)] TJ ET BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New Delhi, 2009\); Aravind Ganachari, ??White man?s embarrassment?: European vagrancy in 19th )] TJ ET BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century Bombay?, )] TJ ET BT 155.000 645.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Economic and Political Weekly,)] TJ ET BT 308.972 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 37 \(2002\), 2477?86; Dorothy McMenamin, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Identifying Domiciled Europeans in colonial India: Poor whites or privileged community??, )] TJ ET BT 513.968 631.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(New )] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Zealand Journal of Asian Studies,)] TJ ET BT 227.024 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 3 \(2001\), 106?27; Deborah Nixon, ?Race, railways, and domiciled )] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europeans?, )] TJ ET BT 125.996 602.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Transforming Cultures eJournal,)] TJ ET BT 285.008 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 3 \(2008\), 26?43.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 367.328 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 367.328 601.251 m 421.316 601.251 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 588.394 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ann L. Stoler, )] TJ ET BT 135.680 588.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Race and the Education of Desire: Foucault?s History of Sexuality and the Colonial )] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Order of Things)] TJ ET BT 141.356 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Durham, NJ, 1995\); Ann L. Stoler, )] TJ ET BT 319.004 574.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Carnal Knowledge and Imperial Power: Race )] TJ ET BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and the Intimate in Colonial Rule)] TJ ET BT 225.020 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Berkeley, CA, 2002\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 335.000 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 335.000 558.483 m 388.988 558.483 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 545.626 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robin Jeffrey, ?Testing concepts about print, newspapers and politics: Kerala, India, 1800?2007?,)] TJ ET BT 64.016 531.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Asian Studies)] TJ ET BT 181.688 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 68 \(2009\), 486.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 261.680 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 261.680 529.971 m 315.668 529.971 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 517.114 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edwin Hirschmann, )] TJ ET BT 163.004 517.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Robert Knight: Reforming Editor in Victorian India)] TJ ET BT 411.680 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New Delhi, 2008\), see )] TJ ET BT 64.016 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially pp. 50?54, 209?12, 220?4.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 241.988 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 241.988 501.459 m 295.976 501.459 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 486.127 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 468.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 468.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1317)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 466.953 m 328.316 466.953 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 441.976 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.576 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/32389)] TJ ET endstream endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 367.3277 601.5655 421.3157 613.4455 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 334.9997 558.7975 388.9877 570.6775 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 261.6797 530.2855 315.6677 542.1655 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 26 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 241.9877 501.7735 295.9757 513.6535 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 29 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 467.2675 328.3157 479.1475 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1317) >> endobj xref 0 44 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000601 00000 n 0000000690 00000 n 0000005067 00000 n 0000005176 00000 n 0000005286 00000 n 0000005395 00000 n 0000008956 00000 n 0000009084 00000 n 0000009168 00000 n 0000009197 00000 n 0000009321 00000 n 0000009357 00000 n 0000009441 00000 n 0000017228 00000 n 0000017258 00000 n 0000017386 00000 n 0000017422 00000 n 0000017487 00000 n 0000025032 00000 n 0000025123 00000 n 0000033548 00000 n 0000033578 00000 n 0000033704 00000 n 0000033740 00000 n 0000033770 00000 n 0000033898 00000 n 0000033934 00000 n 0000034046 00000 n 0000038678 00000 n 0000038806 00000 n 0000038861 00000 n 0000038989 00000 n 0000039044 00000 n 0000039172 00000 n 0000039227 00000 n 0000039355 00000 n 0000039410 00000 n 0000039538 00000 n trailer << /Size 44 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 39634 %%EOF