%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 28 0 R 40 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140916162502+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140916162502+01'00') /Title (Parenting in England 1760-1830: Emotion, Identity, and Generation) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4506 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Parenting in England 1760-1830: Emotion, Identity, and Generation)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is an outstanding book, which will open up a new area of research for historians of the family. We have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so many good histories of children and childhood, but Joanne Bailey?s book is the first to consider the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of parenting in the Georgian period. What is more, the methods and sources deployed in Bailey?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book demonstrate just how far we have travelled since historians started thinking about the history of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family some 40 years ago. As well as drawing upon the reminiscences of parents and parenting contained in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(autobiographies, and the life-writing found in diaries and letters, Bailey examines many forms of print and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular culture, and uses visual sources to great effect. For the latter, while fully aware of the findings of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians such as Kate Retford )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 186.992 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 186.992 172.137 m 200.984 172.137 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 200.984 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, whose work has focused on formal portraiture, Bailey chooses to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comment upon visual images that are less well known. Her book contains several sketches made by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amateur painter John Harden \(1772?1847\), for example, which were not designed to be sold, and reveal an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intimate and relaxed view of parenting. Material culture also has its place in this book; a patchwork piece, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(embroidered with a heart, and left by a mother with a baby at the London Foundling Hospital, speaks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volumes about how parents of lowly status could use objects to express love for their children. It would be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all too easy to resort only to the advice literature aimed at the middling and upper classes, and to write an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account of parenting based on the life writings of the social elite. But, by piecing together evidence from a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wide range of sources, and, through an examination of the language and purposes of the many letters written )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1318)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 13 September, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joanne Bailey)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199565191)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(65.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(296pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elizabeth Foyster)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 186.9917 172.4515 200.9837 184.3315 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 8063 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by pauper parents to the poor law authorities, Bailey has been able to research the meanings and experience )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of parenting across the social scale. This is cultural history at its very best. Terms like ?sensibility?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?romanticism?, and ?domesticity?, often used imprecisely by historians of the family, are explained clearly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and through her careful analysis of primary sources, Bailey achieves her aim of considering ?how cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(values interacted with the experiential? \(p. 8\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As her subtitle suggests, Bailey focuses on three main aspects of parenting between 1760 and 1830. First, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she considers the emotions: as she writes, this is ?a history of parenting ?from the inside out?? \(p. 2\). Taking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the affection of parents for their children as a given, Bailey shows how the expression of parental love was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shaped by cultural conventions and the language of sensibility, romanticism and domesticity. Parenthood )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was thought to give rise to new emotions, which adults might not have experienced before they became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parents. ?Who, that has felt them, can ever forget the emotions awakened by the first gaze upon the face of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his child, by the first embrace of his babe?, asked John Angell James in 1830 \(p. 22\). Parents were expected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be emotional about and towards their children, and in this period affection was demonstrated and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(celebrated through the ideal of the ?tender? parent. There were elements of tender parenting that were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gendered; women had the spiritual model of tender mothering from Mary?s relationship with Jesus, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mothers were expected to take a more physical role in the routine care of their children through nursing and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feeding them, for example. But tender parenting was not just left to mothers. Bailey shows how Georgian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fathers were expected to cuddle their children \(their bosoms could also be nurturing in this way\), kiss them, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and shed tears at their pain. Hence this book questions the originality of the ideal of the demonstrative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Victorian father. From love stemmed other emotions for parents, including anxiety, grief and distress. Bailey )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(builds upon her earlier work to show how the language of feeling and tender parenthood was used right )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(across the social scale, with paupers resorting to it in their calls for aid.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 374.960 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 374.960 483.699 m 388.952 483.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 388.952 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In a time of high infant mortality )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and low life expectancy, grief for the loss of child or parent was perhaps the most commonly shared )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience of parenting. For the modern day reader, Bailey?s descriptions of the emotional suffering felt by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parents and their children are deeply moving.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second area of focus is upon identity. In her previous book on marriage, )] TJ ET BT 403.940 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Unquiet Lives: Marriage and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Marriage Breakdown in England, 1660-1800)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 254.672 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 254.672 400.419 m 268.664 400.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 268.664 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( , Bailey had remarked that historians were too ready to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study just one aspect of people?s family lives, by examining their marriages, without also appreciating that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(husbands and wives were often also parents, for example. In )] TJ ET BT 326.612 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Parenting in England)] TJ ET BT 430.616 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Bailey proves the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of not splitting people?s identity into different components, by showing how profoundly each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(affected the other. Furthermore, she challenges Dror Wahrman?s view that this period saw the birth of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern introspective self by arguing that the Georgian self ?was at once collective, familial and internal? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(251\). In other words, the family was understood to be a source of social and inner identity. Being a parent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had vital significance for both public and personal identity. Parents had a public duty to raise healthy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(educated citizens who would contribute to a stable and patriotic society. This was especially important in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politically turbulent years of 1760?1830. Furthermore, the experience of being parented and parenting had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an impact upon how men and women thought about themselves. So profound was the attachment formed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between parents and children, and being a mother or father was so central to the notion of identity, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporaries used the term ?second self? to write about their children. The devastating consequences of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this were seen when children died, or when marriages broke down and fathers took custody of children. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fathers and mothers were left mentally shattered and could experience a loss of self. This crisis of identity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was summarised by Hannah Robertson in the 1790s, who \(recalling the death of all nine of her children\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wrote how she was ?deprived of my children ? abandoned by the world ? and deserted \(as it were\) by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(myself? \(p. 157\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Throughout her book, Bailey is keen to show how identity as formed by parenting was a process, and for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individuals was a matter of becoming, or something that was constantly evolving. Changing social and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic circumstances, developing relationships, and the life-cycle \(especially as it affected age\), each had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an impact. ?Parental identity was a journey rather than a culmination or end-point?, she argues \(p. 144\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Remembering parents, and thinking about parents as a generation who passed on family values, is the third )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(key theme. While John R. Gillis has written movingly about the meaning of myths and rituals in family life )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 47.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 46.275 m 48.008 46.275 l S endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 374.9597 484.0135 388.9517 495.8935 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 254.6717 400.7335 268.6637 412.6135 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 46.5895 48.0077 58.4695 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R ] /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 7443 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Bailey is the first to consider what motivated Georgians to remember and record their family stories, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially following parental death. ?People?s emotional relationships with their parents continued long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after their decease?, she argues \(p. 244\). The process of remembering enabled the next generation to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preserve what they held as precious, and to make sense of themselves. As Sydney Morgan wrote to her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brother-in-law, following her father?s death in 1812, ?I can look neither to the past nor to the future without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connecting everything with him, and the present is all, all him? \(p. 125\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The sheer originality of much of this research is startling, and this book is bound to stimulate fresh debates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and ideas. Bailey recognises that not all parenting was carried out by mothers and fathers. Grandparents, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aunts and uncles, paid and unpaid carers could share the burden of parenting, and perhaps take on an unequal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(share of the more mundane aspects of childcare, leaving mothers and fathers to focus upon the nurturing of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(child?s mind and values. Interestingly, Georgian parents, including those who left their children in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(charge of others while they worked, do not seem to have suffered any of the guilt or dilemmas of conscience )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so often experienced by working parents today. One absence from this book is a discussion of the role of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(godparent. In an Enlightenment world, when the established church faced challenges from evangelicalism, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might have been revealing to know how this aspect of parenting was affected. In earlier periods we know )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that godparents were intended to provide spiritual guidance to their godchildren, but could also play a more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practical role in their upbringing. How was godparenting practised and experienced in the period 1760?1830?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is fascinating to learn from Bailey that by this period bad parenting was understood to breed badly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behaved children. Parental influence during childhood was thought to have a profound impact upon an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual?s personality and qualities in later life. Hence from the 1770s, during trials of juveniles at the Old )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bailey, parents and masters could find themselves held responsible for the criminal behaviour of their young )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(charges. But the logic of this thinking seems to have only gone so far. Why, in cases of marital breakdown )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and legal separation, did fathers always win custody of their children? It was not until the 1839 Custody of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Infants Act that mothers could petition the Court of Chancery for custody of their children up to the age of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seven, and for periodic access to children who were seven years and older. Since one of the legal grounds for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marital separation was violence, this meant that before 1839 children of separated parents could be left in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(care of men who had been proved to be violent. While contemporaries expressed great concern about how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children might be ?contaminated? if they lived in the homes of their adulterous mothers, there was an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absence of discussion about either the physical harm or psychological damage that they might face from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their violent fathers. The authorities would intervene to protect children if their fathers inflicted serious, life-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(threatening violence upon them, but the idea that children?s impressionable minds might be affected by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(witnessing the violence of their fathers upon their mothers does not seem to have been entertained. Why? Is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this another case of the preservation of patriarchal authority in the family? In a society that held tender )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parenting so dear, why were children left in the custody of violent men?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 267.123 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 236.506 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kate Retford, )] TJ ET BT 132.332 236.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Art of Domestic Life: Family Portraiture in Eighteenth-Century England)] TJ ET BT 503.324 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New )] TJ ET BT 64.016 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Haven and London, 2006\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 192.992 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 192.992 220.851 m 246.980 220.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 207.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joanne Bailey, ??Think wot a Mother must feel?: Parenting in English pauper letters c.1760-1834?, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 193.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Family and Community History)] TJ ET BT 216.344 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 13/1 \(2010\), 5-19.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 309.668 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 309.668 192.339 m 363.656 192.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 179.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joanne Bailey, )] TJ ET BT 137.672 179.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Unquiet Lives: Marriage and Marriage Breakdown in England, 1660?1800)] TJ ET BT 64.016 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 2003\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 158.336 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 158.336 163.827 m 212.324 163.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 150.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John R. Gillis, )] TJ ET BT 136.364 150.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A World of Their Own Making)] TJ ET BT 283.364 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford,1997\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 359.012 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 359.012 149.571 m 413.000 149.571 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 107.983 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 90.203 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 90.203 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1318)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 88.809 m 328.316 88.809 l S endstream endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 192.9917 221.1655 246.9797 233.0455 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 309.6677 192.6535 363.6557 204.5335 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 158.3357 164.1415 212.3237 176.0215 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 359.0117 149.8855 412.9997 161.7655 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 89.1235 328.3157 101.0035 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1318) >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 41 0 R >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Length 226 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 784.354 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 769.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/32391)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 42 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000568 00000 n 0000000657 00000 n 0000005215 00000 n 0000005324 00000 n 0000005434 00000 n 0000005543 00000 n 0000009104 00000 n 0000009232 00000 n 0000009316 00000 n 0000009345 00000 n 0000009473 00000 n 0000009509 00000 n 0000009607 00000 n 0000017723 00000 n 0000017753 00000 n 0000017881 00000 n 0000017917 00000 n 0000017947 00000 n 0000018075 00000 n 0000018111 00000 n 0000018141 00000 n 0000018265 00000 n 0000018301 00000 n 0000018413 00000 n 0000025909 00000 n 0000026037 00000 n 0000026092 00000 n 0000026220 00000 n 0000026275 00000 n 0000026403 00000 n 0000026458 00000 n 0000026586 00000 n 0000026641 00000 n 0000026768 00000 n 0000026864 00000 n 0000026929 00000 n trailer << /Size 42 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 27207 %%EOF