%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 25 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150828180851+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150828180851+01'00') /Title (The Shaping of German Identity: Authority and Crisis, 1245?1414) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4252 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Shaping of German Identity: Authority and Crisis, 1245?1414)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In this monumental and densely-packed book on Germany identity in the later Middle Ages ? the only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monograph of on the subject in any language, the author informs us ? Len Scales gives us a new view of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germany and the empire that is sure to be of great importance for medieval historians? perceptions of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empire, of Germany, and of the forces behind the shaping of identity. Scales shows convincingly that during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precisely the centuries when the empire seemed to be losing its grip on Germany, a sense of German identity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is increasingly manifest in a wide range of sources, and, paradoxically, this notion of German-ness is very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(closely connected with the idea of empire. Germans were well aware of the weakness of the emperor?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political control over the empire?s constituent parts; they were also very conscious that the empire was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?German?, which fact in itself seems to have contributed to a growth in a sense of German identity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For obvious reasons, the question of the historical roots of German identity has been a rather delicate one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(albeit frequently addressed in indelicate terms\). Scales betrays an admirable sense of awareness and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflexivity regarding the history of his discipline and subject throughout the book, providing his readers with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(useful reminders as to the extent to which the modern perception of the so-called German )] TJ ET BT 466.928 104.507 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sonderweg)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(?special path?\) has been shaped by the preoccupations and political entanglements of modern scholarship ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though it is also true that German political development really was different from that in England and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France. Beyond a pervasive historiographical awareness throughout, Scales also provides a full \(and lengthy\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1319)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 13 September, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Len Scales)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780521573337)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(80.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(636pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shami Ghosh)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8389 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter on the modern historiography of medieval German political history, which the present reviewer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(found fascinating, if not entirely novel. The frequent harping on the dodgy political history of the German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical professions sometimes seems a bit excessive, even for those with a taste for such things. Others )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with less of a background in German history and literature, past and present ? and particularly, I suspect, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anglophone medieval historians ? might find themselves moving on rather rapidly to the second chapter. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This being said, Scales is probably better able to approach the concept of German identity with a lucid and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clear eye than his German peers precisely because, his detailed awareness of modern historical traditions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notwithstanding, he stands outside it; one can only hope that this book will nevertheless be read and properly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(digested in the world of German medieval historical scholarship, which at times seems as averse to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absorbing English-language research on Germany as the Anglophone world is to partaking of work in any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language other than English.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After his historiographical exposition, Scales presents a very useful synthesis of the political history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germany in this period, showing that there was no movement towards a single polity that could be linked to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a notion of any kind of ?national? identity. While in England and France, the makings of government and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state, and thus of a national political identity, were intimately connected with an increasingly assertive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarchy, in Germany the trajectory of the monarchy seemed ? even to contemporary observers ? different. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 55.676 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reich)] TJ ET BT 83.000 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( had long been a conglomerate of many old and quite independent entities, and even under the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hohenstaufen emperors this did not cease to be the case. While elsewhere in the central middle ages )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarchs were often augmenting the sizes of their kingdoms by conquest, German rulers no longer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expanded their territories in this way, with eastward expansion being in the hands of independent dukes. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growth in administration that we find in France and England can be seen in Germany as well ? but at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(level of the principalities rather than the empire, and the great expansion in the production of documentation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the imperial chancery only takes off under Frederick III in the middle of the 15th century. Income from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the )] TJ ET BT 51.680 456.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(fisc)] TJ ET BT 68.348 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( seems to have dropped drastically over the 14th century, at a time when monarchs elsewhere were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trying, often successfully, to increase tax revenues, and imperial power was now ever more dependent on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incomes from the dynastic lands of the incumbent. Increasingly, also, in the period under consideration here, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the great dynasties that jostled for the imperial throne \(Habsburg, Luxemburg, and Wittelsbach\) did not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intrude much into the territories of their competitors even when commanding the )] TJ ET BT 425.300 399.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(imperium)] TJ ET BT 471.296 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; when rulers of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one region did take over another, they were seen not so much as fellow-Germans, but as foreigners, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?foreign servitude was hardly less resented when its enforcers spoke a form of German? \(p. 515\). Given the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diffusion of power ? and also, one must add, the sheer size of the empire ? it is not surprising that no great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(residential centre arose in Germany that had a pull across all of the empire, unlike, for example, Paris or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London; instead, we see the rise of Munich, of Vienna, of Prague, which were certainly great administrative, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(judicial, and political centres, but nevertheless could not exercise much centrifugal force beyond, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respectively, Bavaria, Austria, and Bohemia. The court did attract people, but ?generally speaking, not the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strong and ambitious but the weak and threatened sought in Germany the proximity of the monarch? \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(87f.\). As a consequence of this fragmentation, although the emperors of this period were much more often to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be found in the German lands than many of their predecessors, they nevertheless did not have a great deal of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political power outside their own patrimonies. Many regions of Germany never saw the emperor; many, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly along the northern coasts, conducted their foreign policies without reference to him. In general, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scales confirms the view that there was a trend ?towards the monarchy?s increasingly pronounced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disengagement? from the people of the realm, including those at the top of local hierarchies \(p. 92\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is where the paradox becomes apparent: despite this disengagement, despite the difficulties of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communication, the internal boundaries, the lack of a unifying polity, a sense of a German )] TJ ET BT 470.612 159.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(political)] TJ ET BT 510.620 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( identity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seems actually to have grown in this period. Contemporary writings \(often produced by the increasing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(numbers of those who travelled outside Germany\) often mention )] TJ ET BT 347.636 130.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Alamania)] TJ ET BT 394.304 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 400.304 130.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Theutonia)] TJ ET BT 448.976 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, or the )] TJ ET BT 485.636 130.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dudesche )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(lande)] TJ ET BT 60.680 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. The existence of this ?Germany? was taken for granted, its boundaries perceived as generally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understood ? despite the fact that there was not even a term for a unified German polity: both in Latin, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly in the vernacular, ?even the faade of a unitary German )] TJ ET BT 361.904 88.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(regnum )] TJ ET BT 401.564 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([?] crumbles entirely? \(p. 182\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet the writings of the period betray an awareness of some sort of political German nation, which was was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(closely linked to the fact that this nation was, formally if not in fact, ruled by a German emperor. Writers in )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 8264 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different regions were often not particularly interested in what was happening elsewhere; but they were often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interested in what the emperor was up to, even if he was far away. The actual weakness of imperial powers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notwithstanding, ?there is little sign that interest in the ruler and his doings slackened markedly? during this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period \(p. 122\). The very lack of a single centre of rule might, Scales argues, have increased the visibility of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the emperor in different regions of his realm ? though it remains a fact that each emperor tended to spread )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his presence unequally, with some regions seeing rather more of that emperor than others, and many parts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rarely ever experiencing an imperial visit at all. Even when imperial power did not actually have any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effective influence on actions taken, towns and regions nevertheless sought and acquired imperial privileges )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and legitimacy. The emperor was talked, sung, and written about, and imperial insignia are increasingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evident in public spaces throughout the )] TJ ET BT 225.332 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reich)] TJ ET BT 252.656 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet part of the paradox is that while the emperor was German, and various German lands seem to have felt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some sense of identity deriving from their belonging to the empire, the )] TJ ET BT 376.316 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reich)] TJ ET BT 403.640 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was of course a concept that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(embraced lands far beyond just the German ones, and indeed, what was perhaps most special about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emperor was precisely that he was the ruler of the )] TJ ET BT 275.948 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Romans)] TJ ET BT 314.612 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. This is not an aspect of empire that was forgotten )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in this period, and indeed, German chroniclers were well aware of foreign disdain for an emperor who did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not and could not rule beyond the German lands. Nevertheless, within Germany itself, there seems to have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been no sympathy for the notion of an empire stripped down to the German lands; it appears to be the case )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that part of what made the Germans aware of their identity as Germans, in a political sense, was the very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roman-ness of empire. One reason why )] TJ ET BT 229.640 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Germanitas)] TJ ET BT 286.304 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 309.632 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Romanitas)] TJ ET BT 360.968 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( go together is that it was precisely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German princes who had the power to elect the emperor \(and when the Bohemian king?s voting rights )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became recognised, he too was himself incorporated with a larger German identity\); this German right of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rule was in turn related, in contemporary perception, to a concept of a )] TJ ET BT 371.600 485.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(translatio imperii)] TJ ET BT 455.948 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in which the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germans were the last of the peoples to receive the right and duty to rule. For this reason, even those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emperors past and present who might legitimately not have been seen as German ? the Carolingians at one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(end of the spectrum, the Luxemburger kings of Bohemia at the other ? were described as being Germans, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even though they were kings of France and Bohemia.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 55.676 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Romanitas)] TJ ET BT 107.012 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of empire was, of course, increasingly a fiction: as Scales points out, a generally accepted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emperor crowned in Rome ruled for fewer than 25 of the years between 1245 and 1415. The Romance lands )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the empire were increasingly independent of and un-visited by emperors, and the fact of imperial rule )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became increasingly restricted to the transalpine regions. Yet the perception of imperial office as being one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(received by Germans from ancient Rome, an office sacred because of its link with the papacy, never )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(receded. The specialness of Germans and their suitability for empire was much debated by learned Germans, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many of whom had studied and worked in Paris or Rome, and it was often precisely this experience of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Romance lands that heightened their awareness of their German-ness, and seems to have led them to discuss, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debate, and defend it at length. Indeed, Scales suggests that one of the spurs to more debate of the concept of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German-ness was precisely the questioning of the suitability of German emperors by people in other lands. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the Latin and vernacular literature of this period \(as well as a good deal of material from the Hohenstaufen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(era too\), Germans and Romance-speakers \()] TJ ET BT 241.280 244.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Walhen)] TJ ET BT 277.940 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) are portrayed as opposing, sometimes \(notably in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work of Alexander von Roes\) complementary, but always different entities.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Why Germans, and not another people? What favoured them to become guardians of empire? Ethnic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stereotypes abound in the evidence from this period, often leaning on very ancient precedent. Germans did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not, unlike some other nations, have a holy founding father; they were special for their martial qualities, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which is what gave them, in their own eyes, a right and duty to protect Christendom through the office of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emperor, a right that, according to the historical production of the time, was very ancient indeed. While parts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Germany had indeed been under Roman rule ? and the physical evidence of this was still very much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(present in places like Trier ? in this period we see claims of Roman history turning up in many parts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germany that had never been Roman. Aristocratic lineages claimed Roman ancestors; towns claimed to have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been founded by Rome; Caesar himself made the Germans Roman, and in one version grants the lords of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German lands \()] TJ ET BT 107.996 76.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(die herren von Duczschen landen)] TJ ET BT 268.628 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) the Reich itself \(p. 312\)! The lords chose him as their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ruler, however ? a precedent for the contemporary rights of German electors to choose the emperor. After )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 8021 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Caesar, the great founder of German imperium was, not surprisingly, Charlemagne, who brought empire, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(finally and irrevocably, to Germany. Whether Charles himself was German was a more difficult question, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however: though he appears in earlier Middle High German literature as a French king, he began later to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(co-opted into a German identity of sorts, even though he is always conceded to have ruled over France; but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his German-ness remained a matter of some dispute.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The eastern lands present a different sort of case of the formation of a German identity: along the Baltic, two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(corporate markers of identity were dominant, the Teutonic Order, and the Hansa, and in these lands and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beyond, large numbers of people of the German tongue settled, and German laws were introduced \(though )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these were also often granted to Slavic-speaking settlements\); but the Germans remained a \(rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heterogenous\) minority, and outside the Order?s territories, they remained a minority in a region ruled by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(non-Germans. These regions thus provide an example of a different kind of identity-formation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differentiation from the ?Other? compared to what we find in the western parts. Here, according to Scales, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what obtained was more the construction of German ethnicity, rather than of German nationhood; those who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(settled in the east did not really bring a German identity with them, but were made Germans by this process. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German-ness and the presence of Germans were both more hotly contested here than elsewhere; German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(laws could be conferred on people who were not German speakers, but those not of the German tongue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could also be excluded from German law. The Teutonic Order made no particular effort to create a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly German state in any respect, and indeed, while it recruited mainly \(but by no means exclusively\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from German-speaking areas, its identity lay more in its sense of religious mission than in German-ness. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hansa was a multi-ethnic corporate entity of such looseness that it has been questioned whether it qualifies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a corporate entity at all; it was, however, self-consciously both German and of the empire, though this did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not necessarily block the inclusion of non-German cities or traders. Many of the towns in the east were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominated by a German merchant class, which became increasingly exclusive towards the close of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Middle Ages ? as indeed did their non-German counterparts. Conflict existed; conflict is nevertheless not the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominant impression we should have of the lands to the east, since, as Scales shows, there was a good deal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of fluidity across ethnic boundaries in many regions, and law, trade, and even culture and kinship often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provided spaces in which differences could be blurred and overcome. Ethnic identity could often be simply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(irrelevant. Thus, although there was manifestly more conflict with an ?Other? in the eastern lands than in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heartlands of the empire, ?German identity in the eastern lands was less articulated and less theorised than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was the case in certain western writings? \(p. 445\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Where was Germany? It is not surprising that the sources, in particular the vernacular texts, refer to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German lands in the plural \(in Latin, the singulars )] TJ ET BT 276.656 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Germania)] TJ ET BT 325.316 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 331.316 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Alemania)] TJ ET BT 377.312 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, or, more rarely, )] TJ ET BT 460.952 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Teutonia)] TJ ET BT 503.624 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(used\); but for the most part there was little dispute about which lands these were. The problems arose, then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as now, with boundary areas, principally the left bank of the Rhine, the status of which seems often to have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been uncertain. An inner distinction was made between High and Low German, which was both linguistic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and geographical, but regions on both sides were thought of as German ? though the status of )] TJ ET BT 484.616 273.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Niderlant)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remained unclear. From the early 13th century, literary works refer often to Germans as such, both in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vernacular and in Latin. The German lands were the lands inhabited by those who spoke the German tongue; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and ultimately, the definition of German-ness ? with some outliers like the Dutch and Frisians as partial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exceptions ? rests in large part on language. The Germans were those who lived in the German lands, who, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as Scales shows, were by divine right and Caesar?s gift the people on whom )] TJ ET BT 402.956 202.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(imperium)] TJ ET BT 448.952 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( had been conferred; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but they were German because they spoke German \(and this facet of identity seems to me somewhat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overshadowed in Scales?s presentation by other aspects\). The Germans, it seems to me, were in their own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perception to a very large extent defined and united by their awareness of a common tongue \(when in eastern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lands distinctions were made between Germans and others, identity was often tested with recourse to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language\): the political nationhood that derived from imperium was attached to Germans, but arguably they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could and did only know they were German because of their language ? and the earliest evidence of such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(awareness can be found already in the 9th century. That there were a range of dialects is true, but the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(linguistic difficulties can be exaggerated: any number of literary and even legal texts wandered back and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forth across the divide between High and Low German, and the literary evidence suggests that the language )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(barrier was not an obstacle to the building of both a common literary tradition defined not least by its )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 9206 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(linguistic bounds, and a sense of identity as speakers of the German tongue. While it is true that ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common past which united the German territories of the Empire was, necessarily, an imperial past? \(p. 351\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this was not the only common German past: there was also a past of the heroes of epic \(texts which were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(widely received and copied, in Low and High German, in this period\), of Siegfried ox Xanten and Dietrich )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(von Bern, which was also remembered as something uniquely German, and was so remembered, I think, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primarily because these legends lived on principally in the German language \(the heroes themselves occur in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narratives that are often placed outside Germany\). German as a literary language had already emerged before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Hohenstaufen emperors, and the decades around 1200 witnessed a remarkable flowering, the so-called )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bltezeit)] TJ ET BT 76.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, of a vernacular literary production, which, although drawing very heavily on French and antique )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditions, was to have a huge influence on literature in Germany through the later Middle Ages as a )] TJ ET BT 517.592 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(German)] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tradition: later authors adapted and referred more to German Arthurian romances rather than to their French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources. It is possibly no coincidence that during the period covered by this book, the vernacular became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominant in documentary sources and also law, at the same time in which most of the manuscripts of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vernacular literature of the )] TJ ET BT 164.636 611.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bltezeit)] TJ ET BT 206.636 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( were produced. It is also from around the middle of the 13th century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that we get an explosion of vernacular chronicles from all over the German lands. It is quite impossible to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argue that this spread of the vernacular was part of any sort of imperial political programme: the German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(linguistic identity, and as far as literature is concerned, an awareness of a German literary tradition, were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spontaneous and initially local matters rather than the results of conscious policy. Nevertheless, even in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial chancery, in this period increasing numbers of vernacular documents were produced, and by the end )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of it, the vernacular dominated. Scales is, however, certainly correct that the regions in which language was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the primary locus of identity-formation were those on the frontiers \(I wonder, however, whether this is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equally true of other markers of identity: it is at the frontier that one needs to define oneself\). The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of language should not, of course, be exaggerated; if it was a unifying factor, that did not mean )] TJ ET BT 34.016 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Germans of one region resented it any less when they were conquered by Germans from elsewhere, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the sense of political identification with an individual )] TJ ET BT 293.336 454.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(lant)] TJ ET BT 312.008 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was undoubtedly often stronger than a loyalty to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community defined as all those who spoke German ? though as Scales points out, the notion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 425.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Landesbwutsein)] TJ ET BT 117.356 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(consciousness of the identity of an individual )] TJ ET BT 344.672 425.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(lant)] TJ ET BT 363.344 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, different from a German )] TJ ET BT 489.968 425.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(natio)] TJ ET BT 514.640 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) can be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 411.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exaggerated, since this level of affiliation was no less complex and blurred than a larger German identity, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 397.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and at both layers, rulers tended to prefer a loyalty to the dynasty \(which ruled over or in more than one )] TJ ET BT 534.584 397.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(lant)] TJ ET BT 553.256 397.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 383.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than to a narrower regional sense of belonging. Nor did identification with a )] TJ ET BT 402.620 383.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(lant)] TJ ET BT 421.292 383.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( necessarily rule out a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 368.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broader sense of German affinity: ?region often represented less an alternative to larger identities [?] than a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 354.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standpoint from which to inspect and interpret them? \(p. 522\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a very important book. It is obviously essential reading for anyone with an interest in medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germany, but it is equally crucial for those studying medieval political history or identity-formation more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generally, and will in fact provide many insights for periods beyond its own as well. It therefore seems a pity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the author or publisher could not have done a bit more to make it more user-friendly to audiences )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beyond the rather small group of people who work on medieval Germany. With a background in German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(myself, it is hard for me to judge just how accessible everything here would be to those without such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(training, but it does seem to me that many aspects of the historiographical chapter take more knowledge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about German history for granted than is probably reasonable in today?s Britain, to say nothing of North )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America. Even assuming that this book is intended for postgraduates and more senior scholars, how many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval historians know the significance of the difference between )] TJ ET BT 364.268 199.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(kleindeutsch)] TJ ET BT 424.256 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 447.584 199.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(grodeutsch)] TJ ET BT 506.912 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(p. 22\), or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understand the full connotations of )] TJ ET BT 204.332 185.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Biedermeier)] TJ ET BT 263.648 185.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(p. 20\)? Who apart from someone accustomed to reading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(older\) German scholarship would grasp the meaning of the last word of the following statement regarding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the historian Karl Gottfried Hugelmann: ?something of the demagogue?s tone surfaces in his learned papers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with their taste for bellowing at readers through extended passages of )] TJ ET BT 370.280 142.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sperrdruck)] TJ ET BT 424.268 142.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? \(p. 30\)? Perhaps, as one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(my teachers once said to me, this is what the good lord invented Wikipedia for ? though the obscurity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sperrdruck)] TJ ET BT 88.004 114.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is such that even Wikipedia would not help. More seriously, I do not quite understand the logic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 100.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behind when primary sources are presented in translation alone, and when only in the original ? and why we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can never get both. Regrettably, in the groves of an academe that Timothy Reuter memorably described as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 71.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Anglolexic? )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 101.000 71.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 101.000 70.275 m 114.992 70.275 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 114.992 71.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( , young adepts and bearded sages alike do not wander declaiming Middle High German, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 57.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and certainly not Middle Low German \(all too often neither group has much, if any, modern German\): one is )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 100.9997 70.5895 114.9917 82.4695 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R ] /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 4756 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so thankful, in today?s world, if postgraduate medieval historians can competently decipher the Latin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(periods of, say, Otto of Freising, that other linguistic expectations seem to be too demanding. Why, then, in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book published in English by a British press, do we get repeated extracts of German vernacular sources, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no translation? There are also some bibliographic issues: I could not, obviously, check all the short titles in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the footnotes against the bibliography, but I was unable to find Ulrich Mller?s important and repeatedly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cited two-volume anthology of political verse in the list of primary sources.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 396.644 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 396.644 723.795 m 410.636 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These are minor quibbles; they do not, I must stress, in any way detract from the quality of the scholarship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presented in this fascinating book. Scales shows us convincingly that German identity existed, but also that it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was complex; it was defined against other Germans as well as non-Germans; it was political, cultural, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(linguistic, Roman, imperial, regional, and absolutely not monolithic. This multiplicity was not always easy: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?late medieval Germans [?] suffered less from a poverty than a surfeit of identity?, since ?the selves within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their breasts, including their German selves, were too many for comfort? \(p. 524\). This uncomfortable but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fascinating story is compellingly told in this book, and the few flaws do not in any way diminish the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance Scales?s )] TJ ET BT 134.660 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(magnum opus)] TJ ET BT 201.656 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( for scholarship far beyond just the field of medieval German history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 564.243 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 533.626 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For his use of the term in print, see his inaugural lecture of 1995, ?Modern mentalities and medieval )] TJ ET BT 64.016 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(polities?, in his posthumously published )] TJ ET BT 260.036 519.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Medieval Polities and Modern Mentalities)] TJ ET BT 463.352 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Janet L. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nelson \(Cambridge, 2006\), pp. 3?18.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 242.660 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 242.660 503.715 m 296.648 503.715 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 490.858 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The full reference is: )] TJ ET BT 167.312 490.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Politische Lyrik des deutschen Mittelalters: Texte)] TJ ET BT 405.620 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Ulrich Mller \(2 vols, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gppingen, 1972?4\). Also cited \(at p. 70, n. 94\), without a full reference in the bibliography, is Karl )] TJ ET BT 64.016 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leyser, ?The German aristocracy from the ninth to the early twelfth century: a historical and cultural )] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sketch?, )] TJ ET BT 106.004 448.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Past and Present)] TJ ET BT 188.000 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 41 \(1968\), 25?53, reprinted in his )] TJ ET BT 357.980 448.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Medieval Germany and Its Neighbours, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(900?1250)] TJ ET BT 112.016 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1982\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 193.340 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 193.340 432.435 m 247.328 432.435 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 417.103 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 399.323 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 399.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1319)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 397.929 m 328.316 397.929 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 372.952 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 358.552 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/32393)] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 396.6437 724.1095 410.6357 735.9895 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 242.6597 504.0295 296.6477 515.9095 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 193.3397 432.7495 247.3277 444.6295 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 398.2435 328.3157 410.1235 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1319) >> endobj xref 0 36 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000580 00000 n 0000000662 00000 n 0000004966 00000 n 0000005075 00000 n 0000005185 00000 n 0000005294 00000 n 0000008855 00000 n 0000008983 00000 n 0000009067 00000 n 0000009132 00000 n 0000017574 00000 n 0000017639 00000 n 0000025956 00000 n 0000026021 00000 n 0000034095 00000 n 0000034179 00000 n 0000043438 00000 n 0000043468 00000 n 0000043594 00000 n 0000043630 00000 n 0000043735 00000 n 0000048544 00000 n 0000048574 00000 n 0000048702 00000 n 0000048738 00000 n 0000048866 00000 n 0000048921 00000 n 0000049049 00000 n 0000049104 00000 n 0000049232 00000 n trailer << /Size 36 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 49328 %%EOF