%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140722110654+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140722110654+01'00') /Title (The Great Exhibition of 1851: a Nation on Display) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4388 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Great Exhibition of 1851: a Nation on Display)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A scholarly history of the Great Exhibition these days is both a welcome and a brave undertaking. Welcome, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because despite the fact that the event has been a commonplace of school history teaching and a recognisable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landmark for historians of the nineteenth century, it has not been appreciated in a three-dimensional manner. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The hagiography of contemporary accounts, the generational revolt of mid-twentieth century historians, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(post-colonial distaste for things Victorian have all prevented this - despite valiant corrective efforts by Asa )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Briggs, Paul Greenhalgh, and Utz Haltern. Brave, because the Great Exhibition of the Industry of All )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nations, to give it its full title, was just that: a huge and monumental enterprise, of importance in art, science )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and technology, of political, economic and social significance, and involving not just a huge swathe of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British society, but elements from just about the whole globe. To bring the Exhibition back to us in all its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(glory \(and perhaps ugliness\) is an exercise of vast complexity and scope.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jeffrey Auerbach's superbly packaged and well-researched book represents a significant step towards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reappraising the Great Exhibition and recapturing its true meaning. Its main remit is to explore and identify )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Exhibition's cultural value. This it does, in a way that is erudite, sensitive to detail, and yet also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accessible and even entertaining. Divided into three general sections devoted to the making, experience and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legacy of the Exhibition, Auerbach's account is drawn from archival material held at the Royal Society of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arts and the Royal Commission of 1851, the private correspondence of Royal Commission members, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(newspapers and journals, and countless literary and private sources. It argues persuasively, that the Great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Exhibition was given a multiplicity of meanings; both by its organisers, as a way of achieving support for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(132)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 1 July, 2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jeffrey Auerbach)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780300080077)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1999)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(286pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Haven, CT)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John R. Davis)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7250 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the event, as well as by its audience. The Great Exhibition's success - it becomes clear - owed in part to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(great conversation that it caused.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In this respect, Auerbach's book is helpful. Rather than portraying the Exhibition simplistically as a grand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstration of national prowess fuelled by vanity, or as a covert imperialist plot, or even as a piece of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bourgeois propaganda in the face of grinding poverty, it shows that a whiff of all of these characteristics and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also many others surrounded the event in Hyde Park. Faced with the uphill prospect of generating support )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the Exhibition - Auerbach counters the notion that it was popular from the start - and funding difficulties, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a situation not dissimilar to the Greenwich Dome, the organisers of the Great Exhibition carefully chose to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accommodate public concerns and anxieties to a great degree. The original desire of the group at the Society )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Arts, which came to include Henry Cole, Charles Wentworth Dilke and John Scott Russell, to raise the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standard of design of Britain's industrial produce in an artistic and scientific sense, was soon accompanied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Prime Minister Lord John Russell's concern to celebrate commercial liberalism and Free Trade, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberal view of the advantages of the British political and social model, the East India Company's conviction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the wealth of the empire in terms of raw materials, the Church's belief in God's benevolence, and so on.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The result of this situation was a display with a variety of purposes and often containing discordant themes. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hence, the Exhibition could incorporate elements of patriotism and even bigotry while trumpeting the value )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of internationalism and universal peace. The original intentions of the close circle round Prince Albert were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overlaid by those involved in the Exhibition's wider organisation. Further interpretations were offered by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(press and public, and were not rejected but instead tolerated and even courted by the Royal Commission. As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Auerbach concludes, the meaning of the Great Exhibition can not be reduced to one explanation alone. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another result was the popularity of the Exhibition: while observers disagreed with each other, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compromises of the Royal Commission ensured that people talked about it. Negative reactions were also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(valuable in rooting the Exhibition in the national consciousness.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The heart of Auerbach's argument is that the variety of interpretations put forward and the discussion that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(took place regarding them was a major event in the formation of a British national identity. A nation, as he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(puts it, was on display. There were a variety of ways in which the Exhibition provoked further disintegration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and partition in British society. For example, Auerbach shows how class-consciousness became more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defined as a result of contact at the Exhibition and London's difference from the provinces was revisited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the process of its organisation. Certain sectors of British society were excluded from the discussion - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notably the radical working classes and much of Ireland. Protestants and Catholics renewed old antipathies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in their critiques of Gothic furniture or their commentaries on differences between southern and northern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European exhibits. And, as mentioned, contradictions abounded in the message broadcast from the Crystal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palace in its original setting. However, despite all this, in general, the Exhibition and the discussion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surrounding it helped create and disseminate a loosely defined set of values. A consensus of sorts about what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was British was the result.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Auerbach's book has many strengths. In terms of content, it pays due regard to the process of organisation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Exhibition, often shirked by historians, perhaps on the \(erroneous\) assumption that the subject is a dry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one. As Auerbach shows, local committees were sometimes in danger of being hijacked by Chartists, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(included women's fund-raising activities, and were played off each other by the Royal Commission in its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempt to drum up support via local rivalry. The archival correspondence on this subject provides an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intriguing spotlight on local politics and issues, and the way in which local elites were exploited by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Royal Commission to drum up support for the Exhibition. The comparison of local committee fund-raising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with electoral returns is useful in showing the umbilical link between the Exhibition and political liberalism - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even while the Exhibition organisers tried to paint the event as a non-partisan, national affair. The process of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisation is, as Auerbach shows, important in terms of dictating the way the Exhibition finally looked. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This also extends to the subject of funding, which is also given consideration, and the fact that, order to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(avoid accusations of sleaze, the Royal Commission had to throw the whole project upon public charity, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which, in turn, meant allowing the public a say.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is highly illustrated, and the images are apposite and fascinating. They include, for example, razor )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7505 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sharp cartoons from Punch, which drew much inspiration and mirth from the Exhibition's hypocrisies, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was generally won over to the event, maps showing how the Exhibition's success depended to a degree on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recently-constructed railway lines, beautifully coloured reproductions of the display from Dickinson's and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other picture books, examples of Crystal Palace memorabilia, demonstrating the Exhibition's imprint in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commercial sense, and photographs showing the smouldering remains of the building after its destruction by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fire in 1936.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Overall, the work contains a great deal that is of value in terms of research on the Great Exhibition, and also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides a fascinating read for the general reader. Auerbach has provided more detail than perhaps any other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writer so far on the public discourse in relation to the Exhibition's organisation and its reception. The central )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thesis, that the Exhibition provided an opportunity for the British to discuss themselves, and to air views on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moral, social and political questions, with the result that there was some overall integrative effect, is useful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and thought-provoking. It carries forward with detailed literary and cultural research ideas raised by Walter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Benjamin, Utz Haltern, Ingeborg Cleve and others.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Putting forth a historical thesis and substantiating it always involves the danger of selectivity or over-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasis - the reduction of the three- dimensionality of an event - especially if a book is still supposed to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marketable and readable: providing all angles on a topic and simultaneously presenting an argument with its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(requisite evidence is a tough task, and this is particularly the case with such a multifaceted event as the Great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Exhibition. It would also, perhaps, be unfair to criticise Auerbach's book for not being something the author )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(never intended: this, after all, is a look at the Great Exhibition's value as an exercise in self- reflection on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part of the British. It is to this purpose most of the book's structure is directed. This is the point of much of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the evidence that is provided. Finally, it has to be said that Auerbach has made a brave effort to encompass )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as much in the way of explanatory background as feasible. His discussion of, for example, the aesthetic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debates of the mid-century, or the possibility of a second industrial revolution, is appreciated.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet one does feel that the momentum of the book allows certain contextual elements to appear as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undeveloped and that, in some cases, a more defined treatment of these would aid rather than hinder )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Auerbach's thesis. Take, for example, the social question. In the first half of the book, the reader is given a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detailed history of the organisation of the Exhibition and the way in which the guiding forces of aesthetic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reformers, the Society of Arts, Prince Albert and the Government came together. While this is certainly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contextual information, the question is somewhat allowed to hover in the reader's mind as to what the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(driving force was which brought these actors together. Later on, it becomes clear that concerns about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social divide arising from industrialisation were an important part of this. However, an initial discussion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the social and political context in Britain might have helped. Aesthetic reformers were afraid of the social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequences of declining standards of design, and were convinced that aesthetic education bred social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(harmony just as increased profits would put food on the table. The governments of Peel and Russell faced an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ugly social situation in the 1840s, and were desperate to rebuild respect among the masses for government )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and to dispel the rift that had opened between the manufacturing classes and the landed interests. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continental revolutions in 1848 created a real sense of paranoia in political circles in Britain, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concentrated many minds on the value of an event that could uplift and unify the whole country.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One figure to whom the social question was apparent was Prince Albert. Auerbach correctly notes Albert's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reluctance to become involved in the Exhibition at first - in contrast to the popular wisdom of its being his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(project. Yet this stemmed not just from a finely tuned sense of the fragility of his own position in British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitutional life but also a conviction of the situation of weakness of the monarchy as an institution in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain. A well-rounded depiction of Albert's position was rather needed, and one wonders if this had to do )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the omission of the Royal Archives at Windsor from an otherwise impressive list of archives visited. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Royal Archives collection held at the Royal Commission of 1851, which was used, though it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(voluminous, is essentially the weeded- out official material. Albert's personal thoughts are recorded in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(private correspondence at Windsor. Certainly, behind Albert's apparently flippant responses to the fears of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frederick William IV of Prussia that the Exhibition might spark off revolution lay an acute awareness of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political message his involvement in the project was sending to the people, as well as to absolutists abroad. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Once the Exhibition's popularity was assured, he moved to support it openly, in the knowledge that this )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7574 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would constitute a new venture for the monarchy, and that this was an urgent necessity in Britain at this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time. The monarchy would be seen to be dirtying its hands in industry, and working for the good of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(masses. This would extend beyond the symbolic to a personal involvement quite repugnant to foreign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarchs: Queen Victoria's presence at the opening ceremony, walking unprotected before thousands of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people, caused a sensation abroad because it was a death- defying show of confidence of the monarch in her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people as well as a demonstration of the unity of the monarchy with industry.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another subject, which might have been given earlier priority, and firmer treatment, was Free Trade. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Auerbach is right to point out the equivocation on this subject of the Exhibition organisers. They were keen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to include all sections of Britain in the project, for financial reasons as well as to help calm social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differences, and so resisted connections of the Exhibition with Free Trade in their rhetorical pronouncements )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and any official correspondence. Still, one senses an ambiguity in Auerbach's own identification of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Exhibition as a Free Trade exercise. Indeed, the early stages of the book tend to deny the link, whereas the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(latter affirm it. Perhaps this arises from a reluctance to accuse the Exhibition organisers brazenly as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dishonest on this score - as arguing that the Exhibition had nothing to do with Free Trade, when it obviously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did. Auerbach points out, for example, that notable protectionists were included on the Royal Commission. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, here again it feels rather as if the bull is not being grasped by the horns. The mere facts that Peel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was not only involved from the start, but also served as an important back-room fixer in the early stages of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Exhibition's organisation point to a concrete connection with Free Trade. Peel also served as a conduit to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lord John Russell, the Prime Minister, who was seriously worried by the danger of a protectionist backlash )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at this time, and was keen to see something done which would consolidate the Free Trade legislation of 1846-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8. Yes, the Royal Commission included Lord Stanley for the non-Peelite conservatives. But it has to be said )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Stanley's protectionism was weak, and his credentials as a spokesman for landed interests were already )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being publicly questioned. The Exhibition would serve for him, as well as for many others conservatives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(including Disraeli\), as the scene of his conversion to Free Trade. Auerbach is right to point out the efforts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Exhibition's organisers undertook to include all parties, but what Peel, Russell, and even Albert, were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aiming for was a new consensus in the wake of the transition to Free Trade; in other words, to perpetuate it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The social question and Free Trade are two dimensions of Auerbach's book which might have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confronted more squarely, had the work not been configured so strongly round its integrative thesis. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same reason appears to have caused another aspect to have been dropped altogether: namely, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international angle. The book does talk about foreigners. However, the discussion revolves solely round the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(image British people had of foreigners, with a view to showing how they felt they differed from them. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other words, the aim of showing how British prejudices and views on foreigners helped forge a sense of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national identity, which Auerbach fulfils superbly, drives the treatment of foreign involvement in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Exhibition: how foreign countries arranged their exhibitions, what foreigners thought of the event, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact it had abroad, are omitted. This is rather unfortunate, perhaps, as it tends to support one of long-held )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular notions about the Exhibition; that it was a British affair. Readers today have to be reminded that half )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the building was devoted to foreign goods, even a large part of the British section consisted of imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(produce. The Exhibition's organisers - and Albert particularly so - were concerned not just that British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manufacturers should see foreign artistic produce, but that the Exhibition should have an economic and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political message abroad, and thus they went to great lengths to involve foreign countries. The post- )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutionary economic and political circumstances in North America and Europe, arguably, meant the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Exhibition had results there greater than might otherwise have been the case - for example in terms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technology transfer or the stabilisation of regimes. The title )] TJ ET BT 321.980 173.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Nation on Display)] TJ ET BT 420.320 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is apposite in terms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain's view of itself and the formation of a sense of 'Britishness'. But it might equally have encompassed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreigners' perceptions of this moderately liberal, industrialised and commercially permissive country. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, Auerbach might have acknowledged Haltern's argument that while it served as a spring-board for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(internationalism in many forms, and was arguably an important milestone in the process of globalisation, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Great Exhibition also did much to solidify senses of national unity and divergence abroad, and not just in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One or two other elements fell prey to the need to argue the Exhibition's integrating value. The Exhibition's )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 2695 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classification system is given some solid treatment, though the way it arose from the London committee of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(selection is not. The jury system is not treated in great detail, possibly because it of its complicated nature, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possibly because it constituted one of the most concrete examples of international collaboration, and may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have clouded the issue. Beyond a brief discussion of the technology revolution, economic aspects of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Exhibition are downplayed - though this is a common feature of historical literature on exhibitions, where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic results are hard to quantify. The treatment of the political legacy of the Exhibition, in terms of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(success in securing exactly what Albert, Peel and Russell had hoped - a new liberal consensus - could be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more biographically detailed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To some extent, then, Auerbach's book does not allow the Exhibition to speak for itself. However, it more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than succeeds when it comes to arguing its case that the Exhibition was an important stage in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of a British national identity. Here it is a solid, thought provoking and satisfying piece of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarly work, and should attract the attention of cultural and political historians of the nineteenth century. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is also destined to reach a wide readership. Its thesis will help the re-evaluation of the Great Exhibition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after 150 years of partial treatment.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 553.903 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 536.123 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 536.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/132)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 534.729 m 322.316 534.729 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 509.752 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 495.352 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/745)] TJ ET BT 34.016 480.952 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 535.0435 322.3157 546.9235 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/132) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000559 00000 n 0000000641 00000 n 0000005081 00000 n 0000005190 00000 n 0000005300 00000 n 0000005409 00000 n 0000008970 00000 n 0000009098 00000 n 0000009182 00000 n 0000009247 00000 n 0000016550 00000 n 0000016615 00000 n 0000024173 00000 n 0000024238 00000 n 0000031865 00000 n 0000031949 00000 n 0000034697 00000 n 0000034825 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 34920 %%EOF