%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 22 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R ] /Count 7 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140724211910+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140724211910+01'00') /Title (?God Cannot Afford To Do Without America?: What Was the American Civil War About?) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 2858 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(?God Cannot Afford To Do Without America?: What Was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(American Civil War About?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1320)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 20 September, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gary W. Gallagher)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780674045620)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(22.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(304pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harvard University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge, MA)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George C. Rable)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780807834268)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.427 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 221.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.915 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(31.50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.403 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 164.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(624pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.891 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of North Carolina Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.379 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 107.123 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapel Hill, NC)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.611 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Steven E. Woodworth)] TJ ET BT 34.016 50.099 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6664 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Compared with the Civil War centennial of 1961?5, the sesquicentennial celebration of the American Civil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War has been a muted affair. President Barack Obama, mindful of the political trouble the Centennial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commission caused another Democrat, President John F. Kennedy, has steadfastly refused to appoint a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successor to preside over the 150th anniversary. Also evident is a marked reluctance by art galleries and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(museums to recreate a visual history of the Civil War. The Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(DC, is bucking the trend, though an exhibition scheduled for November 2012 is narrowly and safely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(restricted to a survey of the war?s impact on American art. In 2011 )] TJ ET BT 358.604 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Art Newspaper)] TJ ET BT 451.940 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( described such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unwillingness under the headline, ?The war we want to forget?. Richard B. Woodward in the )] TJ ET BT 483.260 485.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Wall Street )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal)] TJ ET BT 71.348 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( comments on ?the frankly revisionist style of the curators? who see nothing to celebrate, which ?left )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(me wondering if they haven?t just replaced one form of historical distortion with another?: certainly, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reluctance to celebrate nationally illustrates a fundamental lack of consensus over the war?s overall )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.000 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.000 426.675 m 108.992 426.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In line with the polarization of the American electorate, discussion of the war has assumed a contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance and contentiousness. Three areas in particular raise hackles. The vexed issue of ?states? rights? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hurriedly pushes itself to the fore. This is traditionally and erroneously presented as some kind of southern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monopoly interest. The changing phases of race relations can also assume an explosive form, with a further, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(related dimension of the race issue being the grudging refusal in some parts of the United States to accept the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legitimacy of a black president \(with fevered and absurd discussion of the president?s ?true? place of birth\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These issues offer warning of the political mines awaiting to explode in a presidential election year. For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there )] TJ ET BT 61.004 302.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(are)] TJ ET BT 77.000 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( issues that some people do not want to forget, but they have less to do with the war itself than with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its coming ? a significant departure from 50 years ago. So trouble lurks just beneath the surface for any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unwary politician, even a Republican. In April 2010 the Governor of Virginia, Bob McDonnell, a former US )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Army lieutenant colonel, issued a proclamation heralding a ?Confederate History Month? which glossed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over the significance of slavery. I observed the ensuing ructions from the comparative safe harbour of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and can vouch for the strength of the emotions and denunciation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his act provoked. McDonnell was forced to apologize at what is now regarded as the ?low point? of his first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(term which fortunately does not end until 2014. The wisdom of President Obama in steering away from such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treacherous waters has perhaps been underestimated.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 287.936 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 287.936 186.579 m 301.928 186.579 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although there are signs that the compelling hold of Civil War military history on the reading public is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(waning, historians continue to work ceaselessly at improving our knowledge of this momentous conflict. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a pleasure to consider these three fine books under review at length, as all are composed by historians at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the peak of their form.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Steven Woodworth offers a distillation of current scholarship in readable form which can easily be grasped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by readers coming to the subject for the first time. In exploring the nature of the war and its overall )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance, he at once dismisses the notion that the war was a ?futile? waste, an accusation that echoes the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language of British critics of the Western Front 1914?18 and reflects vastly different perspectives from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780742551848)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(18.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(424pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rowman and Littlefield)] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brian Holden Reid)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 94.9997 426.9895 108.9917 438.8695 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 287.9357 186.8935 301.9277 198.7735 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R 28 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 8112 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pre-Vietnam triumphalism of 1961?65. The Civil War ?was worth fighting?, Woodworth declares )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forthrightly. More than that, it is ?worth studying because of what was at stake ... because of how the war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changed America? and because ?of the height to which that generation of Americans rose and its challenge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to future generations to be worthy of a free government? \(p. xiii\). This passage reveals the influence of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular notion which holds that specific generations evince a particular moral character. Historian Stephen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(E. Ambrose?s )] TJ ET BT 104.336 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Band of Brothers)] TJ ET BT 187.004 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1992\) reinvigorated this rather sweeping idea, exemplified in the journalist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tom Brokaw?s book, )] TJ ET BT 140.672 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Greatest Generation)] TJ ET BT 260.660 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1998\), which idealizes those born after 1918.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 484.280 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 484.280 709.539 m 498.272 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 498.272 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Given )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Woodworth?s stress on liberty, he has no truck with the fancy that the South fought for ?states? rights?. Like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all professional historians, irrespective of their private inclinations or political views, Woodworth locates the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?seeds of the dispute? in the institution of slavery. As for states? rights, Woodworth is at pains to point out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the South was keen to exploit the agencies of the federal government when it worked in its favour in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(order to extend the writ of slavery. Its legislative advances, like the Fugitive Slave Act, were ?a slap in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(face of states? rights?. Indeed he holds the South constituted an ?enemy? of the concept which its latter day )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defenders believe that the Confederacy fought to uphold \(pp. 1, 5, 6?7, 9?10, 12, 15?17, 29, 36, 118\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Woodworth grants emancipation a key position in Union strategy. Abraham Lincoln?s Emancipation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Proclamation he considers ?a declaration of war aims. A promise of what Union forces would do when they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arrived? \(p. 165\). This act amounted also to a declaration of war on the southern social system, but it takes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two sides to wage a war of attrition. The commitment of southern whites to the maintenance of slavery left )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them obdurate in face of Lincoln?s offer of compensated emancipation and deaf to the pleas of northern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critics of the war, like Clement L. Vallandigham, that they accept a compromise peace and return to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Union. They were also hostile in 1862 to the well-meaning efforts by most of the commanders of occupying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Union forces at ?reconciliation?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Much of Woodworth?s book concerns the military history of 1861?65, and this is engagingly done with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some splendid accounts of individual campaigns and a firm grasp of the overall shape of the war. It is also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(garnished by some pithy assessments of the more colourful individuals. Woodworth deflates the pompous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Confederate general, Leonidas Polk, with sardonic wit, and attributes his ?chief drawback? to a reluctance to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(take ?orders from anyone below the rank of God, with Whom he tended to confuse himself? \(p. 59\). On the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more controversial figures, he appraises Sherman fairly, and sensibly rejects the idea that Sherman was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prophet of ?total war?. He observes that Sherman?s March to the Sea lay ?well within the existing laws and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(customs of war? and in its central features resembled Robert E. Lee?s June 1863 advance into Pennsylvania )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(pp. 315?16\). Woodworth?s book represented the informed consensus of current Civil War historiography. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gary Gallagher challenges several of the assumptions which underlie Woodworth?s account, but before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gauging the degree to which he succeeds, it is important to explore the nature of those parts of Woodworth?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book which do not impress.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The most striking deficiency in Woodworth?s book is its besetting parochialism. He fails to assess the Civil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War as a significant international event. When he does turn to it, the focus is almost exclusively on Great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain. Woodworth concedes that the Lincoln Administration?s insistence before September 1862 that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war was being waged exclusively for the restoration of the Union and not to destroy slavery limited the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appeal of the Union cause abroad. Woodworth?s grasp of events beyond the eastern seaboard is shaky at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(best, and in dealing with them his lively style leads him into crass distortion. He begins with what he admits )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is an over-simplification, but for the want of something better, he perseveres with it, for it is ?still generally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(true? \(p.67\); this smacks more of prejudice than the informed judgment of the scholar. Woodworth contends )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the British upper classes supported the Confederacy while the middle and lower classes supported the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Union. There is no evidence to support this shibboleth and Woodworth provides none. He then continues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(merrily to assert the existence of a uniform upper class ?outlook? which permeated ?the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government?s approach to the Civil War?. He misunderstands the nature of neutrality, and appears to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consider it a pretext to smile on the Confederate cause. The British recognition of the Union blockade in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(February 1862 reveals this as nonsense. He implies that the British government colluded in the escape of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commerce raider, the CSS )] TJ ET BT 162.992 76.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Alabama)] TJ ET BT 206.324 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, though Frank J Merli has long ago disposed of this fabrication.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 513.968 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 513.968 74.787 m 527.960 74.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 527.960 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(believes that the Prime Minister, Lord Palmerston and the Foreign Secretary Earl Russell were ?furious? at )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 484.2797 709.8535 498.2717 721.7335 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 513.9677 75.1015 527.9597 86.9815 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 7581 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the issue of the Emancipation Proclamation, ?perhaps because they resented losing their grounds for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claiming moral superiority over the United States? \(pp. 67, 163\). Woodworth?s treatment of British reaction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the Emancipation Proclamation serves to illustrate how Civil War historians often fail to resist the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(temptation of misrepresenting and reducing to caricature serious figures both of whom had dedicated their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(careers to opposing slavery.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gallagher?s )] TJ ET BT 94.328 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Union War)] TJ ET BT 168.992 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( mounts a sustained attack against prevailing tendencies in Civil War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography. His focus is the shallow tendentiousness that searches out aspects of the past which do not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conform to the high standards expected in the 21st century and then roundly condemns them. Such habits )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resulted from the uncritical absorption of post-modernist perspectives after 1980 which quickly replaced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marxism in certain academic circles. The preoccupations of post-modernism with ?discourse? inculcated an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assumption that documentary sources that survived, often by a very haphazard process, were bequeathed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(us for our benefit to judge the past by our standards, irrespective of the motives and the conditions that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generated these sources in the first place. Gallagher?s book is argumentative, trenchant, economical and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paragraphs are tightly packed so they demand the attention, but there is no gainsaying the fundamental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wisdom of much of his message ? though the whole package may not persuade in its entirety. His especial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(target is interpreting the American past through the prism of ?minorities?. ?Yet a portrait of the nation?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gallagher writes, that is dominated by ?oppression?, of race, or exclusion on grounds of gender or class, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?obscures more than it reveals?. And on the imposition on the 19th century of the standards of 150 years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later, he observes sarcastically, ?Most people did not begin each day by thinking immediately about the need )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to protect a privileged status conveyed by their ?whiteness?? \(pp. 4, 44\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gallagher prefers to explore the Union cause by reference to three quite different but related concepts: first, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the meaning of the war; secondly, he asks how and why emancipation became a war aim; and thirdly, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role of the citizen-soldier in determining the nature of American nationalist sentiment. On the last question, I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(share Gallagher?s amazement that the importance of the military experience is so rarely acknowledged as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important influence that shapes the patriotic mould. Gallagher praises the contributions of two British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholars, Peter J. Parish \(my mentor\) and Susan-Mary Grant \(whose PhD thesis I examined\) both of whom )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are not deterred from giving military considerations their due. Gallagher also stresses that loyal northerners )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?remained steadfast enough to pass through to victory? ? another Parish theme. Gallagher contends that this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resilience rested upon ?a vision of their nation built on free labor, economic opportunity, and a broad )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political franchise they considered to be unique in the world?. Their clutch of nationalist beliefs underlay a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conviction that North America should be made safe from malign southern ?aristocrats? who sullied the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meaning of freedom and threatened to plunge the North American continent into anarchy and endless wars. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gallagher argues these were serious ideas that deserve serious attention. ?Maintenance of the Union ... )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(always ranked first among war aims for most citizens in the United States? \(pp. 6, 34\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another of Gallagher?s targets is the assumption that emancipation was the )] TJ ET BT 398.960 275.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(only)] TJ ET BT 419.624 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( worthwhile war aim that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(justified its cost. He argues insistently for a differentiation between causes and the cause, ?between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war?s causes and the goals for which most loyal citizens fought?. That is to say, though slavery may have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been the prime cause of the war, the liberation of slaves did not excite the majority of northern soldiers. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gallagher suggests that the tendency to downplay patriotic motives is a reflection of the way that ?modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sensibilities? ? or should it be academic? ?wilfully distort the experience of the mid-19th century. Gallagher )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(finds further examples in treatments of the Grand Review of the Union armies held in May 1865 in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Washington DC. It has been held up as a representative example of the racism of a militaristic republic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which prevented black soldiers from parading with their white comrades. But Gallagher argues that black )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(units were not deliberately ?excluded? from the review or from praise in the public print \(though they would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be later, pp. 11?12, 21, 31?2, 35, 78\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gallagher contends that there was nothing inevitable about emancipation. The North could \(and almost did\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(win with slavery left intact and could have lost with it. But there is a paradoxical element in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretation. He salutes the role of the Union Army as ?an agent of liberation? but underplays the role of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual Union soldiers in the process. Gallagher?s tone sometimes has the quality of a manifesto. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Laudable though military historians might find his condemnation of the study of war with the military )] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 35 0 R ] /Contents 33 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Length 7635 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history left out, and no matter how much we agree with Gallagher?s view that the military experience is vital )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for an understanding of ?the larger meaning? of 1861?65, his book is too short to sustain his overall case; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more space should have been devoted to substantiating his themes and less to criticizing the work of other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians. Gallagher, moreover, by returning to the sources of American exceptionalism to found his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis, runs the danger of reflecting its prejudices, distortions or self-righteous conceits. This style of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weakness, as we have seen, is all too evident in Woodworth?s shallow discussion of the world beyond )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maine. Gallagher excludes the international dimension and the manner in which a ?Union War? limited the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appeal of the North abroad. His few comments on 19th?century Europe lack authority and fall back on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exceptionalist stereotypes. Finally, Gallagher \(and other scholars\) are correct to stress the cultural ambiguity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Union as a symbolic patriotic focus, and it has been replaced in common usage with a term Gallagher )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uses, ?the nation?. Other states, too, are similarly ambiguous for different reasons. Both Britain and Spain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are conglomerations of ancient states with their own cultures, legal and educational systems and languages; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the former, too, is a product of a Union currently under threat. There is, in short, something of a reluctance to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(admit the cultural plurality of the world outside the United States and explore these perspectives to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illuminate American problems.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gallagher?s is a short and provocative work which exhibits his brilliant debating skills, but it can only be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggestive. George Rable supplies the wealth of explanatory detail that fills in a significant ideological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cavity that Gallagher passes over. Rable?s title, )] TJ ET BT 264.308 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(God?s Almost Chosen Peoples)] TJ ET BT 411.968 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is an adaptation of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characteristically cautious Lincolnian rendering of exceptionalist claims. Rable?s emphasis is placed on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact of religion on the war, on what Americans believed, what they were told and what proselytisers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought they wanted to hear. His approach is interdenominational and estimates the role of most sects and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outlooks. Rable?s book is a work of remarkable learning and pleasing skill in exposition and judgment. His )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(key assumption is a uniformity of outlook North and South, which are not treated separately but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thematically, as Rable contends they shared similar beliefs, value systems and a common religious language; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they also shared comparable cycles of confidence and despair, pride and humiliation during the vicissitudes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the war?s cataclysmic, changing phases.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first half of the 19th century had witnessed a significant growth in church membership from one in 15 in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1800 to one in seven by 1850. Rable notes the importance of a providential outlook: as contemporaries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(observed God?s influence on their daily lives, so it was easy for them to habitually detect ?God?s hand in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war?s origins, course and outcome?, and they struggled to read the signs He dispensed in such profusion. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rable argues that this providential obsession had significant ideological consequences, not least the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?conviction that Americans were a people chosen by God to carry out his mission in the world?. Hence the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(melding of religious faith and civic values, so tested by the rigours of war, ?storms such as Americans had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(never before endured? \(pp. 1?4\). As the crises of the war were weathered, so faith in the special role of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(United States gained strength. ?God cannot afford to do without America?, announced Matthew Simpson, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(northern Methodist bishop, in September 1864 \(p. 356\). The religious dimension also illuminates a persistent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tension in American political life between the role of the United States, in Rable?s words, an ?ultimately )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transforming force in the world? which intermingled ?secular and religious hope?, and the acknowledged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perfection of its founding constitutional documents. How can perfection be transformed? In the secession )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crisis a deepening divergence between North and South over slavery consistently undercut moderate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opinion, represented for instance by the Roman Catholic Church which regarded any form of emancipation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as ?utopian?. The churches thus failed ?to tamp down fires of sectionalism and this process continued )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout the war? \(pp. 21, 25, 27, 28?9, 31?3, 295\). Consequently, by 1863?4 any semblance of neutrality )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in thought or deed became impossible. Americans have frequently expressed difficulties with the concept of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neutrality when they are engaged in some form of conflict themselves. One recalls Hillary Clinton?s clarion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(call on 13 September 2001, ?Every nation has to either be with us, or against us?. Such declarations appear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be culturally rooted.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 143.336 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 143.336 115.299 m 157.328 115.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Once it began in earnest both North and South gauged their progress by way of their understanding of God?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(retribution caused by sin. God smiled on the armies of the side which sinned the less and thus offered His )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(favour to the side with the purest cause, as both sides, as Rable puts it nicely, were ?praying against each )] TJ ET endstream endobj 34 0 obj [32 0 R /Fit] endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 143.3357 115.6135 157.3277 127.4935 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 38 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Length 7090 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other?. However, ?declension?, letting oneself down by sinful indulgence, could be explained away as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?blessing in disguise? because it allowed sinners to put their house in order and, to use the language of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later generation of believers, ?get it right? with God. A succession of defeats, however, could lead to severe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficulties in accepting God?s ways and, of course, the price of victory kept increasing. On the other hand, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(run of victories encouraged self-righteousness and even reckless chauvinism. Consequently, battles became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious sign-posts in what Rable calls ?an unfolding, and ever mysterious, providential history? \(pp. 75, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(81?7, 97?8, 184, 203, 372?3, 378; 75?7, 181, 268, 338, 397\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Religious consolation bolstered morale and sustained the soldiers and their families during much death and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suffering. The impact of the war granted greater significance to the nature of the transcendental experience; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earlier historians have remarked on the spread of evangelism in say, the Army of Northern Virginia. Rable is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very careful not to exaggerate the growth of religious fervour, and he doubts whether claims that one third of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lee?s soldiers embraced the Lord can be sustained, as they are self-serving by casting a holy glow of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(righteousness over the Lost Cause. He consistently underlines the significant ways in which religious belief )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and denominational loyalties were undermined. After all, the experience of battle promoted cynicism and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scorn as well as elevated sentiment.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Still, such negative attitudes did not reduce the importance of religion in American social and intellectual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life, far from it. It had a transforming effect on ideas and values, an effect underrated by Gallagher?s dogged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insistence on continuity. The churches were mobilized as part of the Northern and Southern war efforts; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more closely in the North as they became an agency in the politics of loyalty, and mobilized support for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coalition of Republicans and War Democrats. A consensus )] TJ ET BT 319.628 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(did)] TJ ET BT 334.964 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( emerge that the war should destroy slavery, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and as Rable argues, this had a transformative effect, though gradually and haltingly. The war became a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(driving force in ?the divine plan for the destruction of slavery?. Rable further explains, ?Fighting for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(freedom as opposed to merely fighting for the Union ? admittedly a sacred cause in itself for many devout )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(northerners ? gave the war a more transcendental purpose?. It fitted into American universalism, the belief )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the wider world should succumb to American values, and the ?world- wide struggle in which Christ )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would deliver all men from the shackles of slavery? \(pp. 83?5, 295, 368\). Alas, if there is one area in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rable disappoints, it is in his neglect of these international ramifications. The Roman Catholic Church is, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after all, an international organization; Protestant denominations like the Methodists and Lutherans had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important connections with Britain and Germany. How far Rable?s transformative experience was subject to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the catalyst of foreign influences should be the subject of further investigation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After 150 years what was this war about? Gallagher has performed a significant service in recalling our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention to the patriotic enthusiasm of northern soldiers eager to save their common country from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(destruction. But his interpretation appears too schematic and rigid. He )] TJ ET BT 373.304 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(is)] TJ ET BT 381.308 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( right to acknowledge continuity and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(down-play the revolutionary impact of the war; though so do many of the historians he criticizes. But the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(northern war aims of Union and emancipation were not mutually exclusive alternatives. Gallagher )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledges this when he describes emancipation as a ?tool? to secure the defeat of the Confederacy. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rable supplies a missing dimension in the analysis. Millennial expectation persuaded many that slavery )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could and should be destroyed as a part of the promise of the Union, if latent, though these enthusiasts did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not think very coherently about the future or embrace wholeheartedly over the long term a complete package )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of ideas that would gain approval 150 years later. Yet this halting adaption gave the Union cause a sharper )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(edge and broader appeal.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(All of these books in their different ways have contributed to the enhancement of our knowledge of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vexed and still controversial issues. The real question is how to take the subject forward rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constantly revisit the same issues within the same parameters. One way is to embrace a more comparative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach and treat the Civil War as the world event it undoubtedly was. American historians should consider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its reception around the world with less lip service and a little more respect. That is to say, give it the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(degree of superb scholarly discernment on display here.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R 51 0 R 53 0 R 55 0 R ] /Contents 40 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Length 4038 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 775.827 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 745.210 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 745.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Art Newspaper)] TJ ET BT 157.352 745.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(International Edition\), 20, 221 \(February 2011\); )] TJ ET BT 397.652 745.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Wall Street Journal, )] TJ ET BT 497.648 745.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1 June 2011.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 729.555 m 118.004 729.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 716.698 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Barone and Chuck McCutcheon, )] TJ ET BT 266.648 716.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Almanac of American Politics)] TJ ET BT 431.972 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Chicago, IL, 2012\), pp. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1653?4.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 102.344 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 102.344 701.043 m 156.332 701.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 688.186 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stephen E. Ambrose, )] TJ ET BT 169.004 688.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Band of Brothers: E Company, 506 Regiment, 101st Airborne from Normandy to )] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hitler?s Eagles Nest)] TJ ET BT 163.352 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, NY, 1992\); Tom Brokau, )] TJ ET BT 351.320 673.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Greatest Generation )] TJ ET BT 474.308 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New York, NY, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1998\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 92.012 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 92.012 658.275 m 146.000 658.275 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 645.418 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frank J. Merli, )] TJ ET BT 138.344 645.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The)] TJ ET BT 156.344 645.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Alabama, British Neutrality and the American Civil War)] TJ ET BT 431.348 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. David M. Fahey )] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Bloomington, IN, 2004\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 184.016 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 184.016 629.763 m 238.004 629.763 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 616.906 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hillary Clinton, quoted in an interview with Dan Rather on CBS Evening News, 13 September 2001 <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://freedomagenda.com/iraq/wmd/quotes.htm/#Sw8lcOyTFO)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 601.251 m 372.668 601.251 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 375.668 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET BT 389.660 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> [accessed 23 July 2012].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 517.400 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 517.400 601.251 m 557.396 601.251 l S BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 586.995 m 78.008 586.995 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The authors are happy to accept this review and do not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 545.407 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 527.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 527.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1320)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 526.233 m 328.316 526.233 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 501.256 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 486.856 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/33309)] TJ ET BT 34.016 472.456 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/33310)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.056 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/33311)] TJ ET BT 34.016 443.656 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4] http://freedomagenda.com/iraq/wmd/quotes.htm/#Sw8lcOyTFO)] TJ ET endstream endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 729.8695 118.0037 741.7495 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 102.3437 701.3575 156.3317 713.2375 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 92.0117 658.5895 145.9997 670.4695 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 184.0157 630.0775 238.0037 641.9575 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 27 0 R >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 601.5655 372.6677 613.4455 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://freedomagenda.com/iraq/wmd/quotes.htm/#Sw8lcOyTFO) >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 52 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 517.3997 601.5655 557.3957 613.4455 ] >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 34 0 R >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 54 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 587.3095 78.0077 599.1895 ] >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 34 0 R >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 56 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 526.5475 328.3157 538.4275 ] >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1320) >> endobj xref 0 57 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000363 00000 n 0000000400 00000 n 0000000605 00000 n 0000000687 00000 n 0000003597 00000 n 0000003706 00000 n 0000003816 00000 n 0000003925 00000 n 0000007486 00000 n 0000007614 00000 n 0000007698 00000 n 0000007789 00000 n 0000014506 00000 n 0000014536 00000 n 0000014663 00000 n 0000014699 00000 n 0000014729 00000 n 0000014857 00000 n 0000014893 00000 n 0000014984 00000 n 0000023149 00000 n 0000023179 00000 n 0000023307 00000 n 0000023343 00000 n 0000023373 00000 n 0000023499 00000 n 0000023535 00000 n 0000023600 00000 n 0000031234 00000 n 0000031318 00000 n 0000039006 00000 n 0000039036 00000 n 0000039164 00000 n 0000039200 00000 n 0000039265 00000 n 0000046408 00000 n 0000046541 00000 n 0000050632 00000 n 0000050759 00000 n 0000050814 00000 n 0000050942 00000 n 0000050997 00000 n 0000051124 00000 n 0000051179 00000 n 0000051307 00000 n 0000051362 00000 n 0000051489 00000 n 0000051597 00000 n 0000051725 00000 n 0000051780 00000 n 0000051906 00000 n 0000051961 00000 n 0000052089 00000 n trailer << /Size 57 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 52185 %%EOF