%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R ] /Count 3 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140916164459+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140916164459+01'00') /Title (The Cistercians in the Middle Ages) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4098 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Cistercians in the Middle Ages)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For many, the Cistercian order remains the medieval monastic success story )] TJ ET BT 401.960 259.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(par excellence)] TJ ET BT 471.596 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. With this new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of the White Monks and Nuns, two of the UK?s leading monastic scholars present an engaging and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authoritative history of the Cistercian order from its origins to the end of the Middle Ages. This volume, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further contribution to Boydell?s excellent )] TJ ET BT 240.992 216.299 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Monastic Orders )] TJ ET BT 325.652 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(series, is a wide-ranging, Europe-wide history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Cistercians, considering them in the religious, cultural, political and economic contexts of their world )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and time.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The usefully wide geographical approach chosen by the authors provides a meaningful framework both for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(greater understanding of the Cistercian order, and for a comprehensive evaluation of its historiography. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although a large number of examples are taken from the British Isles, reflecting the authors? own research )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foci, these serve to exemplify the great variety of experiences within what is generally regarded as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monastic order that excelled by virtue of its unifying and unified structure across medieval Europe. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history, then, takes us from the origins of the Cistercian order through nearly half a millennium, tracing their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history, spread, and expansion throughout the Middle Ages, and considering their contributions to both the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious and secular spheres. It moreover provides a thorough and informative reassessment and update of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1321)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 20 September, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Janet Burton)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Julie Kerr)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781843836674)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(256pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boydell and Brewer)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Woodbridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Karen Stober)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7922 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cistercian historiography, with particular focus on English- and French-language works.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first two chapters, written by Janet Burton, revisit the origins of the Cistercian order: its beginnings in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the forests of Burgundy; its initial difficulties; and its eventual success, tracing its expansion across 12th- )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and 13th-century Europe. Burton addresses the ongoing historical debate about the emergence of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cistercians as an ?order?, which has been challenged by Constance Hoffman Berman, who argues for a later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(date than previous scholars. Burton convincingly defends the conclusions of the original scholarship, making )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular reference to the nature and dating of early Cistercian writing, including the )] TJ ET BT 445.256 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Exordium)] TJ ET BT 495.584 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Parvum)] TJ ET BT 533.576 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Exordium Cistercii)] TJ ET BT 125.684 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the )] TJ ET BT 149.348 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Carta Caritatis)] TJ ET BT 223.040 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and the )] TJ ET BT 267.032 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vita Prima )] TJ ET BT 323.036 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Bernard of Clairvaux. In her second chapter, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Burton explains the spread of the Cistercian order via the foundations of daughter houses, the first of which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(came into existence as early as 1113 at La Fert, described in the foundation charter as a ?perfect spot for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monks to serve God?. The foundation of this first daughter house reflected the success of Cteaux after its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(initial problems, and marked the beginning of what was to become a Europe-wide network of Cistercian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monasteries, which, by the 13th century, extended the width and breadth of the continent.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapters three to eight are the work of Julie Kerr and look in illuminating detail at particular aspects of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cistercian life, spirituality, economy, and their involvement with the world outside the monastery walls. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What lay behind the Cistercians? choice of sites for their emerging and expanding order? What do we really )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(know about the day-to-day life of a White Monk? What was distinctive about Cistercian spiritual life? Kerr )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(takes us on an insightful and thoroughly documented journey through cloister, choir and kitchen of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(predominantly high\) medieval Cistercian abbeys in order to show what was, and what was not, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(idiosyncratic about the lives and routine of the men and women in the white habits. The third chapter takes a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(closer look at the Cistercians? choice of sites for their monasteries, considering the ways in which the White )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monks tried, often successfully, to recreate the spiritual desert image in their settlements, while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simultaneously catering for their more practical, physical needs. The ?taming of the wilderness? is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recurring theme in Cistercian foundation histories, prime examples of Cistercian propaganda, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occasionally paint fanciful pictures of White Monks settling in truly horrific, savage and solitary places )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plagued by wild vegetation, beasts and robbers. The reality may not always have been quite as dramatic, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it is certain that the Cistercians developed a reputation among contemporary writers ? an admiring Gerald of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wales among them ? for turning wasteland into arable fields. Kerr then proceeds to explain the development )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Cistercian sites in terms of their organization, from temporary buildings which were often simple timber )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structures, to the increasingly grandiose stone monasteries which still mark the landscape today, addressing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also the issue of ?Cistercian styles?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter four looks at the administration of this large and growing religious order, assessing issues of internal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and external authority, the ever-relevant matter of discipline in the cloister, and the figure and duties of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abbot, who played a very central role in the maintenance of order and obedience among his brethren. Kerr )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(here succeeds in making the reader appreciate the very real achievement that was the successful organisation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a structure that sought to combine lofty ideals and \(not always equally lofty\) human beings. Keeping )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discipline within the monastery, among a group of men or women living according to a physically and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mentally harsh regime, was not always an easy task for a monastic superior, as becomes clear when we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consider the numerous references to \(often, however, minor\) transgressions committed by the monks \(Kerr )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lists as the most common among them ?lateness, laziness, breaches of silence, and gluttony?\). This chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explains both the different types of breaches of monastic discipline committed by monks and nuns, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(measures taken accordingly by the abbot to penalize the transgressor. Moving from internal to external )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organization and control, Kerr leads us through the system of visitations to the annual General Chapter held )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at Cteaux, considering both male and female houses of the Cistercian order and explaining the relative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successes of Cistercian administration.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The following chapter is dedicated to the daily life of monks and lay brethren, the monastic )] TJ ET BT 475.616 106.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(horarium )] TJ ET BT 523.952 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the monks? diet. Here the harshness of monastic life is brought to life: the strict Cistercian diet \(mostly bran )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bread, vegetables, pulses and fruit\) that prohibited meat and reduced eating to a refueling exercise rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than a pleasure for the senses; the restrictions on sleep that saw the White Monks, unlike their Benedictine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counterparts, spend the time between Vigils and Lauds at prayer rather than resting in bed; and the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 18 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 5442 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regulations on silence, which kept non-essential communication to a minimum. This, as Kerr explains, was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bound to have an impact on the monks? mental wellbeing, and psychological problems were not uncommon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even among monks who did not take the physical mortification to extremes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cistercian spirituality is the focus of the sixth chapter, and here Kerr discusses the liturgy, and what made it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Cistercian?, namely, the centrality of the Virgin, as well as the important topic of mystical writing among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cistercian authors. She also tackles the issue of the metaphysical, the presence and function of relics and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(saints? cults in Cistercian monasteries, and the miracles accompanying them, which occasionally boosted the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cistercian economy by drawing in pilgrims. That men and women submitting themselves over a prolonged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period to intense prayer and meditation, combined with physical mortification, eating little and sleeping less, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should occasionally experience what was interpreted as mystical visions or ?ecstatic trances? is perhaps not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(altogether surprising, nor was it a specifically Cistercian feature. Yet the Cistercians produced a notable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of mystical writers, among them Saint Bernard himself, who enhanced the order?s reputation for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spiritual excellence, and who have left us a very significant body of meditations on the humanity of Christ )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and His life.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As well as being a spiritual force, the Cistercians have often been credited with transforming the landscape )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in which they settled, of turning wasteland into arable fields, by virtue of the labour of both their own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monkish hands, and those of the lay brotherhood attached to their monasteries. Chapter 7 deals with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issue of the )] TJ ET BT 91.676 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(conversi)] TJ ET BT 132.332 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or lay brethren, who represent such a characteristic, if not unique, feature of Cistercian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monasticism. Kerr examines the nature of their relationship with the fully professed members of the order, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and explains their duties and activities. The final chapter draws together earlier conclusions and provides a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(usefully contextualizing frame for the entire book by considering the Cistercians? involvement in worldly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(affairs. Emphasised here are their provision of charity and their attitudes to and participation in the Crusades, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including the fight against the Cathars, and the )] TJ ET BT 260.996 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reconquista)] TJ ET BT 320.324 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in Spain, examining in particular Bernard of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clairvaux?s polemic in praise of crusade and military orders.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps the main achievement of these two authors to have created a new, up-to-date history of one of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most intriguing of medieval religious orders, and to have done so in a way that is both very readable and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very scholarly, including little-known evidence and introducing illustrative examples from across the whole )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of western Christendom. The book ends with a useful index of the Cistercian houses mentioned in the text )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and an extensive bibliography, as well as a glossary which explains specialist terms to the non-specialist, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elements which further contribute to making this a most recommendable work for scholars and students )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alike, as well as for anyone with a less professional interest in one of the most enduringly fascinating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious groups of medieval Europe.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The authors thank the reviewer, and do not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 275.551 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 257.771 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 257.771 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1321)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 256.377 m 328.316 256.377 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 231.400 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 217.000 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/33315)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 256.6915 328.3157 268.5715 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1321) >> endobj xref 0 20 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000335 00000 n 0000000372 00000 n 0000000530 00000 n 0000000612 00000 n 0000004762 00000 n 0000004871 00000 n 0000004981 00000 n 0000005090 00000 n 0000008651 00000 n 0000008779 00000 n 0000008863 00000 n 0000008928 00000 n 0000016903 00000 n 0000016987 00000 n 0000022482 00000 n 0000022610 00000 n trailer << /Size 20 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 22706 %%EOF