%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 23 0 R 34 0 R 38 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140721125713+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140721125713+01'00') /Title (Hermits and Recluses in English Society, 950-1200) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R 21 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4650 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Hermits and Recluses in English Society, 950-1200)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Religious solitaries were a feature of the English spiritual landscape ?from the dawn of Christianity in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England until the sixteenth century? but, since Rotha Clay \(who wrote those words\) attempted her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overarching survey almost a century ago, coverage of their history has been decidedly patchy.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 484.904 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 484.904 243.417 m 498.896 243.417 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 498.896 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It is less so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(now, thanks to Tom Licence?s important new book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clay and the many 19th-century antiquaries who got the hermit-hunting bug were interested in some basic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions: where did hermits live? When? What were their names? Those questions still need asking, of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(course, but Licence is interested in a set of higher order research questions, which together seek to place the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(burgeoning popularity of the anchoritic vocation in central medieval England in its social context. They are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(laid out early in the book?s introduction: ?Where did all these anchorites come from? How could they wield )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such power? What, if anything, was their function? And why did society harbour these people who bypassed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its norms and scorned its aspirations?? \(p. 2\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 250.988 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 250.988 117.369 m 264.980 117.369 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 264.980 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The word ?function? in that third question points to the pair )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of hugely influential studies with which the whole book is in dialogue: Henry Mayr-Harting?s study of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wulfric of Haselbury, ?Functions of a twelfth-century recluse?, and Mayr-Harting?s inspiration for that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essay, Peter Brown?s ?Rise and function of the holy man in late antiquity?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 394.640 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 394.640 74.601 m 408.632 74.601 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 408.632 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( From those works has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerged an image of the solitary as an outsider to whom the rest of society could look for arbitration and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1324)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 27 September, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tom Licence)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199592364)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(61.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(254pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(E. A. Jones)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 484.9037 243.7315 498.8957 255.6115 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 250.9877 117.6835 264.9797 129.5635 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 394.6397 74.9155 408.6317 86.7955 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R 29 0 R 32 0 R ] /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 8345 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mediation, to smooth over local disagreements or major cultural dislocations \(notably, in Wulfric?s case, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conquest\). Licence?s stated intention is to look at these issues again, and to shift the emphasis of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis away from anthropology and socioeconomics and back towards the spiritual.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first half of the book details the rise of hermits and recluses in England, while the second half )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concentrates on their function. Licence is acutely aware of the methodological problems even in talking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about a ?rise? in the number of anchorites. In the period he is interested in, the terminology for the solitary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vocations has not yet settled down, so that it is not always clear when someone described as a ?holy man? or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a ?virgin? should be counted as an anchorite, and when not. Some of the more valuable sources of evidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for late-medieval hermits and recluses \(wills, bishops? registers, the patent and close rolls\) have not got )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(going yet, while the pipe rolls ? which Ann Warren made good use of in her study of late-medieval recluses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? begin only towards the end of the period.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 239.648 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 239.648 640.515 m 253.640 640.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 253.640 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( There are charters and monastic chronicles, and various stray )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(references, but survivals are too unpredictable to use as the foundation for any quantitative analysis. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what Licence does have are narratives of the lives of some charismatic solitaries, which offer evidence not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only for those individuals? careers and interactions with those around them, but also for the esteem in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they, and their vocation more broadly, were held. Increasingly, anachoresis came to be seen as a ?career-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enhancing attribute? \(p. 112\) in any saint?s life, so that when new lives of Aethelwold and Dunstan ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(architects of the Benedictine Reform, and no special friends to free-wheeling, non-conforming hermits ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were written in the 11th century, their authors decided to introduce anchoritic interludes into both men?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(careers \(see pp. 63?4\). Saints? lives have been the focus of most of Licence?s previous publications \(the life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Godric of Throckenholt that he edited back in 2006 )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 296.636 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 296.636 512.211 m 310.628 512.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 310.628 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( features prominently here\), and he is a brilliant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader of them, alert not only to all their human interest and cultural significance, but also to their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(sometimes overlooked\) potential to amuse: the life of Benedict, founder of Selby, is ?somewhat tongue-in-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cheek? \(p. 56\) whereas, of one detail recounted by Godric of Throckenholt?s earnest biographer, Licence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggests ?somebody could have been pulling his leg? \(p. 103\); the relics of Robert of Knaresborough were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?the medieval equivalent of a Victorian patent medicine? \(p. 194\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the earlier chapters of his book, Licence is working against an old-established tradition that sees hermits )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and recluses as the response of native spirituality to the upheaval in religious life brought by the Conquest. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He disposes of that narrative with a neat pincer movement, showing first that hermits had enjoyed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extensive support of English secular lords from at least 950, and secondly \(and more familiarly\) that a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revival of interest in the eremitic way of life was a pan-European phenomenon during the whole of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period under examination. When he turns to the enclosed solitaries or recluses, Licence concedes that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conquest may have made a difference; but only inasmuch as a distinct terminology for this brand of solitary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life \()] TJ ET BT 57.008 316.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(inclusus, recluse)] TJ ET BT 137.000 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) seems to be a continental importation. The excellent discussion of these early English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recluses reprises Licence?s valuable essay in )] TJ ET BT 251.948 302.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Anglo-Saxon England)] TJ ET BT 357.608 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, published in 2007.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 452.612 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 452.612 300.627 m 466.604 300.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 466.604 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The situation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both vocations in their northern European context is particularly valuable, and Licence?s will be the standard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account of their rise to prominence during this period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter four begins the turn towards the role of solitaries in English society, looking at various aspects of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anchorites? material existence: the support they received from patrons, and the efforts they made to support )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves. Anchorites in this period attracted material support from all levels of society, above the very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humblest. There could be a neat symbiosis between land-owner and solitary: the patron granted the hermit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some wasteland \(?desert?\), the hermit worked the land for his subsistence, and when after his death it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reverted to the donor, it came back improved, with forest cleared or fen drained. Licence makes sustained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(use here of his favoured source material, the lives of anchoritic saints, and the chapter is full of fascinating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insights into the anchorites? daily routine, diet and labour practices.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The last chapters of the book then address directly the question of the function of hermits and recluses, as it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was perceived by the solitaries themselves, and by those who supported them. The answer can be given )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surprisingly briefly: it was the eradication of sin. In chapter five, Licence examines various theoretical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(models of just how the lives of anchorites might eradicate sin \(as a form of exile, or purgatory-on-earth, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(imitatio Christi)] TJ ET BT 107.708 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), before looking at how this worked in practice, the hermitage coming to be seen as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?purpose-built factory for purging sin? \(p. 121\). Chapter six concentrates on the penitential practices of the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj [23 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 239.6477 640.8295 253.6397 652.7095 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj [23 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 296.6357 512.5255 310.6277 524.4055 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj [23 0 R /Fit] endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 452.6117 300.9415 466.6037 312.8215 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 36 0 R ] /Contents 35 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Length 7974 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(solitaries themselves \(hairshirts, mailshirts, immersions, and so on\), while chapter seven shows how the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wider community could benefit from the presence in their midst of an acknowledged expert in combatting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sin. The principal source, richly mined, for this material is again hagiography, and so it makes sense that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book?s final chapter should consider ?How anchorites became saints?, the focus here being on the local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emergence of a cult, often related to the solitary?s penitential practices \(so that, for instance, links from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Godric of Finchale?s mailshirt were found to have curative powers\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Licence has set out to discern the function of hermits and recluses between 950 and 1200, and his answer is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the eradication of sin. This must be broadly correct. And yet, although the problem of sin and the possibility )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of its remediation \(in this life and/or the next\) loomed large over the central Middle Ages, and although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Licence provides detailed and fascinating support for his thesis from his hagiographical case studies, I found )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the explanation somehow unsatisfying, despite ? or perhaps partly because of ? the insistent, and rather self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conscious, way the argument is structured and signposted in this part of the book, as if to be sure that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader does not miss its persuasiveness. Will a single, unifed explanation really do? Perhaps the problem )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(here is Licence?s concentration \(in all other respects a strength\) on saints? lives. Acts of penitence are both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quantifiable and capable of inspiring awe ? attractive qualities to a hagiographer. But if we look at some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other sources, a more complex picture starts to emerge. I will restrict myself to texts that Licence himself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(includes among his range of sources, though he makes less use of them than I would have expected. In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mid 12th-century rite for enclosing a recluse, the lesson would fit Licence?s argument well: )] TJ ET BT 476.936 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vade populus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(meus)] TJ ET BT 58.676 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Isaiah 26:20-27:3\) is all about withdrawal from a sinful world and a vengeful God \(?Go, my people, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enter into thy chamber, shut thy doors upon thee, hide thyself a little for a moment, until the indignation pass )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(away. For behold the Lord will come out of his place, to visit the iniquity of the inhabitant of the earth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against him?, and so on\). But the gospel \(Luke 10:38-42\) is the story of Martha and Mary, and Mary?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?better part? that is the contemplation of Christ?s divinity. Turning to the )] TJ ET BT 388.328 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(De Institutione Inclusarum)] TJ ET BT 517.652 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(find Ailred encouraging his sister to meditate on moments from Christ?s life and passion in the affective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manner, and in )] TJ ET BT 108.668 442.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ancrene Wisse)] TJ ET BT 179.648 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the whole treatise builds to its chapter on the love of God and Christ as lover-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knight. True, these come at the end of Licence?s period \()] TJ ET BT 307.280 428.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ancrene Wisse )] TJ ET BT 381.260 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in fact, by the usual dating, a little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after his )] TJ ET BT 76.004 413.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(terminus)] TJ ET BT 118.004 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), but the spirituality they reflect must have been emerging alongside the penitential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obsession that Licence so richly documents. Without underestimating the significance of sin, might love not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also have had something to do with it?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In fact,the questions I was left with after I had finished the book tended to cluster around the end of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Licence?s period, and the transition from central to late Middle Ages. He gestures in this direction a few )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(times, and particularly in his conclusion, but for me there remains more to be said on a number of matters. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although, throughout, Licence treats enclosed solitaries \(recluses\) and wandering hermits as part of the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(phenomenon of anachoresis, latterly the distinction between the two forms of life seems to have hardened: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how did that come about? How do Licence?s hermits fit into the narrative of a ?slide into cenobitism? so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(familiar in work on the reforming hermit-monks of the 11th and 12th centuries? And gender? Work on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reclusion in the late Middle Ages has mostly approached the phenomenon from this angle. While in some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ways it is a relief that Licence has found something else to talk about, it is nonetheless the case that, towards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the end of his period, gender did make a material difference to the opportunities an individual had to pursue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a solitary life, as the relatively unstructured, unenclosed life of the hermit came to be denied to women, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this is a development that surely requires some accounting for.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In short, )] TJ ET BT 77.012 175.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hermits and Recluses in English Society )] TJ ET BT 274.328 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is impressive and convincing on where the solitary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vocations came from; I should have liked a bit more on where they were going. But if I?m being greedy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(now, it is only because this very good book has whetted my appetite.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 112.563 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 81.946 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 81.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Hermits and Anchorites of England)] TJ ET BT 255.680 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1914\); the quotation is from p. xix.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 474.008 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 474.008 80.547 m 527.996 80.547 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 67.690 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A quick word on Licence?s terminology, which differs from that which is conventional in some other )] TJ ET BT 64.016 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(periods. He uses )] TJ ET BT 146.000 53.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(anchorite)] TJ ET BT 191.996 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as the catch-all term, designating renunciation and withdrawal; the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 474.0077 80.8615 527.9957 92.7415 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R 56 0 R 58 0 R ] /Contents 39 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Length 4273 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enclosed )] TJ ET BT 109.004 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(recluse)] TJ ET BT 143.660 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and freely-wandering )] TJ ET BT 252.620 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(hermit)] TJ ET BT 283.952 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( are subsets of )] TJ ET BT 355.268 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(anchorite)] TJ ET BT 401.264 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 404.264 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 404.264 795.075 m 458.252 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 782.218 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History)] TJ ET BT 100.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 60 \(1975\), 337?52; )] TJ ET BT 200.672 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Roman Studies)] TJ ET BT 325.004 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 61 \(1971\), 80?101. Licence does not make use )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the retrospective on Peter Brown?s essay ? including Brown?s own historicisation and critique ? in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Early Christian Studies)] TJ ET BT 229.364 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 6, 3 \(1998\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 291.356 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 291.356 752.307 m 351.344 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 739.450 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ann K. Warren, )] TJ ET BT 144.320 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Anchorites and their Patrons in Medieval England)] TJ ET BT 387.644 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Berkeley, CA, 1985\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 497.624 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 497.624 738.051 m 551.612 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 725.194 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('The life and miracles of Godric of Throckenholt?, )] TJ ET BT 309.116 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Analecta Bollandiana)] TJ ET BT 414.116 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 124 \(2006\), 15?43.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 511.436 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 511.436 723.795 m 551.432 723.795 l S BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 709.539 m 78.008 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 696.682 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Evidence of recluses in eleventh-century England?, )] TJ ET BT 315.776 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Anglo-Saxon England)] TJ ET BT 421.436 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 36 \(2007\), 221?34.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 518.756 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 518.756 695.283 m 558.752 695.283 l S BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 681.027 m 78.008 681.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author welcomes this review and does not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Times Higher Education)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 600.003 m 270.668 600.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 273.668 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fortean Times)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf 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