%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 19 0 R 24 0 R 35 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141001025850+01'00') /ModDate (D:20141001025850+01'00') /Title (Roads to Power: Britain Invents the Infrastructure State) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4276 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Roads to Power: Britain Invents the Infrastructure State)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In this interesting and readable book, Jo Guldi explores the origins and rise of the ?infrastructure state? )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 531.260 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 531.260 271.929 m 545.252 271.929 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through an historical analysis of centralised road planning, investment and regulation in Britain. The book?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronological boundaries are fixed by the changing dimensions of state involvement in road-transport )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provision: in 1726, when the study begins, ?the state had no presence at all in the care of the roads? \(p. 13\); )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the story closes in 1848, ?when the British government abandoned its roads? \(p. 4\). Between these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(benchmarks, Guldi focuses on two periods of state-led road-building activity. The first period concerns state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(road building in Scotland in the second quarter of the18th century, when British military surveyors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pioneered new road-construction and labour-management techniques and the second comprises a renewed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period of state enthusiasm for road building and regulation in the early decades of the 19th century, an era )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exemplified by the introduction of two new state roads that connected London with Edinburgh and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Holyhead. Although methodology is not explicitly discussed, the book?s substantive content is derived from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an analysis of a broad range of18th- and 19th-century printed sources. This brings to the fore an interesting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and diverse cast of engineers, economists, social commentators, and politicians, including John Metcalf, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Loudon McAdam, Thomas Telford, Daniel Defoe, Adam Smith, and Thomas Babington Macaulay.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a short book, with four substantive chapters, bookended by an introduction and conclusion. The first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1325)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 27 September, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jo Guldi)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780674057593)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(29.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(290pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harvard University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge, MA)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pete Maw)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 531.2597 272.2435 545.2517 284.1235 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 4267 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two chapters outline the two key phases of state road building that lie at the heart of Guldi?s argument that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain?s infrastructure state led road building in this key phase of economic and political expansion. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first phase took place in Scotland, mainly between the mid-1720s and the mid-1740s, when the state began )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to police more systematically the Scottish clans who had threatened to install Charles Edward Stuart as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rival sovereign. The need for surveillance at the peripheries of empire led to the building of 250 miles of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new roads in Scotland between 1726 and 1737 ? by the early 19th century, 900 miles of military roads had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been built and were maintained by the British state in Scotland ? the first large-scale state road-building )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(programme in Britain. The innovation here was not just in state activity beyond its previous remit but also in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its pioneering of new road-building techniques: ?Modern road construction emerged in the military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(laboratory of Scotland between 1726 and 1773 as a craft known to soldiers and surveyors? \(p. 27\). Although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the impact of the military roads was at first felt only in the peripheries of Scotland, Guldi argues that new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(methods of road construction spread from Scotland to every parish in the island through the ?slow trickle of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imitation and publication? \(p. 41\). New techniques in sighting, surveying, cartography, and labour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisation were disseminated through widely-read construction manuals, with the well-known figure of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Metcalf singled out as being mainly responsible for the diffusion of the best-practice Scottish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(techniques. He was responsible for the building of 180 miles of roads from 1765?92 and his method of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(laying foundations, learned in Scotland, had become standard in England by the second half of the 18th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second phase of state road-building activity began in the early 19th century. After 1803, Parliament )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deployed military road techniques in an attempt to connect the colonial capitals of London, Edinburgh and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dublin. The focus is on two new inter-kingdom highways: one from London to Holyhead \(to connect to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dublin ferries\) and the other from London to Edinburgh, built by engineers appointed by Parliament and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(financed by tolls supervised by Parliament. This phase of state-supervised road building, Guldi advises, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(produced the modern craft of professional civil engineering, a development that owed less to the invention of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new methods of construction than to a focus on political lobbying and on the better presentation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specification, and quantification of existing techniques. This was the era of Telford and McAdam, who rose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the fore by engaging with a network of mainly Scottish, Irish and Welsh MPs, who had come to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understand that centralised roads were needed to connect their constituencies in the imperial periphery with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London and the centre of the four kingdoms.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7796 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter three turns attention to the emerging critique of centralisation that followed in the wake of increased )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state control over roads in the early 19th century. Such critiques were framed at the local level and expressed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concern that national roads had propagated interestedness and corruption, that standardisation had come at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the expense of sensitivity to local conditions, and that national government had proved less accountable than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its local equivalent. Often this rejection of centralisation and standardisation was expressed in terms of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protection of ancient British rights. In the end, localists prevailed. Every project for centrally managed roads )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Britain was defeated from the 1830s to the turn of the 20th century; local power in legislation was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reaffirmed. Guldi interprets these ?libertarian? victories as ?a rout for rural communities and the poor? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(200\). The fourth chapter brings in a shift in emphasis, moving from a consideration of road management to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one of road use. Unlike most studies of British roads in the18th- and 19th-centuries, this analysis does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focus on the movement of freight by packhorses and carriers? waggons but on the ?everyday? foot and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passenger traffic on Britain?s roads. These most intrepid road users travelled on foot and included excisemen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and soldiers recruited by the fiscal-military state, Methodist preachers who adopted their travel methods, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(workers looking for seasonal employment. All were subject to the attendant dangers of violence, robbery, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and sexual assault that remained characteristic aspects of foot travel by British roads in the18th- and 19th-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centuries. Middle-class travellers, in contrast, were protected in their horse-drawn carriages, enjoying the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unprecedented speeds and greater comforts of road travel in this period. These travellers, by the early 19th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, had become increasingly ?sheathed? \(p. 178\) in a world of guidebooks, stagecoach inns, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(timetables that limited contact with strangers and promoted middle-class values of separation and privacy. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Guldi thus argues that the infrastructure conceived to connect regions with their peripheries and to unite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communities also acted to divide peoples: expert engineers ignored local concerns; middle-class travellers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were increasingly distant from those travelling by foot.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Transport historians, especially those writing from recent mobility perspectives, will welcome the focus on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social and cultural dimensions of travel, aspects of transport history that have long been neglected. More )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than this, historiographically, the book sets a challenging agenda for interpreting this key transitional period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in British history; Guldi?s account restores the state to the centre of the story. Existing studies of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emergence of modern bureaucracy in Britain trace its origins to the social movements for sanitation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policing in the 1830s and 1840s, representing the first decades of the 19th century as a period of cheap )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government. Guldi, in contrast, argues that the process of state road building in the 1810s and 1820s had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(already developed the hallmark features of 19th-century nation states: the state collection of information; the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centralised standardisation of local practice; the geographic redistribution of expenditure; and the creation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an expert bureaucracy. If accepted, Guldi?s revisions would require a significant re-think of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(periodization of the rise of the modern state and its bureaucracy. One note of concern here is that Guldi is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more convincing when identifying qualitatively important trends in state behaviour than on establishing how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quantitatively significant these interventions might have been. She states that ?Building the roads had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involved Parliament in unprecedented spending? \(p. 3\) but does not explicitly address the issue of how large )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these sums were in relation to other branches of state expenditure. It might have also been helpful to provide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a fuller discussion of how the contours of party politics influenced the emergence of new modes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government activity and why state interest in roads declined at precisely the point \(1830s and 1840s\) when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its investment in policing and urban regulation decisively increased.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Guldi?s central argument also has important implications for our understanding of the economic history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this period, specifically of the causes and character of the world?s first industrial revolution \(and the role of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transport within this\). Guldi characterises the economic historians? view of this period ? David Landes and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joel Mokyr are named in the text ? as one where ?an absence of government allowed the industrial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution to happen? \(p. 16\). This is something of acaricatured impression of the historiography and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specifics of relations between state and economy remain subjects of keen debate.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 422.588 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 422.588 117.555 m 436.580 117.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 436.580 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Transport historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have also discussed the roleof thestate in promoting transport investment. This literature has shown that, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after the Glorious Revolution, Parliament provided local interests with an efficient mechanism for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obtaining, protecting and regulating property rights through acts ofParliament. Direct state expenditure, it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argued, was minimal but it did play a key role in the transport revolution by providing a relatively safe )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 422.5877 117.8695 436.5797 129.7495 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 27 0 R 30 0 R 33 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 7544 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(means for individuals and local groups to increase their own investments in transport infrastructure.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 512.612 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 512.612 795.075 m 526.604 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Guldi?s interpretation is strikingly different. She states that ?the construction and finance of the transport )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution were set in gear by government funding, made possible by the emergence of a state bureaucracy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(far earlier than historians have hitherto understood? \(pp. 28?9\) and even that ?[t]he story of how the state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drove the transport revolution refutes the myth that Britain rode to prosperity in the absence of government? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 29\). This argument is built, in part, on the detailed new analysis she provides of the two periods of direct )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state involvement in road construction described above. How important were these state investments? From )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Guldi?s own evidence \(pp. 81, 120\), it is clear that state roads were much less extensive than those built and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maintained by parishes or turnpike trusts. Thus, in the period 1803?36, at a time when Guldi asserts that ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parliament had become the builder of highways? \(p. 120\), the state had introduced just 1,700 miles of British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(road. This was equivalent to just 10 per cent of the 17,000 miles of turnpike roads and less than two per cent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Britain?s total road mileage of 100,000 miles in the 1830s. Transport historians may find these numbers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(too low to overturn the standard view that ?the direct role of the State in the development of the 18th century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turnpike road system, as in other spheres of economic activity, was minimal?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 407.300 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 407.300 609.747 m 421.292 609.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Guldi?s case, nevertheless, rests less on the scale of state road building than on the state?s role in pioneering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new techniques. In this respect, it is the wide diffusion of new techniques established in the construction of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Scottish military roads ? very ably described in chapter one ? from the mid-18th century that is crucial. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Guldi, indeed, goes so far as to describe the turnpike boom of 1740?70, the most critical period of private-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(road expansion, as ?resulting? \(p. 81\) from the development of new techniques in Scotland. Was the turnpike )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boom mainly stimulated by the availability of new construction methods? This view would not command )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wide support in existing literature. Transport historians working on the 18th century have identified a pattern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of transport investment governed by ?development by shortage?, where transport investment occurred when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(congestion arose, with transport improvements designed to expedite existing traffic flows, rather than in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(response to new technological opportunities. Freeman summarises this view as follows: ?turnpikes were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established in response to rising traffic levels so that the density pattern is reflective of the geography of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic growth up to 1770?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 180.332 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 180.332 426.675 m 194.324 426.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 194.324 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( New turnpike \(and parish\) road improvement schemes may have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(benefitted from new technology but there is not as yet enough evidence to support the view that the massive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expansion of road building in the mid-18th century was occasioned by the availability of new state-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sponsored technologies. Until this evidence is provided, the importance of technological transfers from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scottish military roads must remain a subject for debate. Guldi does offer an interesting account \(pp. 36?42\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the dissemination of new techniques via instruction manuals but most of these relate to the period after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1770 when British road building had slowed mainly as a response to declining domestic economic fortunes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during and following the American Revolution.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Recent work on transport history has emphasised the importance of the inter-modality of transport provision )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the means by which different transport modes could offer complementary, as well as competing, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(services for passengers and freight. This book is disappointingly silent on these issues. When the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationships between roads and other modes of transport are mentioned, they usually take the form of noting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technological transfers from roads to other modes \(pp. 42?3\). One area that would have particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(benefitted from more detailed analysis is the relationship between roads and railways in the 1830s. This is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potentially significant as it may be one of the reasons the state decisively changed its policy towards roads in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this period was the potential of railways to provide a significant transport alternative.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a skilfully written and provocative book. Its greatest strengths lie in its in-depth coverage of two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(previously underexplored areas of state-led road expansion, including a meticulous analysis of new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(construction technologies, and in its exploration of the \(sometimes unexpected\) impact that new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(infrastructure could have on the users of roads and the communities served by them. Its wider arguments, if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accepted, will prompt a significant re-conceptualisation of 18th- and 19th-century British political and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 69.795 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 512.6117 795.3895 526.6037 807.2695 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 407.2997 610.0615 421.2917 621.9415 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 180.3317 426.9895 194.3237 438.8695 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R 51 0 R ] /Contents 36 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Length 5399 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 48.816 796.474 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Guldi defines an infrastructure state as one where ?governments regularly design the flow of bodies, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information, and goods?, p. 4.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 208.004 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 208.004 780.819 m 261.992 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 767.962 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See for example, D. C. North and B. R. Weingast, ?Constitutions and commitment: The evolution of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions governing public choice in seventeenth-century England?, )] TJ ET BT 402.644 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Economic History)] TJ ET BT 542.300 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(XLIX \(1989\), 803?32; G. Clark, ?The political foundations of modern economic growth: England, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1540?1800?, )] TJ ET BT 128.672 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Interdisciplinary History)] TJ ET BT 301.004 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, XXVI \(1996\), 563?88; N. Zahedieh, ?Regulation, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rent-seeking and the Glorious Revolution in the English-Atlantic economy?, )] TJ ET BT 433.316 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Economic History Review)] TJ ET BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 63, 4 \(2010\), 865?90.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 173.336 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 173.336 695.283 m 227.324 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 682.426 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See, for example, W. Albert, )] TJ ET BT 204.980 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Turnpike Road System of England, 1663?1840)] TJ ET BT 449.972 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1972\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12?13, 24?5; E. Pawson, )] TJ ET BT 185.672 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Transport and Economy: The Turnpike Roads of Eighteenth Century Britain)] TJ ET BT 64.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1977\), 72?6, 161?3; D. Bogart, ?Did the Glorious Revolution contribute to the transport )] TJ ET BT 64.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution? Evidence from investment in roads and rivers?, )] TJ ET BT 351.632 639.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Economic History Review)] TJ ET BT 476.276 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 64, 4 \(2011\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1073?1112.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 120.344 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 120.344 624.003 m 174.332 624.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 611.146 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(E. Pawson, )] TJ ET BT 120.680 611.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Transport and Economy)] TJ ET BT 237.344 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 161. Pawson notes the exceptions of the Scottish military )] TJ ET BT 64.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(roads and the roads to Holyhead and Edinburgh.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 295.976 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 295.976 595.491 m 349.964 595.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 582.634 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Albert, )] TJ ET BT 100.676 582.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Turnpike )] TJ ET BT 147.008 582.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(R)] TJ ET BT 154.340 582.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(oad )] TJ ET BT 175.340 582.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(S)] TJ ET BT 181.340 582.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ystem)] TJ ET BT 208.664 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; Pawson, )] TJ ET BT 258.332 582.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Transport and )] TJ ET BT 330.344 582.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(E)] TJ ET BT 337.676 582.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(conomy)] TJ ET BT 374.996 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; M. J. Freeman, ?Transport?, in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 568.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Atlas of industrializing Britain 1780-1914)] TJ ET BT 266.048 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, J. Langton and R. J. Morris \(London, 1986\), p. 80.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 514.700 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 514.700 566.979 m 554.696 566.979 l S BT 64.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 552.723 m 78.008 552.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wall Street Journal)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052970204409004577156850285031384.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 497.955 m 458.372 497.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 461.372 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 494.623 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 476.843 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 476.843 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1325)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 475.449 m 328.316 475.449 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 450.472 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 436.072 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/34183)] TJ ET BT 34.016 421.672 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052970204409004577156850285031384.html)] TJ ET endstream endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 208.0037 781.1335 261.9917 793.0135 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 173.3357 695.5975 227.3237 707.4775 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 120.3437 624.3175 174.3317 636.1975 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 26 0 R >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 295.9757 595.8055 349.9637 607.6855 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 29 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 514.6997 567.2935 554.6957 579.1735 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 32 0 R >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 553.0375 78.0077 564.9175 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 32 0 R >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 498.2695 458.3717 510.1495 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052970204409004577156850285031384.html) >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 52 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 475.7635 328.3157 487.6435 ] >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1325) >> endobj xref 0 53 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000566 00000 n 0000000655 00000 n 0000004983 00000 n 0000005092 00000 n 0000005202 00000 n 0000005311 00000 n 0000008872 00000 n 0000009000 00000 n 0000009084 00000 n 0000009113 00000 n 0000009241 00000 n 0000009277 00000 n 0000009342 00000 n 0000013662 00000 n 0000013746 00000 n 0000021595 00000 n 0000021625 00000 n 0000021753 00000 n 0000021789 00000 n 0000021887 00000 n 0000029484 00000 n 0000029514 00000 n 0000029642 00000 n 0000029678 00000 n 0000029708 00000 n 0000029836 00000 n 0000029872 00000 n 0000029902 00000 n 0000030030 00000 n 0000030066 00000 n 0000030199 00000 n 0000035651 00000 n 0000035779 00000 n 0000035815 00000 n 0000035943 00000 n 0000035998 00000 n 0000036126 00000 n 0000036181 00000 n 0000036309 00000 n 0000036364 00000 n 0000036492 00000 n 0000036547 00000 n 0000036673 00000 n 0000036728 00000 n 0000036855 00000 n 0000036985 00000 n 0000037113 00000 n trailer << /Size 53 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 37209 %%EOF