%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 28 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141218172756+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141218172756+00'00') /Title (The Politics of Memory and Identity in Carolingian Royal Diplomas: The West Frankish Kingdom \(840-987\)) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 1942 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Politics of Memory and Identity in Carolingian Royal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Diplomas: The West Frankish Kingdom \(840-987\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1326)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 27 September, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Geoffrey Koziol)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9782503535951)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(80.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(661pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brepols)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Turnhout)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kathryn Dutton)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7768 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This dense, lengthy and ? by the author?s own admission ? ?very difficult? book \(p. xi\) tackles complex )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions of power in one of the most contested and formative periods of Frankish history, between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(death of Louis the Pious and the formal accession of the Capetians as kings of West Francia. By examining )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diplomas as ?performatives? rather than being ?used within performances? alone, Geoffrey Koziol sets out a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?harder edged and more wide-ranging? \(p. 3\) analysis of, )] TJ ET BT 311.600 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(inter alia)] TJ ET BT 355.940 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the documentary, ritualistic, public, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aristocratic and sacral aspects of Carolingian power after the Treaty of Verdun. Koziol argues that diplomas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were instrumental, a painstakingly calculated conduit for royal power and more than a means by which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kingship could simply be projected or petitioners could conveniently secure their privileges. The result is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(careful and comprehensive reconsideration of the diploma and Carolingian kingship, though one which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(requires hard work on the part of the reader. Not all Carolingianists or charter scholars will agree with all of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Koziol?s conclusions, and will no doubt feel that his argument could have been condensed and more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rigorously structured. Although the study is avowedly ?less history than a semantic excavation?, readers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might be disappointed to once again see on occasion what Marjorie Chibnall described as the author )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?clarifying his thoughts as he writes?, as he did in his seminal but challenging study of ritual.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 481.316 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 481.316 597.747 m 495.308 597.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nevertheless, what Koziol offers is bold, thoughtful ? poignant at times ? and stimulating.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book \(563 pages of text, excluding apparatus\) is split into two parts ? ?Instruments of power? and ?The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(footsteps of kings?. The first and largest contains seven chapters, beginning with diplomas as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?performatives?, then moving on to examine their functions and significances at the beginnings of reigns )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(divided into ?accession? and ?succession? acts\), their particular significance in court politics from Charles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Bald?s reign onwards, their role in monastic reform, and forgery during the period. The second part?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(three chapters strike a different tone, addressing diplomas as ?stories?. Here Koziol argues that diplomas can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be regarded, in spite of their formulaic nature, as one of our best sources for understanding the Carolingian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dynasty and their Robertian rivals as individuals through their assertion of ancestry and identity, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meditates upon this with particular reference to Robert I and Charles the Simple.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The central premise of the book is that diplomas must be understood as ?performatives?, namely, ?that any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(given diploma was issued in order to institute, publicise, and memorialise a crucial alteration in the political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regime? \(p. 3\). Thus, Koziol pushes the work of scholars such as Gerd Althoff and Brigitte Bedos-Rezak, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(take just two examples, further: Althoff?s ?structured public setting? encapsulated in diplomas is only part of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the equation, and Bedos-Rezak?s contention \(not cited explicitly but underlying the argument\) that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?[T]hrough its discursive and material forms, the diploma projected an image of orthodox kingship, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sanctified by God, open to appeal from their subjects, generous where appropriate and, above all, in control )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of events? places too much emphasis on image at the expense of instrumentality.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 421.628 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 421.628 317.139 m 435.620 317.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Diplomas are thus characterised as ?memorials of struggles for power?, and accordingly ?were often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fashioned as weapons in those struggles? \(p. 7\). This is clearest in Koziol?s discussion of accession and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(succession, which engages with issues of continuity, personnel, legitimacy and regnal vulnerability, subjects )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which have long been of interest to medievalists more widely. In the ?accession? chapter, an instructive case )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is that of the series of diplomas issued by Charles the Fat following the West Frankish aristocracy?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invitation to the kingship after the death of Carloman. Rather than seeing the 11 diplomas issued for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beneficiaries on the margins of West Francia and Lotharingia simply as the result of these beneficiaries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taking the opportunity to have their privileges confirmed by their new king whilst in the region, Koziol )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues that these texts encapsulate the solidification of new political formations; it is the lay patrons, acting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as intercessors, who are picked out as key. Thus we see Charles forging crucial alliances with regional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(powers such as Bernard, count of the Auvergne and Count Aledrannus of Chalon, whose family controlled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(key ecclesiastical appointments and who, not incidentally, was uncle to the rival claimant to the throne, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(five-year-old Charles the Simple. Neither simply confirmations or rewards, these grants were no less than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles?s route to power: they show him granting ?expectancies?, appointing bishops and patronising the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Church prior to his anointing; here diplomas are ?props? in a ?staged process in which Charles can be seen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(playing the part of West Frankish king, until he arrives at the location of a formal recognition assembly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(having accumulated so much momentum that he can hardly be resisted? \(p. 81\).)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 481.3157 598.0615 495.3077 609.9415 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 421.6277 317.4535 435.6197 329.3335 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7401 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Diplomas not only smoothed routes to power but also maintained connections with the past, and chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(three on ?succession acts? is one of the most compelling of the book. Elsewhere, historians routinely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examine )] TJ ET BT 77.672 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(acta)] TJ ET BT 98.336 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( for evidence of continuity in attitudes, patronage and administrative personnel, but here Koziol )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggests that verbatim copying of predecessors? diplomas by successors ?was less repetition than a form of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mimesis and quotation pointing to the sources of a king?s legitimacy? \(p. 99\). The manifestations of this are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fascinating: Lothar II, for example, is shown to have used diplomas as a substitute for anointment upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acceding to the kingdom of Provence. By contrast, Louis the Stammerer?s subscription of his father Charles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Bald?s magnificent ?golden bull? for Compigne in the week of his own anointing ? in which Louis? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?smaller, cramped, black monogram? is ?vastly outshone? by Charles? ? speaks of his subordination and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failed attempt to oust his father?s court aristocracy. Louis? identity was quite literally overshadowed by that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of his father, but it was from here that his legitimacy necessarily derived.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A valuable part of the book is the discussion in chapter six of monastic reform, in which Koziol lays out the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interconnections between monasteries targeted for reform by kings seeking to establish their power in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(930s. The discussion concludes with fundamental reflections on why the West Frankish kingdom remained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essentially, albeit loosely, unified in spite of the palpable fragmentation of society in the tenth century. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reformed monasteries, with their scattered, trans-principality estates and frequently marginal situations, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acted as a kind of ?glue?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In chapter seven, Koziol presents the clearest synthesis I have seen of the systematic falsification of history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under the Carolingians in documentary and annalistic contexts, setting the often ?outrageous? forging of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diplomas against a specifically Carolingian ?political habitus? of ?turning lying into a tool of policy? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(324\) to argue that the importance of forging such documents lay not in their use as legal proof after the fact, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but to achieve victory by performatively ramming them down rivals? throats, to use Koziol?s own phrase. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(His arguments are sometimes hard to follow, but the thinking applied to documents such as Archives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dpartementales de Sane-et-Loire H177, no. 4 ? a ?small, ugly scrap of parchment? masquerading as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diploma of Boso, and revealed to be a forgery confected by Abbot Geilo of Tournus for Louis III and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carloman, confirming estates of the politically important abbey of Tournus, while simultaneously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrating Boso?s illegitimacy by taking on the scrappy appearance of a private charter ? is remarkable. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This chapter is essential reading for anyone concerned with medieval charter forgery.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part two of the book attempts something brave: an exploration of the individual identities of \(two different\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kings through their diplomatics, the places they attached to and which consequently became )] TJ ET BT 478.616 335.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(lieux de mmoire)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and how this echoed through the tenth century and beyond. After a good overview of different approaches )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the notoriously problematic history of emotions, Koziol argues that it is possible ?to discern a critically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defensible individuality in the early Middle Ages? \(p. 405\), citing in particular the work of Janet Nelson in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the field. It is clear that Koziol is possessed of an enormous compassion for his subjects, working hard to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rescue them from their traditional image as cynical and self-serving, indeed urging historians not to do them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an injustice by allowing ?learning scepticism to disallow their sincerity? \(p. 551\); here, memories ? as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enshrined in diplomas ? were beliefs, and fundamental ones. Some historians may question this approach, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but Koziol is surely doing the discipline a great service by attempting to inject some humanity into our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(methodology.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter eight contains an extraordinary reading of Robert I?s sole surviving diploma, issued for Saint-Denis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on 25 January 923. Koziol argues that the document reveals that Robert \(and the influential and erudite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clerics around him\) considered himself king by means of a very specific pseudo-Isidorian sense of necessity. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Koziol exposes a sense of manifest destiny, supported by saintly intercession, in Robert?s achievement, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the degree that in the ?extreme and edgy language? of this diploma he could ?scoff at the judgment of final )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(damnation? \(p. 454\), all the more powerful as God?s judgment was still to happen in the Battle of Soissons, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anticipated in the diploma itself. This discussion is balanced and mirrored in chapter nine, in which Koziol )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues that Robert?s rival Charles the Simple promoted his kingship \(and indeed imperialistic majesty\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through the use of a peculiarly Lotharingian reading of Gelasian dualism, perhaps a consequence of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political values inculcated in Charles by his mother Adelaide and manifest in his diplomas largely because of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 8046 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his personal control of their creation. Koziol?s reading of the documents underlying these assertions is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(astonishingly shrewd, and it is therefore a pity that this chapter in particular is at times fragmented and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficult to follow.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Koziol closes with an important discussion of the vicious competition for power which possessed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carolingians and Robertians throughout the tenth century, framed within a meditation upon the importance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Charles the Bald?s foundation at Compigne versus that of the longer-established Saint-Denis. Both were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(lieux de mmoire )] TJ ET BT 119.660 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the very specific sense of dynastic memories \(and thus identities, ambitions and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legitimacy\) being attached to them, rather than their own commemorative functions. Chapter ten and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(epilogue \(a conclusion, one understands, is impossible\) draw together the main themes of the book, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reiterate Koziol?s insistence that if we are to try to understand the Carolingians and their rivals from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inside out, it is to the diplomas that we must turn.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are two problematic areas in )] TJ ET BT 203.960 615.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Memory and Identity)] TJ ET BT 304.604 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. The first lies in its structure and style. The diploma )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is only defined in detail on page 53, after an entire chapter of discussion; conclusions are scattered across )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nearly every page, rather than being drawn together explicitly at the ends of chapters. While Koziol makes it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abundantly clear in the opening pages that the study cannot be structured along traditional lines, its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(looseness, discursiveness and occasionally florid style will doubtless frustrate many. For readers not familiar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the detailed outlines of the century and a half dealt with in the book, the discursive style employed is at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(times confusing. While not a book designed to set out the standard contours of the period?s political history, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at times further clarification is needed, particularly as so many individuals come into the text. Although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Koziol revels in language, no mean feat when it comes to diplomatics, there are minor irritations for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader, such as the maddening use of ?ambasciate? \(which is nowhere explicitly defined\), some slightly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(awkward shifts between the past and present tenses, and errors and inconsistencies in punctuation and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spelling of proper names. Koziol?s style is often colloquial ? though not inappropriately so ? but some might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(balk at phrases such as ?a schizophrenic on psychedelics?, used to describe the scribe tasked with producing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diplomas for Odo \(p. 215\). As Koziol himself notes, diplomas are not easy to reproduce within the confines )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the format of a book, and thus the photographs \(black and white\) included are of little use. Nevertheless, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the URL provided \(which redirects to )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 217.316 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.flickr.com/photos/usml19/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 217.316 400.419 m 401.996 400.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 404.996 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 418.988 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) provides useful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(photographs for reference, though sadly without a facility to zoom in.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second problem is more fundamental, but is also an opportunity, for it will doubtless trigger valuable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debate. Treating diplomas as ?performatives? with such intensity could be argued by many to over-privilege )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the evidence, pushing the discipline of diplomatics too far. Koziol?s insistence that every diploma must be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an extraordinarily densely packed repository of ideology, memory and identity, and that tenurial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conveyances were always connected with political intrigue, is undoubtedly for the most part true, but on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occasion one wonders whether he makes one connection too many. The discussion of Charles the Simple?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diplomas in chapter nine sometimes wanders too far into speculative territory, perhaps putting too much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasis on the possible but unverifiable influence of his mother Adelaide upon Charles? diplomatic. In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same chapter, discussion of Charles? intimate involvement in the production of his diplomas builds on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work of German historians who have identified some distinctive traits in the king?s diplomas, yet also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alludes to but skims over the considerable variety in formulae and expression found in the king?s corpus of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(acta)] TJ ET BT 54.680 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which leads one to wonder whether Koziol is picking and choosing certain diplomas to fit his argument )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Charles had ?a remarkably consistent and coherent view? of his own kingship \(p. 483\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Writing from my own perspective of the 12th century, historians of the High Middle Ages will find much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(here to inform their approaches to charters and similar documents, particularly those issued in disrupted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumstances, whether during the reign of King Stephen or in turbulent ?territorial principalities? such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anjou, Poitou and Brittany. Royal, comital and ducal )] TJ ET BT 293.012 121.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(acta)] TJ ET BT 313.676 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( from these contexts often defy diplomatic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis, not least because of beneficiary production, and one consequence of Koziol?s study is confirmation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that every word in a charter ought to be considered deliberate and significant. Too often, the voice of a ruler )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is taken out of their )] TJ ET BT 130.340 78.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(acta )] TJ ET BT 154.004 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by historians exercising justifiable and rigorous caution, but Koziol?s work should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encourage us to think more bravely, and with even greater rigour. The same applies to issues such as rulers? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(choices of residence; much work has been done on why certain saints were favoured, but as chapter ten?s )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 217.3157 400.7335 401.9957 412.6135 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.flickr.com/photos/usml19/) >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R ] /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 4712 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of Compigne shows, unpicking the minutiae of why rulers preferred or promoted some locations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(above others reveals much about identities, mentalities and priorities.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the supreme strengths of this study is Koziol?s ability to bring together and understand fully the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relevant historiographical traditions, particularly the work of German historians, and this is particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(useful for historians who share his concerns and questions but who work on different periods. It is a pity, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, that Koziol?s exploration is at times extremely opaque, for this will potentially discourage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precisely the kinds of scholars who will find the book most inspiring and useful ? research students, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular, and those wishing to test Koziol?s methodology in other periods and areas ? from engaging with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it fully.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Memory and Identity )] TJ ET BT 137.660 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is Koziol?s magnum opus, and its uncompromising approach, sheer size and complex )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structure make it a challenging read. Regardless of whether they agree with Koziol?s methodology entirely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and his explanations of individual events, Carolingian specialists will find much to sink their teeth into, both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conceptually and with regard to key moments of the history of West Francia. Scholars of charters more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(widely and those concerned with the practice of power and authority in the Middle Ages will also find )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Memory and Identity)] TJ ET BT 134.660 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( stimulating, though tough. )] TJ ET BT 267.344 572.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Memory and Identity)] TJ ET BT 367.988 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( confirms Koziol?s reputation as one of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the foremost scholars of the early Middle Ages, and no-one should be surprised that it is a book which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demands close and repeated reading, and one which will stimulate vigorous debate.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 509.475 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 478.858 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 478.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marjorie Chibnall, ?Review of Geoffrey Koziol, )] TJ ET BT 299.300 478.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Begging Pardon and Favour: Ritual and Political )] TJ ET BT 64.016 464.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Order in Early Medieval France)] TJ ET BT 220.652 464.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?, )] TJ ET BT 231.980 464.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Historical Review)] TJ ET BT 357.980 464.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 110 \(1995\), 686?7.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 455.300 464.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 455.300 463.203 m 509.288 463.203 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 450.346 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 450.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brigitte Bedos-Rezak, ?Ritual in the royal chancery: text, image, and the representation of kingship in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 436.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval French diplomas?, )] TJ ET BT 202.664 436.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(European Monarchy: Its Evolution and Practice from Roman Antiquity to )] TJ ET BT 64.016 421.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Modern Times)] TJ ET BT 133.676 421.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Heinz Duchhardt, Richard A. Jackson and David Sturdy \(Stuttgart, 1992\), pp. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(27?40, at p. 39.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 138.008 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 138.008 406.179 m 191.996 406.179 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 390.847 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 373.067 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 373.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1326)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 371.673 m 328.316 371.673 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 346.696 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.296 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/34187)] TJ ET BT 34.016 317.896 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.flickr.com/photos/usml19/)] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 455.2997 463.5175 509.2877 475.3975 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 138.0077 406.4935 191.9957 418.3735 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 371.9875 328.3157 383.8675 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1326) >> endobj xref 0 36 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000614 00000 n 0000000696 00000 n 0000002690 00000 n 0000002799 00000 n 0000002909 00000 n 0000003018 00000 n 0000006579 00000 n 0000006707 00000 n 0000006791 00000 n 0000006882 00000 n 0000014703 00000 n 0000014733 00000 n 0000014861 00000 n 0000014897 00000 n 0000014927 00000 n 0000015055 00000 n 0000015091 00000 n 0000015156 00000 n 0000022610 00000 n 0000022694 00000 n 0000030793 00000 n 0000030921 00000 n 0000031009 00000 n 0000031107 00000 n 0000035872 00000 n 0000036000 00000 n 0000036055 00000 n 0000036183 00000 n 0000036238 00000 n 0000036366 00000 n trailer << /Size 36 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 36462 %%EOF