%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818070556+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818070556+01'00') /Title (A Confusion of Tongues: Britain?s Wars of Reformation, 1625-42) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4508 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(A Confusion of Tongues: Britain?s Wars of Reformation, 1625-42)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nearly 30 years have passed since the publication of John Morrill?s highly-influential article ?The religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context of the English Civil War?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 198.668 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 198.668 257.673 m 212.660 257.673 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 212.660 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In an effort to redress what he perceived as a tendency \(largely among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whig and Marxist historians\) towards over-simplifying the causes of the Civil War, Morrill pointed to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wider framework of ideological crises ? in addition to what he deemed ?functional crises? of government )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interaction ? which he argued had spurred the English population into civil war. In doing so, Morrill )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(articulated three ?quite distinct and separable? modes of opposition: what he called ?the localist, the legal-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitutionalist, and the religious?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 205.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 205.016 186.393 m 219.008 186.393 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 219.008 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Of all of these, Morrill ultimately maintained, it was the religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mode which must be credited with having provided a sufficiently powerful ideological language and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectual framework for opposition to incite the violence of the Civil War. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As influential as this argument has been, such separations have not always sat easily with subsequent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians, relying as they do upon a relatively neat conception of early modern mentalities \(especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notions of allegiance and identity\) as cleanly compartmentalised and fully-formed. While the rubric itself has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remained broadly intact, the lines of separation have been blurred by scholars of both the Civil Wars \(or the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Wars of the Three Kingdoms?\) and the 17th century more generally as they illuminate the deeper recesses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of early modern thought. Close readings by John Pocock, Quentin Skinner, and others of key 17th-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1329)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 11 October, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles Prior)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199698257)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(65.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(266pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark Williams)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 198.6677 257.9875 212.6597 269.8675 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 205.0157 186.7075 219.0077 198.5875 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 8017 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centuryworks have been complemented by exhaustive archive-based studies of the intellectual sinews which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connected ?church? and ?state? in the minds of individuals and groups throughout the late 16th and 17th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centuries in Britain and Ireland.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 186.320 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 186.320 766.563 m 200.312 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 200.312 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In each instance, the connections between political, religious, and legal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought \(categories which increasingly appear altogether too narrow\) have been reconstructed through deft )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(handling of early modern language and expert management of extant source material.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles W. A. Prior?s )] TJ ET BT 142.664 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Confusion of Tongues: Britain?s Wars of Reformation, 1625?42)] TJ ET BT 461.684 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a welcome )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addition to this vein of re-evaluation and reconstruction. The title, in itself, is a telling and well-chosen one, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drawing attention from the outset to both the chronological limits of the text and the wider contention of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book regarding the centrality of religion \(and, more specifically, Protestantism\) to the ideological unfolding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Civil Wars. Fundamental to this is Prior?s rejection of easy separations of ?church and state?, ?secular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and religious?, choosing instead to describe ?untidy mixture[s]? \(p. 17\) made all the more volatile by their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ambiguous composition. Such ambiguities, Prior argues, make the easy reconstruction of narratives of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?modernity? all the more difficult: for instance, the position broadly known as Erastianism ? concerned with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the assertion of secular sovereignty over the church and, by extension, often cited as an influential ideology )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the carving out of the modern state ? loses its ?modern? thrust when its origins are shown by Prior to have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been built upon co-reliant theories of doctrine and liberty \(p. 228\). Such ?elisions? between religion, law and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics lie at the heart of this careful and meticulous study of the ideological spaces between churchmen and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lawyers, rather than those of revolutionaries, royalists, and radicals. As these intellectuals grasped to define )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what had for \(arguably\) centuries been historically ambiguous ? namely, church and realm ? the chasm of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Civil War opened before them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Prior is, from the introductionto the text onward, quick to delineate its limits, and with good reason. As he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggests, pursuing the lengthy historical origins, geographical frontiers, and later implications of the crises )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he describes to their end would certainly have produced a much longer, and probably unwieldy, study. Prior )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sets his sights primarily upon Britain between 1625 and 1642, and centrally upon the Protestant church ?as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by law established?. Both foci deserve further qualification here. In the latter case, Prior notes in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduction that treatment of the established church in Ireland is best left to other authoritative studies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(referring the reader, in this case, to the work of John McCafferty\). This, in itself, is perhaps an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understandable choice on Prior?s part in order to provide a focussed treatment of the subject at hand; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nevertheless, comparison of the blurred lines between church, law and history that existed \(or were, indeed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(created\) in Ireland with those in Britain would undoubtedly have added further depth to Prior?s discussion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and further weight to his wider case for the inseparability of ideas in these areas. Moreover, while Prior )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(devotes a chapter to the question of Scotland within the wider divisions of church and state, the majority of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the text is clearly more ?English? than ?British? in its focus: as will be discussed below, Scottish examples )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are skilfully employed in chapter four to show the resonance of church/state ambiguities in the ?northern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kingdom?, but the inclusion of Scotland largely ends there. This geographical scope also allows Prior to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(largely avoid treatment of Catholic and Dissenting communities as they related to the state, though he does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make useful references on some occasions \(notably in chapter four\) in order to illustrate the more central )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issues relating to the Protestant rite. Once again, Prior is honest in admitting to these limitations and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focussing on the task which he has set himself: namely, reconstructing the entangled relationship between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the established church and the state.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Methodologically, Prior draws almost exclusively upon printed polemics in order to highlight both the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(breadth and intensity of debate during the period in question, offering in the meantime a bold challenge to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existing historiography, with which he engages extensively. This is very much in keeping with Prior?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(previous work, )] TJ ET BT 109.004 147.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Defining the Jacobean Church: The Politics of Religious Controversy, 1603?1625)] TJ ET BT 504.320 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 510.320 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 510.320 146.067 m 524.312 146.067 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 524.312 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which likewise showcased the author?s skillin close readings and the dissection of early modern language. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reliance upon such sources does raise further questions, but this will be discussed below. Nevertheless, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insofar as Prior?s aim is to reconstruct ?how writers grappled with contradictory and complex ideas about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religion, sovereignty, law and history?, the individuals and episodes around which the chapters revolve are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well-chosen and highly illustrative.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapters are broadly thematic, employing specific individuals and exchanges in order to illuminate wider )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 186.3197 766.8775 200.3117 778.7575 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 510.3197 146.3815 524.3117 158.2615 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 7509 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debates as the text moves chronologically forward towards 1642 and the onset of the Civil Wars in England. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapters two and three serve to furnish the reader with the background to the debates which erupted in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1630s and 1640s, venturing back into the 1580s in order to trace the intellectual source of conflicts over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious conformity and its relation to the political realm. Both chapters establish from the outset the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plurality and inherent ambiguities of historicised conceptions of church and law borne out of fears of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?innovation?. As Prior reveals, the intellectual foundations upon which such debates were built \(or re-built\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were both rich and devious in their meanings: the writings of a large cast of lawyers \(including Nicholas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fuller, Francis Bacon, James Morice, and Richard Cosin\), clergy \(including a section on William Laud\), and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(antiquarians \(Giles Widdowes, Peter Heylyn, John Williams, William Prynne, and others\) are drawn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together to reveal the overlap of these vernaculars. Prior deftly illustrates both the significance of the shifts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which this engendered and the ambiguities which were subsequently thrown up in front of those who sought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to define these relationships in subsequent generations. In essence, what Prior witnesses in these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(articulations is the near-perpetual spiralling outward of what constituted ?civil? and ?sacred? into wider and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wider realms of debate. While many attempted to counteract these trends by forcing a neater definition, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reaction and counteraction only layered complexity upon complexity. Illustrating this wider trend are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specific and insightful analyses of debates on bowing, altars, the origins of the church, and other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(controversies familiar to historians of British and Irish religious history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Having outlined these many entanglements, Prior shifts his discussion northward in chapter four, in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he addresses the claims to sovereignty of the Scottish Kirk within these broader questions of church and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(realm. As Prior notes, this is not ?an exhaustive examination of the debate over the National Covenant? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(83\), but rather a tightly-focussed discussion of the myriad ways in which reformation in Scotland, especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(once confronted with the Stuart union, was contested through these vernaculars of church, law, and history. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What follows is largely a close reading of numerous key documents spanning the 1636?40 period \(including )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Canons of 1636, the National Covenant, and the 1639 )] TJ ET BT 312.656 456.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Remonstrance)] TJ ET BT 381.308 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) grounded upon a wide-ranging )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading of contemporary antiquarian debate which aims at highlighting the terms by which ?the link between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the purity of doctrine and the status of liberty ... [were] greatly amplified? through the ?imperial church? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(109\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With the origins of the Bishops? Wars and the larger terms of debate in Britain established more generally, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Prior shifts his focus toward the Canons of 1640 \(chapter five\), ?Root and Branch? reform and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protestation of May 1641 \(chapter six\). In these Prior finds illustrative examples of notions of liberty being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tested on the aforementioned arguments about the civil and the sacred. History, in particular, takes centre )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stage in this portion of the text, with claims of orthodoxy, attempts at reform, and charges of innovation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(binding analysis of the thought of John Ley, Laud, Henry Vane the Younger, Edward Bagshaw, John )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Williams, Gerard Langbaine, Henry Burton, and a host of others. Among these debates Prior succeeds in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(finding not only the origins of the historical vernacular through which his authors described their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding\(s\) of church and state \(extending from the Elizabethan church to the Levitical priesthood\), but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also pinpoints the rifts and chasms which would ultimately divide them when questions of tradition, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(salvation, and governance clashed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Prior?s closing chapters, in contrast with those which precede them, adopt as their focus specific individuals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and their works ? namely Thomas Aston \(1600?46\) and Henry Parker \(1604?52\) ? in order to highlight the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feasibility of a constitutionally-grounded episcopacy \(in the case of the former\) and, in contrast, the utility of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitutionalist arguments in questioning the competency of regal authority and upholding the ?consent of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the governed? \(p. 225\). Again, these examples are well-chosen, revealing in each case the extent to which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the vernaculars which Prior has outlined in previous chapters could be pushed to the limits of what would be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Civil War divisions while nevertheless retaining common intellectual threads. The reader is ably guided )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through the various metamorphoses of these debates as they incorporate and synthesise ideas of church )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sovereignty, regal power, the role of parliament, the nature of law, and other weighty issues commonly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grounded on both the momentum of tradition and the demands of circumstance. Prior maintains his central )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(line of argument throughout these discussions, emphasising within each section and sub-section the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inextricability of ?politics?, ?religion?, and ?law?. The conclusion is, as such, relatively short, but elegantly )] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R ] /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 6550 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reiterates the complications evident in such terminology as ?Erastianism? and the dangers inherent in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seeking monocausal explanations for the crises of the 1640s and 1650s \(and beyond\). Rather, through these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examples, Prior suggests that it is precisely this polyphony \(or dissonance\) which should attract academic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such in-depth analysis of these debates inevitably provokes questions about the wider ramifications and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(iterations of these developing vernaculars. Prior actively adheres to a methodology which focuses on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meanings interwoven within the texts themselves, broadening outwards when the arguments are revisited or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rejected in other printed texts. There is, consequently, little mention of the wider print culture of which these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tracts may or may not have been a part. Clearly, as the ensuing debates discussed by Prior show, there was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readership for this sort of polemical writing, but how widely were they disseminated and what sort of impact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were they intended to have? Moreover, while the erudite audience may have been fluent in these vernaculars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(disputed as they might have been in terms of their connotations\), were these vernaculars of any value )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beyond such learned spheres? Returning to the initial assertions made by John Morrill \(and since revisited by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholars of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms\), the question of how these abstractions regarding the church )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and state were subsequently conveyed and absorbed by the literate, quasi-literate, and illiterate alike is made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all the more relevant here. These are, however, questions about the wider cultural and social circumstances )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of these debates prompted by the strength of Prior's analysis; Prior has not fallen short in dealing with his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expressed focus, which is the particular content of the ideas and their meanings. What Prior has succeeded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(admirably in producing in )] TJ ET BT 162.008 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Confusion of Tongues)] TJ ET BT 277.688 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a concise and elegant reconstruction of the ways in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which one end of this spectrum articulated and negotiated these ideas before the entire structure which they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were attempting to describe teetered into nothingness.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 464.451 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 433.834 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Morrill, ?The religious context of the English Civil War?, )] TJ ET BT 369.992 433.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Transactions of the Royal Historical )] TJ ET BT 64.016 419.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Society)] TJ ET BT 98.672 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 5th series, 34 \(1984\), 155-78.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 246.320 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 246.320 418.179 m 300.308 418.179 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 405.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ibid, 157.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 110.348 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 110.348 403.923 m 164.336 403.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 391.066 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See, for instance, Jeffrey Collins, )] TJ ET BT 226.652 391.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Allegiance of Thomas Hobbes)] TJ ET BT 391.976 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(Oxford, 2005\); Alan Ford, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(James Ussher: Theology, History, and Politics in Early-Modern Ireland and England)] TJ ET BT 475.316 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(Oxford, 2007\); )] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anthony Milton, )] TJ ET BT 147.692 362.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Laudian and Royalist Polemic in Seventeenth Century England: The Career and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Writings of Peter Heylyn)] TJ ET BT 183.668 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(Manchester, 2007\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 286.640 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 286.640 346.899 m 340.628 346.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 334.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles Prior, )] TJ ET BT 133.676 334.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Defining the Jacobean Church: The Politics of Religious Controversy, 1603?1625)] TJ ET BT 528.992 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( )] TJ ET BT 64.016 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 2005\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 158.336 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 158.336 318.387 m 212.324 318.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 293.525 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H-Net)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://h-net.msu.edu/cgi-bin/logbrowse.pl)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 263.619 m 233.684 263.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 236.684 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 260.287 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 242.507 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 242.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1329)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 241.113 m 328.316 241.113 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 216.136 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 201.736 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/36022)] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://h-net.msu.edu/cgi-bin/logbrowse.pl?trx=vx&list=H-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.080 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Review&month=1209&week=d&msg=GMgKGj1oQvaLguXAnnkFIg)] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 246.3197 418.4935 300.3077 430.3735 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 110.3477 404.2375 164.3357 416.1175 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 286.6397 347.2135 340.6277 359.0935 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 158.3357 318.7015 212.3237 330.5815 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 263.9335 233.6837 275.8135 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://h-net.msu.edu/cgi-bin/logbrowse.pl?trx=vx&list=H-Review&month=1209&week=d&msg=GMgKGj1oQvaLguXAnnkFIg) >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 241.4275 328.3157 253.3075 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1329) >> endobj xref 0 44 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000565 00000 n 0000000661 00000 n 0000005221 00000 n 0000005330 00000 n 0000005440 00000 n 0000005549 00000 n 0000009110 00000 n 0000009238 00000 n 0000009322 00000 n 0000009351 00000 n 0000009479 00000 n 0000009515 00000 n 0000009544 00000 n 0000009672 00000 n 0000009708 00000 n 0000009799 00000 n 0000017869 00000 n 0000017899 00000 n 0000018027 00000 n 0000018063 00000 n 0000018093 00000 n 0000018221 00000 n 0000018257 00000 n 0000018322 00000 n 0000025884 00000 n 0000026003 00000 n 0000032606 00000 n 0000032734 00000 n 0000032789 00000 n 0000032917 00000 n 0000032972 00000 n 0000033100 00000 n 0000033155 00000 n 0000033283 00000 n 0000033338 00000 n 0000033465 00000 n 0000033624 00000 n 0000033752 00000 n trailer << /Size 44 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 33848 %%EOF