%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 35 0 R 49 0 R 54 0 R 65 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140730080640+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140730080640+01'00') /Title (Margaret Thatcher: Complete Public Statements 1945-1990) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R 21 0 R 24 0 R 27 0 R 30 0 R 33 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 5788 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Margaret Thatcher: Complete Public Statements 1945-1990)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('The Oratory of Triumph')] TJ ET BT 34.016 346.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The preface and introduction to the four-volume, 3,300-page collection of the complete parliamentary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speeches of Sir Robert Peel declare Peel's speeches to be 'the political mirror of the eventful age in which he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lived', 'the sermons of the political mind', and 'in themselves HISTORY'.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 383.132 318.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 383.132 316.953 m 397.124 316.953 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 397.124 318.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The 1853 publication of the 697 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speeches contained in these volumes erected a monumental headstone for the ex-premier following his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 289.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accidental death three years earlier. Although not the last such publishing project attempted, this would be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the last realized effort to encapsulate and commemorate a great political career through a comprehensive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collection of speeches for over a century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(No previous prime minister had ever been memorialized to this extent - although this may in part reflect the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(editor's claim that 'No man was ever more faithfully reported than Sir Robert Peel' )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 431.768 220.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 431.768 219.417 m 445.760 219.417 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 445.760 220.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. In 1806, following )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his death earlier that year, a four-volume collection of 147 of the Younger Pitt's parliamentary speeches was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issued.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 67.016 192.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 67.016 190.905 m 81.008 190.905 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 81.008 192.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( As John Ehrman has noted, however, this collection leaves out nearly all of Pitt's budget speeches )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 178.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 176.649 m 48.008 176.649 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.008 178.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( significant omissions to be sure. Although not a prime minister, Pitt's great political and oratorical rival, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles James Fox, who also died in 1806, was commemorated in 1815 with a six-volume collection of 456 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of his parliamentary speeches.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 179.312 149.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 179.312 148.137 m 193.304 148.137 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 193.304 149.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Given the state of parliamentary reporting at the time, it is safe to assume )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that some of the limitations described by Ehrman for Pitt's speeches operate here too.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These volumes contained an interesting variation: not only did they reproduce 103 parliamentary speeches, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but also eleven of 'his principal speeches at Liverpool [elections], and on various other public occasions'.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 537.248 94.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 537.248 93.369 m 551.240 93.369 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 80.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This was hardly the full extent of Canning's extra-parliamentary speech-making. During the 1812 general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(election, for instance, he is reported to have made 160 speeches in Liverpool.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 404.936 66.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 404.936 64.857 m 418.928 64.857 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 418.928 66.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Even so, by including a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 51.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sampling of Canning's public orations, the editor acknowledged the fact that significant statements and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(133)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 June, 2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christopher Collins)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joseph S. Meisel)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 383.1317 317.2675 397.1237 329.1475 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 431.7677 219.7315 445.7597 231.6115 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 67.0157 191.2195 81.0077 203.0995 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 23 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 176.9635 48.0077 188.8435 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 179.3117 148.4515 193.3037 160.3315 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 537.2477 93.6835 551.2397 105.5635 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 404.9357 65.1715 418.9277 77.0515 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 38 0 R 41 0 R 44 0 R 47 0 R ] /Contents 36 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Length 8238 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eloquence of leading statesmen were not confined to the Houses of Parliament. In contrast, although both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fox and Peel made important speeches outside the Commons, their collected speeches are strictly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parliamentary.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After Canning, the career of no other nineteenth-century prime minister or leading politician - not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palmerston, not Russell, not Disraeli, not Bright, not Gladstone, not Chamberlain, not Salisbury - was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marked by a complete collection of speeches. Instead, volumes of selected speeches became the vogue. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(causes underlying this shift in the practices of commemorative publishing have not been investigated. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps the market for such collections became adverse, although there is evidence to suggest that reading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speeches was a popular activity with at least some Victorians. George Eliot, for example, included the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading aloud of speeches by Bright among her evening literary pastimes.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 387.620 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 387.620 654.771 m 401.612 654.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 401.612 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It may also be that the scale of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Victorian speech-making made comprehensive collections impractical for publishers and editors. A third )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hypothesis, by no means incompatible with the first two, is that the large biographies to which the Victorians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were partial effectively supplanted the memorializing functions of comprehensive speech collections.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The cult of Gladstone was strong enough to set in motion a planned ten-volume edition of his speeches, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the project fell into abeyance after the publication of only two volumes.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 377.960 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 377.960 571.491 m 391.952 571.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 391.952 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In Gladstone's case we can at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(least see what the scale of such an undertaking could potentially involve. In 1916, the Gladstone archivist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arthur Tilney Bassett compiled an index of Gladstone's speech-making that counted a total of 2,208 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speeches. Of this total, Gladstone delivered 1,796 in the House of Commons - that is, over two-and-a-half )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(times the number in Peel's collected speeches covering a parliamentary career around one-and-a-half times )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(longer than Peel's - and 412 outside of Parliament.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 275.816 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 275.816 500.211 m 295.808 500.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 295.808 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Gladstone being Gladstone, it can also be assumed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that a significant number of these speeches were very lengthy. Even ten volumes would not have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sufficient to reproduce his full output.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The twentieth century has produced only one true successor to the great speech collections of the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth century: the 'complete speeches' of Winston Churchill, edited by Robert Rhodes James and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published in eight thick volumes in 1974.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 233.024 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 233.024 416.931 m 253.016 416.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 253.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In this respect, the cult of Churchill \(or at least its financial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resources\) proved greater than the cult of Gladstone. Significantly, like Thatcher and far more than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gladstone, Churchill was very popular with Americans and therefore there was a far larger market than for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the speeches of most British prime ministers. Weighing in at around 8,600 pages, the Churchill collection )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reproduces a total of 2,360 speeches - 1,040 delivered in the Commons, and 1,320 delivered outside of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parliament or as broadcasts. But even this massive compendium does not - perhaps could not - include )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absolutely )] TJ ET BT 86.348 332.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(every)] TJ ET BT 112.328 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( public utterance and broadcast made by Churchill.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Now, at the dawn of the twenty-first century, we have the next great example of a British statesperson's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collected speeches, but also something more. )] TJ ET BT 253.316 292.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Margaret Thatcher: Complete Public Statements, 1945-1990)] TJ ET BT 545.960 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a massive quantitative and technological leap beyond all such efforts that have come before. Compared to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peel's 697 speeches, and Churchill's 2,360, Thatcher's )] TJ ET BT 295.124 263.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Complete Public Statements)] TJ ET BT 430.448 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( contains 7,564 records - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over three times the number in Churchill's )] TJ ET BT 239.156 249.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Complete Speeches)] TJ ET BT 332.132 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, while covering only two-thirds the number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years. Of the 7,564 public statements, 605 \(eight per cent\) are non-oral: letters, articles, written statements )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and messages. \(For ease of calculation, I have not included in these and subsequent figures seven missing or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(partially complete statements on an accompanying errata diskette.\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The collection includes a record of every public statement Thatcher made from the young conservative's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(platform speech campaigning for Churchill in June 1945 to her resignation as Prime Minister on November )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(28, 1990. There are around 400 occasions for which the editors could locate no text or report of what was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(said. Regrettably, copyright issues have prevented eighteen statements - almost all of them interviews with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the American Broadcasting Corporation - from being included in this documentary compendium clearly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(designed for scholarly research. As a bonus, however, the collection contains a selection of 120 major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statements from 1990 up to October 1998. 'The total word count', writes the editor in the accompanying User )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Handbook, 'is around 14 million, the equivalent of 30,000 pages, or 50 stout volumes.')] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As these figures alone indicate, Thatcher's )] TJ ET BT 239.792 54.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Public Statements)] TJ ET BT 326.120 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is an impressive feat of historical engineering. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 37 0 obj [35 0 R /Fit] endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 387.6197 655.0855 401.6117 666.9655 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 40 0 obj [35 0 R /Fit] endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 377.9597 571.8055 391.9517 583.6855 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 43 0 obj [35 0 R /Fit] endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 275.8157 500.5255 295.8077 512.4055 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 46 0 obj [35 0 R /Fit] endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 233.0237 417.2455 253.0157 429.1255 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 52 0 R ] /Contents 50 0 R >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Length 7976 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But before turning to the properties of this significant scholarly resource, I want briefly to draw upon its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contents and look at Thatcher's speech-making in longer historical perspective. Elsewhere, I have used )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bassett's index of Gladstone's speeches and Churchill's )] TJ ET BT 300.800 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Complete Speeches)] TJ ET BT 393.776 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as the basis for a quantitative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparison of the two prime ministers' oratorical careers.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 310.784 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 310.784 752.307 m 330.776 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 330.776 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Even without the kind of painstaking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assessment of each individual speech undertaken by Christopher Collins and his editorial team, my broad )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis nevertheless yielded a number of revealing comparisons between the two oratorical giants. One )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such comparison had to do with the split between parliamentary and extra-parliamentary speech-making: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(four-fifths of Gladstone's speeches, but just over one-half of Churchill's were delivered in the Commons.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A user of Thatcher's)] TJ ET BT 131.144 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Complete Public Statements)] TJ ET BT 269.468 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( can quickly find that the collection contains a total of 1,714 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(utterances in the House of Commons, and 2,015 extra-parliamentary speeches, not including television or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radio broadcasts, and various other kinds of statements. On the surface, this looks close to the Churchillian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pattern, but a finer-grained take is readily facilitated by the apparatus of this CD-ROM. Of the Commons )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(utterances, only 224 are full-fledged speeches. Given Thatcher's well-deserved reputation as a debater, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should come as no surprise that the greatest number of records for Commons utterances - 1,160 - are for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parliamentary Questions. Ninety-three Commons utterances are described as 'interventions', which consist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(largely of Thatcher indicating her dissent from the speech of another member. Thus, Thatcher's speech-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(making was considerably more oriented toward the extra-parliamentary than Churchill's and, when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compared to Gladstone's pattern, reflects the great changes in the nature of British political culture from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1830s to the 1990s.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While the techniques of politics changed considerably over this period, so did the technologies - from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combination of press, railway, and telegraph in Gladstone's time to television in Thatcher's. Despite his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enduring fame in this respect, Churchill's )] TJ ET BT 234.488 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Collected Speeches)] TJ ET BT 327.464 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( indicates that his use of the wireless formed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but a small part of his oratorical output - although this was in part a function of restrictions on broadcasting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political speeches. Thatcher, by contrast, was hardly a reluctant broadcaster. Indeed, she well understood the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vital importance of appearing in people's living rooms as often as possible. Her )] TJ ET BT 416.792 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Complete Public Statements)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides records of 821 television appearances and 450 radio appearances. Significantly, however, broadcast )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speeches make up a very small proportion of both categories. Thatcher's TV and radio appearances were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overwhelmingly in the more intimate form of interviews. Another sign of changing times is the prevalence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the press conference. Rhodes James includes only a handful of press conferences in the Churchill )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collection. Doubtless many were omitted, but it is unlikely that even a fuller account of Churchill's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(utterances would approach anything like the 440 press conferences included in the Thatcher collection.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As a resource for scholarship, Thatcher's )] TJ ET BT 232.448 318.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Complete Public Statements)] TJ ET BT 367.772 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( has been well thought through by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(editorial team and well executed by the software designers. Even without the benefit of the helpful - and, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(far as such things go, lucid - User Handbook, the organization and functionality of the database's access )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(features are relatively easy to apprehend. In addition to full keyword searching \(with the searched-for terms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nicely highlighted\), the search interface permits the user to 'filter' the search a number of ways including by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the theme \(e.g. conservatism, trade unions, arts\) or grouped themes \(e.g. economy, foreign policy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(autobiographical\) of the statement, by the type of statement \(e.g. parliamentary speech, TV interview, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(written statement\), and even by day of the week. All of these search specifications can be used in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combination. Where several themes are addressed in a single statement, this is clearly marked.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The collection is accompanied by an extensive index that permits searches by name, journalist, and source. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The name index search is particularly useful because it allows users to locate references to individuals even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when the text of the statement only refers to them by title \(e.g. 'Chancellor of the Exchequer'\). One can not, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, go from the titles to the names. Further, there is a chronology of significant political and personal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events that can be viewed separately, or integrated with the list of statements. The high degree of editorial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention to detail is also evidenced by the fact that parliamentary speeches have the )] TJ ET BT 439.268 106.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hansard)] TJ ET BT 481.268 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( column )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number indicated.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In addition to all this helpful apparatus, the editors have exercised their editorial judgement to help users )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wade through the mass of material. Each record and each item of the chronology has been categorized in one )] TJ ET endstream endobj 51 0 obj [49 0 R /Fit] endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 310.7837 752.6215 330.7757 764.5015 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 57 0 R 60 0 R 63 0 R ] /Contents 55 0 R >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Length 8162 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of four grades of importance from 'seminal' to 'trivial' \(and users can 'filter' searches accordingly\). Given the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many avenues and the facility of searching, this categorization shows a somewhat heavy editorial hand. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(240 'seminal' statements are seen as those that might constitute a substantial printed volume. \(The most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recent print collection of this kind contained 59 speeches)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 307.304 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 307.304 752.307 m 327.296 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 327.296 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). While creating a collection within a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collection of this kind is all well and good, it is debatable whether all the statements labeled 'seminal' are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(genuinely and enduringly of the first importance. A number of statements in this category have far greater )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biographical than political significance. Does Thatcher's 1949 Dartford election speech really belong )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alongside her Bruges speech of 1988? Half the total statements are categorized as of 'major' importance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defined as 'significant in their day', while over a third are 'minor' statements of a generally impromptu nature. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is telling, either of Thatcher or the editors, that the statements classified as "trivial" are principally regional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or local in character. The serious scholar will likely ignore the editors' taxonomy. Fortunately, users may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(create their own classifications through a 'bookmark' function.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Doubtless, a scholar using this resource in a sustained manner for research would discover some further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inconveniences or limitations, but it is difficult to find much fault during a few extended 'test drives'. As one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who has worked extensively and laboriously with speeches as historical sources, I found the power, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flexibility, scope, and excellent documentation of the Thatcher collection a great pleasure. Although it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common for the electorate to view the public statements of its officials with cynicism \(or on occasion slavish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(credulity\), for historians speeches and other forms of public communication are essential records that both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encapsulate ideas fixed in time and can be subjected to scholarly interpretation. In this light, perhaps the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(greatest virtue of so extensive and accessible a collection as Thatcher's )] TJ ET BT 376.424 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Complete Public Statements)] TJ ET BT 511.748 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one can pick out themes, concepts, and issues in her public career so thoroughly and comprehensively that it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is possible to identify, or control for tactical adaptations of the moment. Besides simply adding more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speeches, in what ways could a future iteration of this collection be improved or extended? The obvious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(answer, as new technologies permit, is sound and vision - the audio and video of the speeches where they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exist. In the current format, however, it could be of great use to scholars if the collection also included a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(selection of major critical responses, both pro and con, to at least to the most significant or controversial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statements. Another useful addition would be an index of the places where the statements were delivered.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As, in the main, a collection of speeches, Thatcher's )] TJ ET BT 286.124 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Complete Public Statements)] TJ ET BT 421.448 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is especially interesting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because it has nothing to do with the grand tradition of British political eloquence. Certainly Thatcher has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earned her place in history. Unlike Pitt, Fox, Canning, Peel, and Churchill, however, she was not a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly distinguished orator. As a collection, therefore, Thatcher's )] TJ ET BT 373.772 344.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Complete Public Statements)] TJ ET BT 509.096 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is far )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more about ideology and personality. In addition to its value as a resource for serious scholarship, this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collection will no doubt provide many hours of edification for the Iron Lady's fans - like the enthusiastic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader from Milton Keynes who, in an amazon.com customer review of the recent book of Thatcher's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collected speeches, described 'the greatest Prime Minister ever!' as the 'Supreme Goddess and head of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thatcherite faith')] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 115.820 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 115.820 272.115 m 135.812 272.115 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Putting aside Thatcher's historical \(if not oratorical\) importance and cult following, this CD-ROM is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly appropriate in another sense. Thatcher was not only the first British prime minister to have a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scientific education, but also the first to make full use of late twentieth-century media technology. In her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memoir )] TJ ET BT 74.348 204.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Downing Street Years)] TJ ET BT 200.684 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, for example, she recalls her discovery of the Autocue \(teleprompter\), the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(laser and video pyrotechnics of her campaign rallies, and her deep interest in television coverage.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 501.236 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 501.236 188.835 m 521.228 188.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Further, although she was initially resistant to the idea, Thatcher was prime minister when regular televising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Commons debates began in 1989.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Even though she was not an orator for the ages, are Thatcher's statements, as was claimed of Peel's, history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in themselves? Despite the fact that she was deposed in a palace coup and banished to the political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wilderness, and although there seems little chance of her making a late, Gladstonian comeback \(even if her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peerage could soon cease to be an obstacle\), it is now common to observe that British politics was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enduringly transformed by her reign. In this way she resembles Peel. Although he sundered his party, was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(like Thatcher\) effectively broken by a speech from his own side of the House, and spent the remaining four )] TJ ET endstream endobj 56 0 obj [54 0 R /Fit] endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 58 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 307.3037 752.6215 327.2957 764.5015 ] >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 59 0 obj [54 0 R /Fit] endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 61 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 115.8197 272.4295 135.8117 284.3095 ] >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 62 0 obj [54 0 R /Fit] endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 64 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 501.2357 189.1495 521.2277 201.0295 ] >> endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 68 0 R 70 0 R 72 0 R 74 0 R 76 0 R 78 0 R 80 0 R 82 0 R 84 0 R 86 0 R 88 0 R 90 0 R 92 0 R 94 0 R 96 0 R 98 0 R 100 0 R 102 0 R 104 0 R 106 0 R 108 0 R ] /Contents 66 0 R >> endobj 66 0 obj << /Length 8207 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years of his truncated life far from power surrounded by a small group of political adherents, by the time he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(left office Peel had laid the ground for the mid-Victorian Liberal consensus. The Thatcher years, too, have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(become the basis of a new political consensus exemplified best, as many like to point out, by New Labour. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In this sense, then, one can say of Thatcher's speeches what the editor of Peel's speeches wrote in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduction: 'Peel's oratory, however, may, in spite of every opposition, be called the oratory of triumph; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and his speeches are, in reality, little more than the milestones of so many victories.')] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 437.792 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(16\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 437.792 723.795 m 457.784 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 690.291 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 659.674 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Speeches of the Right Honourable Sir Robert Peel, Bart., Delivered in the House of Commons \(4 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vols., 1853\), i. v, 1, 3.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 169.352 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 169.352 644.019 m 223.340 644.019 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 631.162 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Speeches of ... Peel, i. 2. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 206.324 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 206.324 629.763 m 260.312 629.763 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 616.906 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Speeches of the Right Honourable William Pitt in the House of Commons \(4 vols., 1806\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 517.328 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 517.328 615.507 m 557.324 615.507 l S BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 601.251 m 78.008 601.251 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 588.394 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Ehrman,)] TJ ET BT 115.676 588.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( The Younger Pitt: The Years of Acclaim \(1969\), 671.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 372.668 588.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 372.668 587.169 m 425.984 587.169 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 425.984 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ed. R. Thierry \(6 vols., )] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1828\), vi. 319.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 134.348 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 134.348 572.739 m 188.336 572.739 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 559.882 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Speeches of the Right Honourable Charles James Fox in the House of Commons \(6 vols., 1815\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 544.227 m 118.004 544.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 531.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Speeches of the Right Honourable George Canning, with a Memoir of His Life,)] TJ ET BT 48.816 517.114 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Parry, )] TJ ET BT 106.676 517.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Rise and Fall of Liberal Government in Victorian Britain)] TJ ET BT 403.016 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New Haven, 1993\), 40.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 521.984 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 521.984 515.715 m 549.644 515.715 l S BT 64.016 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 501.459 m 90.344 501.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 488.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See The George Eliot Letters, ed. G. S. Haight \(7 vols., New Haven, 1954-5\), v. 6, 12. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 481.280 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 481.280 487.203 m 535.268 487.203 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 474.346 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Speeches and Public Addresses of the Right Hon. W. E. Gladstone, with Notes and Introductions, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ed. A. W. Hutton and H. J. Cohen \(1892-94\), ix-x.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 305.984 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 305.984 458.691 m 359.972 458.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 445.834 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gladstone's Speeches: Descriptive Index and Bibliography, ed. A. Tilney Bassett \(1916\), 6-90.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 518.780 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 518.780 444.435 m 558.776 444.435 l S BT 64.016 431.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 430.179 m 84.008 430.179 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 417.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 417.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Winston S. Churchill: His Complete Speeches, 1897-1963, ed. R. Rhodes James \(8 vols., New York, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 403.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1974\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 403.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 401.667 m 155.000 401.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 388.810 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 388.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. S. Meisel, 'Words by the Numbers: A Quantitative Analysis and Comparison of the Oratorical )] TJ ET BT 64.016 374.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Careers of William Ewart Gladstone and Winston Spencer Churchill,' )] TJ ET BT 401.456 374.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical Research)] TJ ET BT 64.016 360.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(forthcoming, 2000\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 164.336 360.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 164.336 358.899 m 224.324 358.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 346.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 346.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Collected Speeches of Margaret Thatcher, ed. Robin Harris \(1997\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 408.596 346.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 408.596 344.643 m 468.584 344.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 331.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 331.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(May 31, 2000\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 142.004 331.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 142.004 330.387 m 201.992 330.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 317.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 317.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Margaret Thatcher, )] TJ ET BT 159.644 317.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Downing Street Years)] TJ ET BT 285.980 317.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1993\), 258, 286-7, 580.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 405.968 317.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 405.968 316.131 m 465.956 316.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 303.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(16.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 303.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Speeches of ... Peel, i. 3.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 203.324 303.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(16\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 203.324 301.875 m 263.312 301.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 277.013 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 258.031 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 240.251 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 240.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/133)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 238.857 m 322.316 238.857 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 213.880 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.480 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/746)] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.080 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 67 0 obj [65 0 R /Fit] endobj 68 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 69 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 437.7917 724.1095 457.7837 735.9895 ] >> endobj 69 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 70 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 71 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 169.3517 644.3335 223.3397 656.2135 ] >> endobj 71 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 72 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 73 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 206.3237 630.0775 260.3117 641.9575 ] >> endobj 73 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 74 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 75 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 517.3277 615.8215 557.3237 627.7015 ] >> endobj 75 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 20 0 R >> endobj 76 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 77 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 601.5655 78.0077 613.4455 ] >> endobj 77 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 20 0 R >> endobj 78 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 79 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 372.6677 587.3095 425.9837 599.1895 ] >> endobj 79 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 23 0 R >> endobj 80 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 81 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 134.3477 573.0535 188.3357 584.9335 ] >> endobj 81 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 29 0 R >> endobj 82 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 83 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 544.5415 118.0037 556.4215 ] >> endobj 83 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 26 0 R >> endobj 84 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 85 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 521.9837 516.0295 549.6437 527.9095 ] >> endobj 85 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 32 0 R >> endobj 86 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 87 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 501.7735 90.3437 513.6535 ] >> endobj 87 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 32 0 R >> endobj 88 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 89 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 481.2797 487.5175 535.2677 499.3975 ] >> endobj 89 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 37 0 R >> endobj 90 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 91 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 305.9837 459.0055 359.9717 470.8855 ] >> endobj 91 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 40 0 R >> endobj 92 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 93 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 518.7797 444.7495 558.7757 456.6295 ] >> endobj 93 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 43 0 R >> endobj 94 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 95 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 430.4935 84.0077 442.3735 ] >> endobj 95 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 43 0 R >> endobj 96 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 97 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.0117 401.9815 154.9997 413.8615 ] >> endobj 97 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 46 0 R >> endobj 98 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 99 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 164.3357 359.2135 224.3237 371.0935 ] >> endobj 99 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 51 0 R >> endobj 100 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 101 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 408.5957 344.9575 468.5837 356.8375 ] >> endobj 101 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 56 0 R >> endobj 102 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 103 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 142.0037 330.7015 201.9917 342.5815 ] >> endobj 103 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 59 0 R >> endobj 104 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 105 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 405.9677 316.4455 465.9557 328.3255 ] >> endobj 105 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 62 0 R >> endobj 106 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 107 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 203.3237 302.1895 263.3117 314.0695 ] >> endobj 107 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 67 0 R >> endobj 108 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 109 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 239.1715 322.3157 251.0515 ] >> endobj 109 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/133) >> endobj xref 0 110 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000565 00000 n 0000000696 00000 n 0000006536 00000 n 0000006645 00000 n 0000006755 00000 n 0000006864 00000 n 0000010425 00000 n 0000010553 00000 n 0000010637 00000 n 0000010666 00000 n 0000010794 00000 n 0000010830 00000 n 0000010859 00000 n 0000010987 00000 n 0000011023 00000 n 0000011052 00000 n 0000011178 00000 n 0000011214 00000 n 0000011243 00000 n 0000011369 00000 n 0000011405 00000 n 0000011434 00000 n 0000011562 00000 n 0000011598 00000 n 0000011627 00000 n 0000011754 00000 n 0000011790 00000 n 0000011819 00000 n 0000011945 00000 n 0000011981 00000 n 0000012086 00000 n 0000020377 00000 n 0000020407 00000 n 0000020535 00000 n 0000020571 00000 n 0000020601 00000 n 0000020729 00000 n 0000020765 00000 n 0000020795 00000 n 0000020923 00000 n 0000020959 00000 n 0000020989 00000 n 0000021117 00000 n 0000021153 00000 n 0000021237 00000 n 0000029266 00000 n 0000029296 00000 n 0000029424 00000 n 0000029460 00000 n 0000029558 00000 n 0000037773 00000 n 0000037803 00000 n 0000037931 00000 n 0000037967 00000 n 0000037997 00000 n 0000038125 00000 n 0000038161 00000 n 0000038191 00000 n 0000038319 00000 n 0000038355 00000 n 0000038584 00000 n 0000046844 00000 n 0000046874 00000 n 0000047002 00000 n 0000047038 00000 n 0000047166 00000 n 0000047221 00000 n 0000047349 00000 n 0000047404 00000 n 0000047532 00000 n 0000047587 00000 n 0000047713 00000 n 0000047768 00000 n 0000047896 00000 n 0000047951 00000 n 0000048079 00000 n 0000048134 00000 n 0000048261 00000 n 0000048316 00000 n 0000048444 00000 n 0000048499 00000 n 0000048625 00000 n 0000048680 00000 n 0000048808 00000 n 0000048863 00000 n 0000048991 00000 n 0000049046 00000 n 0000049174 00000 n 0000049229 00000 n 0000049355 00000 n 0000049410 00000 n 0000049537 00000 n 0000049592 00000 n 0000049720 00000 n 0000049775 00000 n 0000049905 00000 n 0000049961 00000 n 0000050091 00000 n 0000050147 00000 n 0000050277 00000 n 0000050333 00000 n 0000050463 00000 n 0000050519 00000 n 0000050649 00000 n trailer << /Size 110 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 50745 %%EOF