%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 25 0 R 27 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150803212843+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150803212843+01'00') /Title (Race, Religion, and Law in Colonial India. Trials of an Interracial Family) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4103 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Race, Religion, and Law in Colonial India. Trials of an Interracial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Family)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book uses the story of one family and its legal battles to uncover relationships between religion, race, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gender, identity, and personal law in south India in the first half of the 19th century. Matthew Abrahams was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an Indian Roman Catholic of lowly background but increasing wealth. He married an Anglo-Portuguese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(woman, Charlotte Fox, and adopted what was regarded as a largely ?East Indian? \(or Anglo-Indian\) lifestyle. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(His money was made from the )] TJ ET BT 183.992 194.915 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(abkari)] TJ ET BT 215.324 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(liquor\) contract, trading in arms and money lending in Bellary and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also Kurnool after the annexation of 1839. One of his sons, Charles, was sent to Cambridge University to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study for the law. After Matthew?s death, intestate, in 1842, his younger brother, Francis, continued to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manage and develop the business. Starting in 1854, suits were brought against Francis by Charlotte and her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sons, for possession of Matthew?s estate. They progressed from the Bellary District Court, on appeal to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sadr Adalat in Madras, and then to the Privy Council in London.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The main point at issue was whether or not Matthew and Francis had operated on a joint family basis, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(partners, or as master and servant. It suited Francis?s case to claim that the Abrahams were a joint family, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(line with supposed Hindu custom, but also with the alleged practice of many Indian converts to Christianity. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It suited Charlotte to insist that Francis had been a mere employee with no rights in his brother?s estate, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1331)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 11 October, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chandra Mallampalli)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781107012615)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(286pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Robb)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R 23 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8261 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which therefore ought to devolve according to ?Christian? principles. The District Court agreed with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charlotte; the appellant court found for Francis; and the Privy Council cut through both arguments, arguing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that personal law ought to follow not inherited traditions but the lifestyle. This final judgment \(of 1863\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(favoured Charlotte on the point of inheritance. But it also supported Francis?s rights as an active partner in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(business, entitled to rewards at very much the level Francis had offered to accept before the litigation began.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The story is used to advance several themes. The first concerns the conditions of life in the towns and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military cantonments of a southern dry zone during a period of transition, from around 1812 to the 1850s. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second covers questions of family life, custom, and identity, particularly among liminal peoples such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Abrahams, comprising as they did ?Hindu? Christians and mixed-race Protestant ?East Indians?. \(A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter on Charles in Cambridge provides an intriguing but inconclusive footnote to this story.\) Finally there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are the legal and policy changes in the run-up to the establishment of the Indian High Courts in 1862, and in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular the development of a personal law according to religion ? and hence the re-invention or formation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of ?communities? in British India.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is much of interest under the first two themes, many details being revealed in the trial papers. Several )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters are devoted to the growing wealth and status of the Abrahams. Bellary, ceded to the Company by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hyderabad in 1800 under the subsidiary alliance, is painted as a frontier place, dominated by the Company?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(army and a host of camp followers. A very good impression is conveyed of the intermixture of races and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communities. Bellary was clearly changing and offered opportunities to the resourceful, such as Matthew )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Abrahams. The Rev. John Hands of the non-denominational LMS, who converted Matthew to Protestantism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and who was later known for his translation of the Bible into Kannada, arrived in Bellary in 1810, before the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change in the charter that permitted missionaries in Company territories \(1813\). On his arrival, Hands )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reported, the settlement already had seven native schools with 300 children.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 397.952 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 397.952 471.699 m 411.944 471.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 411.944 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In this milieu, Matthew and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then Francis shrugged off any links to an ?untouchable? )] TJ ET BT 305.636 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(paraiyar)] TJ ET BT 347.636 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ancestry and became )] TJ ET BT 453.596 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(dora)] TJ ET BT 476.264 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(big man\). Their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patterns of marriage and association show, it is suggested, somewhat obscurely, ?how lower orders of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society within an economic dry zone were uniquely suited for various forms and degrees of mixture? \(p. 26\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(More obviously, the circumstances seem to have provided for upward mobility.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There will always be questions about the representative quality of such evidence ? I am acutely aware of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these in my own recent work )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 175.988 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 175.988 374.163 m 189.980 374.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 189.980 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? but here the problem is somewhat increased by two factors. First, the trial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(records \(though large\) are still limited in size and by purpose and perspective. Materials were gathered to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advance particular legal arguments that were manifestly factitious. Mallampalli attributes them and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claims about both family and business life to the parties to the dispute \(such as on p. 141\), whereas the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(internal evidence rather suggests that they were advanced by counsel on a opportunistic basis to suit the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evolving legal framework. There are examples of Francis worrying about his standing in the family and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(business after his brother?s death, while much of the evidence on his behalf sought to prove that Hindu joint-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family arrangements had prevailed, making him head of the family. What was meant by joint family was in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any case ambiguous and changing, and presumably none of it was in the minds of any of the protagonists at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the time \(as Mallampalli agrees\). Therefore, we have to ask how far we may consider as representative, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, the trial evidence that such ?Hindu? practices were common among Indian Catholics. At best what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we see, and to be fair the book does not make larger claims, is that ?European? customs seem to have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(followed more among Indian Protestants than Catholics, and most of all, of course, among mixed-race )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(families. As is well-known, those who identified themselves as East Indian or Anglo-Indian often aspired to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be regarded as European in custom ? through dress, food, social and business pursuits, language, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protestantism or Anglicanism. \(Matthew Abraham?s mother tongue was Tamil, as it happened, though little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is made of that.\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Secondly, with regard to these aspects the book makes relatively little use of other evidence or academic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies that would help give one confidence in its judgments. There are some references to other scholarship, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but theyare not always appropriate or challenging. Useful comparisons might have been made with, say, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Arnold?s articles on poor whites, Laura Bear?s study of Anglo-Indians, Fischer-Tine?s book on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Low and Licentious Europeans)] TJ ET BT 183.692 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Satoshi Mizutani?s Oxford DPhil. thesis and articles on ?whiteness? \(the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book apppeared only in 2011\), and so on.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 232.988 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 232.988 48.531 m 246.980 48.531 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 246.980 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In methodological terms, the absence of Ann Laura Stoler and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 397.9517 472.0135 411.9437 483.8935 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 175.9877 374.4775 189.9797 386.3575 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 232.9877 48.8455 246.9797 60.7255 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 7594 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catherine Hall and several others is all the more remarkable for their prevalence almost everywhere else.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In this connection, I was unconvinced by some rather conventional questioning of the contradiction between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liquor and religion on one hand \(pp. 18?19\), and of the link between Protestantism and the work ethic on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other \(p. 62\). The business model adopted by the Abrahams was unremarkable, and it seems about as useful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to compare it with caste-based enterprise, as by Chettiars \(p. 20\), as it would be with European or Armenian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(partnerships before the Companies Act of 1850. Nor was I as surprised as Mallampalli seemed to be \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(42?3\) that a probably mixed-race Anglo-Portuguese girl would have married an Indian or ?Hindu? Christian. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charlotte described her mother as ?Portuguese? and claimed to know nothing of her extraction save what she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deduced from her ?manners? \(p. 44\). But there are many accounts of the modest standing of so-called )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Portuguese? in early British India. Moreover, the label usually meant a mixed-race Christian, often a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(servant or slave, with some notable exceptions such as the Barretto family of Calcutta. There were many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instances too, of ?mixed? marriages, where the ?manners? of the European partner might or might not be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(followed in the household, but in many cases would eventually prevail. That was certainly the case for many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(self-declared and publicly-recognised Anglo-Indians, though \(as I have described\) there were also instances )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in which the illegitimate daughters of a respectable English father and a disavowed Indian mother married )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European-born men and produced numerous ?English? children. Christianity was certainly a factor, too: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(despite many debates about jurisdiction in India, and much pragmatism, British law made religion all-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important to formal marriage, as a sacrament reserved to the established churches.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In chapter five, the story of the Abraham litigation finally begins in earnest; and we reach the core, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most significant and successful parts, of the book. Francis had managed more and more of the business, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his brother drank more heavily, probably suffered from syphilis, and became increasingly unreliable. After )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Matthew?s death, Francis salvaged the business, making great effort in the family?s interest, according to his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own account. Charlotte suspected him of siphoning off the profits.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The family argument was exacerbated by juridical disputes, the uncertainty of the relevant law and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(procedures, and the decline of the Company?s )] TJ ET BT 258.632 418.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(adalat)] TJ ET BT 289.304 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 312.632 418.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(zillah)] TJ ET BT 339.308 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( courts, soon to be replaced. In this part of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the book, we are provided with the necessary background \(with an apology, which is curious\). The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fascinating story of the evolution of personal law in this period is well-told, mainly on the basis of actual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cases drawn from legal manuals of the day. It did indeed help ?invent a fiction of coherent Hindu and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Muslim communities? \(p. 22\). )] TJ ET BT 182.684 361.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Pandits)] TJ ET BT 219.356 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or )] TJ ET BT 235.352 361.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(qazis)] TJ ET BT 260.024 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( made very varied and, as this book shows, often self-serving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and contradictory choices of textual authorities and precedents, in particular cases, from which mainly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European jurists \(at this time\) forged a codified system of communal personal law. The anomalous position )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of both Christian Indians and Eurasians was a matter of extended debate, at first with respect to transposed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English law, and then in regard to these emerging personal law codes. This is a complex story richly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illustrated by the Abraham litigation, where the question was whether the household of an ethnic Hindu and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an Anglo-Portuguese woman could become so European in custom and practice as to be subject to European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than ?Hindu? laws.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(An important context was the emerging essentialism of identity that that question reveals. Though class and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic standing were important \(and perhaps might have been considered further\), the key issue for legal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(judgment was: could an Indian Christian family adopt ?Hindu? customs and practices in their daily lives, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were ?Religion, laws, language and dress the most powerful instruments of amalgamation or separation?, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quote Charlotte?s English counsel \(p. 143\)? The legal action occurred in the midst of at least two kinds of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ambiguity ? about law, Hindu and European, and about people, especially how those at the margins acted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and should be treated.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The time and setting increase the interest of this study. The incursion of joint-family rules and Sanskritic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authorities into south India and among lower castes of Hindus was controversial, even without considering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflicting interests and the arguments about what the rules required. The character of mixed-race families )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the rights of Christian converts became matters of urgent debate during the very period of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Abrahams? story. Also brought into relief is the muddling and contingent character of British rule and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions. Support for the Hindu joint family and other concessions to what were supposed to be India?s )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 5425 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religions and vested interests were seen as properly respectful of an ancient culture or, more plausibly, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insurance against rebellion by powerful Indians and strong, traditionalist communities. By contrast, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sometimes covert but often flaunted ambition for change sought a regulatory role for the state, where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual rights were to be protected, not only at one moment but over time, by inheritance, as for Christian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(converts, but also for princes \(properly educated\), landholders \(such as in the court of wards\), tenants, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women, labourers, and so on. These contrary impulses were somewhat reconciled because the preservers of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(custom re-invented and systematised it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The process was visible in the Privy Council judgment of Thomas Pemberton, Lord Kingsdown, in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Abrahams? cause. Matthew was of Hindu stock, though Christian at birth, and his wealth was self-made, not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inherited. ?If the spirit of an adopted religion improves those who become converts to it?, he wrote, should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their ?abandoned usages be treated as ... still the enduring customs of the family?? \(pp. 233?4\). It is true, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mallampalli concludes, that this emphasis on personal change and choice seems to contradict the rigid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implementation of law \(p. 239\), and arguably reifications of all kinds. On the other hand, it might also be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(said to be characteristic of its time, of the law, and of colonial policy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 564.243 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 533.626 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 533.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Madras Missionary Register)] TJ ET BT 201.344 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, I, ii \(February 1836\), 26; ?List of Missionaries and Missionary Stations, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(July 1820?, in Z. Lewis, )] TJ ET BT 183.344 519.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(American Missionary Register)] TJ ET BT 329.996 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, i \(New York 1820\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 430.640 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 430.640 517.971 m 484.628 517.971 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 505.114 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Peter Robb, )] TJ ET BT 136.676 505.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sex and Sensibility)] TJ ET BT 227.336 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 250.664 505.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sentiment and Self, )] TJ ET BT 345.992 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both sub-titled )] TJ ET BT 418.664 505.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Richard Blechynden?s )] TJ ET BT 64.016 490.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Calcutta Diaries, 1791-1822 )] TJ ET BT 205.352 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New Delhi 2011\), I sought to combat the problem through the vastness )] TJ ET BT 64.016 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the source and the variety of its voices, as well as through context, comparison, and interpretation.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 460.947 m 118.004 460.947 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 448.090 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For example, David Arnold, ?Race, place and bodily difference in early nineteenth-century India?, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical Research)] TJ ET BT 160.340 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 77, 196 \(May 2004\); Laura Bear,)] TJ ET BT 322.304 433.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Lines of the Nation: Indian Railway Workers, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 419.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bureaucracy, and the Intimate Historical Self)] TJ ET BT 283.328 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, NY, 2007\); Harald Fischer-Tin, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 405.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Low and Licentious Europeans: Race, Class and 'White Subalternity' in Colonial India)] TJ ET BT 481.832 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New Delhi, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009\); and Satoshi Mizutani, )] TJ ET BT 206.348 391.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Meaning of White: Race, Class, and the 'Domiciled Community' in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British India 1858?1930)] TJ ET BT 182.024 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford 2011\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 257.672 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 257.672 375.411 m 311.660 375.411 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 360.079 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 342.299 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 342.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1331)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 340.905 m 328.316 340.905 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 315.928 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.528 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/36027)] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 430.6397 518.2855 484.6277 530.1655 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 461.2615 118.0037 473.1415 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 257.6717 375.7255 311.6597 387.6055 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 341.2195 328.3157 353.0995 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1331) >> endobj xref 0 37 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000577 00000 n 0000000659 00000 n 0000004814 00000 n 0000004923 00000 n 0000005033 00000 n 0000005142 00000 n 0000008703 00000 n 0000008831 00000 n 0000008915 00000 n 0000009013 00000 n 0000017327 00000 n 0000017357 00000 n 0000017485 00000 n 0000017521 00000 n 0000017551 00000 n 0000017679 00000 n 0000017715 00000 n 0000017745 00000 n 0000017871 00000 n 0000017907 00000 n 0000017972 00000 n 0000025619 00000 n 0000025724 00000 n 0000031202 00000 n 0000031330 00000 n 0000031385 00000 n 0000031512 00000 n 0000031567 00000 n 0000031695 00000 n 0000031750 00000 n 0000031878 00000 n trailer << /Size 37 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 31974 %%EOF