%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 23 0 R 28 0 R 32 0 R ] /Count 7 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140416081717+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140416081717+01'00') /Title (Transforming History: The Making of a Modern Academic Discipline in Twentieth-Century China) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4118 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Transforming History: The Making of a Modern Academic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Discipline in Twentieth-Century China)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(History as a modern academic discipline and school subject has everywhere been intimately associated with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the emergence of a political consciousness of nationhood. Nowhere are reminders of this link more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frequently or starkly served than in East Asia ? where, within the past month, a number of Chinese cities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have witnessed demonstrations by youths incensed at Japanese challenges to the integrity of a ?China? seen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as unitary, inviolable and unutterably ancient. However, the extent to which their national consciousness is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the product of a rather recent historiographical revolution, and the key role played in this by Japanese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(models, are historical ironies of which few of these demonstrators can be aware. For their part, historians of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern China have always known of the Japanese influence on Chinese political and social thought in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early 20th century. But this outstanding new volume contributes significantly to our understanding of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ways in which Chinese historians ? of varied research interests and ideological persuasions ? found, largely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through their study of modern Japanese scholarship and institutions, answers to ?the challenges of an era in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which the quest for national strength became the primary intellectual aim? \(pp. 60?1\). This episode of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intense intellectual borrowing has had profound and lasting implications for conceptions of national identity, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and for the way in which modern Chinese intellectuals and governing elites have responded to issues of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1332)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 18 October, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brian Moloughney)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Zarrow)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9789629964795)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(43.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(350pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chinese University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hong Kong)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edward Vickers)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7745 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diversity within China?s borders, and to contact and exchange across them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The drive to learn from Japan represented both a striking reversal in the flow of historiographical influence ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(until the mid 19th century, Japan had always borrowed from China ? and produced a major shift in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philosophy and methodology of historical scholarship. In contrast to most societies faced with the task of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generating narratives of national history to underpin state formation projects, China already possessed an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ancient and highly sophisticated tradition of state-centred historiography. Scholars within this classical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tradition had long engaged in fierce debates over methodological considerations. During the Qing dynasty, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument largely revolved around the practice of ?evidential scholarship? )] TJ ET BT 390.260 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(\(kaoju\))] TJ ET BT 424.916 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, involving the philological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interrogation of classical texts with the aim of divining their original meaning. The construction of narratives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the past through a critical analysis of sources was thus an aspect of the modern discipline of history that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was far from alien to classically-trained Chinese scholars.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The real divide between traditional historiography and the modern discipline lay in conceptions of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political and ethical purpose of history, and its primary subject matter. History was inseparable from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broader practice of classical learning, whose central concern was to interpret the ethical teachings of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ancients for the guidance of their callow descendants among the governing classes. Assumptions of moral as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as material progress typical of 19th- and early 20th-century Western attitudes to the past were reversed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in traditional Chinese thought, with superior wisdom assumed to reside in the words and deeds of long-dead )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sages and rulers. History was tasked with recording the performance of their successors in cleaving to or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(straying from the ethical legacy of a civilizational Golden Age. Moreover, this stock of ethical norms was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assumed to be universally applicable. By no means were the lessons of Chinese history seen as relevant only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to those who saw themselves as ?Chinese?; the study of this history was essential to the moral formation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the civilized man, and to training him for the exercise of political authority ? whichever ruler \(of Qing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(China, Japan, Korea or Vietnam\) he happened to serve.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This historiographical vision was effectively torpedoed by the Qing empire?s crushing defeat at the hands of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Japan in 1895. In reaction to this event ? more shocking even than the various humiliations the Qing had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experienced at the hands of the Western powers ? Chinese scholars travelled to Japan to discover what it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that had enabled these upstart pupils to humble their venerable master. Among the most famous and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influential of these visitors was Liang Qichao. In 1902 he published an essay, )] TJ ET BT 408.968 375.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(On the New History)] TJ ET BT 504.632 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET BT 511.628 375.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Xin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Shixue)] TJ ET BT 66.008 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), that aimed to rally historians to the task of saving the nation ? or, indeed, constructing a nation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capable of being saved, for Liang argued that China?s critical weakness by comparison with Japan and other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?modern? states was the lack of a unifying sense of national citizenship. He called, therefore, for history to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shift its focus from chronicling the deeds of rulers to articulating a sense of the national past, with ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people? as its subject. The Chinese people, he lamented, were invisible in traditional historiography ? now )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they must move centre stage, and history must propel them there.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For Liang and other early nationalist thinkers, developing history as a school subject was thus among the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most urgent tasks of educational reform as China sought to establish a modern system of schooling in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(final years of the Qing. Before they were finally abolished in 1905, the imperial examinations were also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reformed with the inclusion of a paper \(the )] TJ ET BT 242.636 220.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(celun)] TJ ET BT 268.628 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) requiring candidates to answer questions on politics and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(current affairs \(i.e. modern and contemporary world history\). According to Liu Long-hsin, this reform )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(played an important role in promoting notions of history as a linear and progressive narrative, and of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evolution as a principle governing the rise and fall of civilisations and relations between nations. Face-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(saving theories of the ?Chinese origins of Western learning? proved popular in responses to questions set in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the )] TJ ET BT 51.680 149.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(celun)] TJ ET BT 77.672 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( papers, with one scholar, for example, arguing that China had invented parliamentary systems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the Han dynasty \(p. 92\). More generally, arguments of the ?Chinese learning for [ethical] )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fundamentals, Western learning for [practical] use? type were common. However, such positions often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(served simply as fig leaves for proposals of what amounted to outright Westernisation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If the nationalists? ultimate aim was to ?catch up? with the West, the textbooks that explained what this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(catching up would involve were, in the early 20th century, overwhelmingly derived from Japan. As Q. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edward Wang explains, Japanese textbooks current in the 1890s tended to synthesise the progressive, linear )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7561 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative of civilization \(enshrined in what was termed the ?chapter-section? format\) popularized by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fukuzawa and Taguchi, with a moralizing, state-centred focus on dynastic and regime legitimation. In other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(words, they invoked Western history as a ?measuring stick? \(p. 143\) \(in Wang Fan-sen?s phrase\) for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(progress, or lack of it, of non-Western nations, while attempting to retain some of the moralizing functions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of traditional historiography. This combination was attractive to authoritarian modernisers in Japan and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(China \(as in Bismarckian Germany ? Japan?s principal instructor in such matters\), since it demonstrated the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(urgent necessity of industrial and technological modernization, while also justifying the established political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structure by reference to a ?national essence? \()] TJ ET BT 258.260 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(guocui)] TJ ET BT 290.924 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) distinct from, and superior to, those of degenerate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nations to the West.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This synthesis of moral preoccupations and Social Darwinist assumptions was ? and remains ? extremely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(powerful in shaping Chinese views of world history and their country?s place in it. However, as Wang Fan-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sen notes \(and as Isaiah Berlin did before him\), a belief in historical inevitability undermines any attempt to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(read moral messages into history. If the universal law of human history is ?the survival of the fittest?, then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what is morally ?bad? at one level may also be ?good? \(or necessary\) in furthering the cause of national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?progress?. Thus the first emperor, Qin Shihuang, traditionally decried as a tyrannical despot, was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rehabilitated by Chinese nationalists \(including Mao\) for whom his achievement in unifying the nation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trumped all his moral failings. \(Viewers of Zhang Yimou?s 2004 blockbuster, )] TJ ET BT 410.972 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hero )] TJ ET BT 438.632 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\()] TJ ET BT 442.628 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Yingxiong)] TJ ET BT 491.300 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), may recall )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that this was the central message of that film.\) As Zarrow observes, such revisionism reflected a significant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?militarization? of Chinese culture.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the same time, that Chinese culture ? and the discipline of history ? increasingly reflected preoccupations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with national strength and unity during the early 20th century should come as no surprise, given the dire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(predicament of the Chinese state vis--vis the West and Japan. In his discussion of ?the rise of historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(geography?, Tze-ki Hon stresses the ?out-directed? aspect of this sub-discipline in the Republican period ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the intense concern with presenting a self-image of China to the world. In the 1910s, when historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(geography \(yet another borrowing from Japan\) was just becoming established in the new Republic, most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practitioners assumed that defining China?s national boundaries and developing a coherent narrative of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nation?s evolution were their most pressing tasks. To gain acceptance in the Western-dominated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international order, what was needed ? it was assumed ? was to demonstrate that China was emerging \(as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Japan had done\) as a modern major nation along Western lines. Moreover, in an era when hierarchies of race )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were widely taken for granted, many prominent Chinese eagerly embraced theories of ?Western origins? for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Han Chinese race. This fashion for ?Sino-Babylonianism?, whose adherents included Sun Yatsen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(himself, was linked to a belief in the relationship between migration, imperialism and the survival of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fittest.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But by the 1920s, it was clear that such theorizing on its own would not suffice to gain Western ? or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Japanese ? respect, as China was ignored at the Versailles Peace Conference, while Japan and the Western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(powers argued over their respective ?spheres of influence?. Although Hon does not discuss this, it is also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(likely that ? in China as elsewhere in Asia ? the spectacle of the European nations butchering each other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the Great War significantly dented the prestige of the supposedly ?civilised? West. In any event, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the aftermath of the war, betrayal and butchery presented themselves with new force to Chinese intellectuals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the governing principles of the international order, and led historical geographers to adopt a more activist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political stance. They began to see it as their most urgent mission to inform the people of the spatial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dimensions of ?China? so as to spur them to defend the national territory. The loss of Manchuria in the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1930s was blamed by some scholars on Chinese ignorance of the nation?s borders, and historical geography )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(itself evolved into ?the strategic study of national defense?. This is a role that it has retained ever since, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(China?s Academy of Social Sciences boasting a ?Centre for the Study of China?s Borderland History and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Geography? ? and through the education system and other media, both Kuomintang and Communist states )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been assiduous in cultivating heightened awareness of the state?s territorial limits, and foreign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(infringements thereof.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But even while Republican China faced very real threats from external invasion and internal turmoil during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1920s and 1930s, the discipline of history continued to mature, as scholars openly and fiercely debated )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 21 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 8115 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(methodological issues and new agendas for research. Xiao Yishen and Meng Sen, discussed here by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Madeleine Yue Dong, argued over what constituted legitimate sources for the history of the recently deposed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Qing, whose imperial borders now defined the limits of the new Chinese nation state. Xiao, for whom the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Qing were an alien ?conquest? dynasty, saw the ?Han? people as the central subject of his historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative, and this led him to favour the use of non-official histories \()] TJ ET BT 366.296 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(yeshi)] TJ ET BT 390.956 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) produced by Han scholars over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the standard official sources left behind by a ?foreign? regime. Meng Sen, by contrast, focused on several )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(controversial incidents in Qing history to show the frequently fanciful or misleading nature of )] TJ ET BT 487.292 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(yeshi )] TJ ET BT 514.952 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparison with the official records. Meng?s stance was informed by his view of the Qing as a great )] TJ ET BT 520.916 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Chinese)] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dynasty, not an illegitimate alien occupier. However, both Xiao and Meng, Yue Dong argues, were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conventional modern professional historians, who stressed the importance of objectivity and narrative.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A conviction of the ?scientific? status of historical scholarship characterised many professional historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during this period ? and led some, such as Gu Jiegang, to radically question the traditional dynastic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronology because of what they saw as the unsatisfactory nature of sources relating to the earliest dynasties. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moloughney shows that Gu?s own arguments and methods were often weak and flawed, since the task of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(untangling legend and fact in early texts was much more complex and problematic than he generally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assumed. Moreover, much of the early dynastic past that Gu sought to consign to the status of ?myth? was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very soon restored to the realm of ?history? by archaeological excavations at the Shang capital of Anyang )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(from 1928\), and elsewhere. Nonetheless, Gu?s practice of publishing his critics? work alongside his own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?provided a model of how an open and engaged scholarship could advance historical understanding? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(262\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Even in debates over sources and method, however, history and politics remained inextricably intertwined. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While classical scholarship had placed history ?above politics?, requiring the historian to pass judgement on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political actions by reference to universal moral laws, the aim of constructing a narrative of the Chinese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nation implied, as Dong puts it, a ?history )] TJ ET BT 238.016 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(for)] TJ ET BT 252.020 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( politics?. Thus Xiao and Meng?s disagreements over the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(validity of )] TJ ET BT 86.684 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(yeshi)] TJ ET BT 111.344 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as historical sources were linked to their differences over the definition of ?Chinese? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subjectivity itself. Were the Manchus ? or, for that matter, the Mongols, Tibetans or Uyghurs ? Chinese or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not? In a world of discrete nation states, where did China begin \(in time\) or end \(in space\)? What were the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criteria ? ethnic, cultural, biological ? that determined who was, or wasn?t ?Chinese?, now or at any point in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the past?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Summing up the challenges facing Chinese historians in the early 20th century, Axel Schneider observes that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they were compelled to reconceptualise the national past ?as part of a coherent vision of world history?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while asserting a distinctive national identity and asserting China?s capacity to ?catch up? with the West. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And they had to do all this in the context of a tradition ?placing the historian in an elevated political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(position? ? in which historians were expected to offer ?solutions? to present problems \(p. 275\). Schneider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focuses on the attempt by Liu Yizheng ? often dismissed as a hidebound ?conservative? ? to reconcile the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Confucian notion of a universal ethical core of history with a modern linear concept of time. Renowned for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his )] TJ ET BT 51.020 247.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History of Chinese Culture)] TJ ET BT 180.692 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Liu sought to identify a distinctive Chinese ?national spirit? shaped by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture and history though not, Schneider insists, by race. For Liu, this ?spirit? resided in the traditional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ethics of the five relationships, the ?Golden Mean?, loyalty and piety ? which rendered Chinese culture )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(superior to that of the degenerate and individualistic West. At the same time, these ethical norms were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(universal ? since there was an all-encompassing heavenly order revealed variously in different national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultures, but exemplified in that of China. While rejecting the modern West, Liu thus demanded respect for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the particularity of other cultures ? combining ethical conservatism and belief in universal ethical order with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a ?modern? vision of history as a discipline \(focused on ?people and nation?, causality and material ? if not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ethical ? progress\). ?It is thus obvious,? Schneider concludes, ?that Liu?s concept of history does not have to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be rescued from the nation? \(p. 288\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The latter remark is a swipe at Prasenjit Duara, author of )] TJ ET BT 309.284 92.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rescuing History from the Nation)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 474.284 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 474.284 91.299 m 488.276 91.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 488.276 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, whose view )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Chinese historiography, Schneider tells us in a footnote, is ?rather one-sided? \(p. 302\). Frustratingly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, he does not elaborate on his critique of Duara, whose central argument is that dominant narratives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of national history ? especially in ?postcolonial? contexts \(such as China and India\) ? tend to exclude or )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj [18 0 R /Fit] endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 474.2837 91.6135 488.2757 103.4935 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R ] /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 7866 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ignore alternative historical viewpoints \(such as those of federalists in early 20th-century China\) in their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drive to assert a homogenizing, totalizing teleology of national evolution. Liu?s historical philosophy, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(described by Schneider, while on the one hand asserting an ethical universalism seems, on the other hand, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offer substantial philosophical support for a deeply chauvinist vision of the superiority of the Chinese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?national spirit?. Liu?s only overseas trip was to Japan, where, we are told, he was ?deeply influenced by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new, Western-inspired way of writing history? \(p. 278\) ? but where he was presumably also exposed to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly chauvinist, pseudo-Confucian late-Meiji discourse on Eastern ethical superiority and Western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(degeneracy. It is also clear, both from the other chapters in this volume and from other studies, that history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as an academic discipline and school subject in contemporary China has been and remains in thrall to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrowly nationalistic political agenda of precisely the kind identified by Duara.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is nowhere better illustrated than in James Leibold?s chapter on prehistoric archaeology. Archaeology )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in modern China has been tasked with ?validating traditions of shared ancestry? and testing or demonstrating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the truth of established historical chronology ? in contrast to the situation in the West, where the emergence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of archaeology \(and geology\) was associated with a dramatic secularization of time. In China, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archaeological project involved no radical overturning of the dynastic chronology ? on the contrary, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liebold?s phrase, the mission of archaeologists became one of ?filling in the nation?, weaving into the old )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dynastic narrative a vision of China and the Chinese people as a ?single, organic whole? \(p. 339\). Until the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1930s, ?diffusionist? theses on China?s origins were dominant ? assuming that the ancestors of the Chinese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people had originally come from elsewhere \(the West, or, ultimately, Africa\). However, from the 1930s, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Japanese invasion challenged the integrity of China?s territory and the Chinese nation itself, diffusionist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas were increasingly discarded in favour of vigorous assertions of the ?autochthonous origins and unity? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Chinese people.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Most of the contributors to this volume insist that the basis for the Chinese identity that modern historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sought to elaborate was ?cultural? or ?secular Republican? and not ?racial?. However, Leibold?s chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes clear, as Frank Dikotter argued 20 years ago )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 283.280 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 283.280 428.931 m 297.272 428.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 297.272 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, that establishing a biological as well as cultural basis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for Chinese unity has been extremely important for scholars and ideologues of various political persuasions, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the Republican period onwards. In particular, the discovery of the remains of Peking Man at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zhoukoudian was used to assert the Chinese origins not just of the Han but of a )] TJ ET BT 417.980 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Zhonghua minzu)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encompassing all the peoples of China \(it is significant that the museum at Zhoukoudian was one of very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(few actually built rather than closed during the Cultural Revolution\). Archaeological findings have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(used, wherever possible, to bolster a ?myth of consanguinity? which, even if it acknowledges the diverse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(origins of the Han themselves, or of the broader )] TJ ET BT 266.636 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Zhonghua minzu)] TJ ET BT 346.976 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, emphasizes the steady and inevitable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(progress of assimilation. In the words of Jian Bozan \(a historian driven to suicide during the Cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolution\), the centripetal attraction of the Han draws in other )] TJ ET BT 342.296 302.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(minzus )] TJ ET BT 378.632 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(?nationalities?\) ?like bees to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(honey?. A fundamental tension between racial thinking and what Zarrow terms the ?rhetoric of assimilation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and harmony? \(p. 192\) thus persists in the visions of Chinese nationhood underpinned by mainstream )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical and archeological scholarship. Leibold illustrates this by citing the extreme political sensitivities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surrounding the case of the Tarim mummies ? the bodies of ancient Caucasian inhabitants of Xinjiang. A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transnationalism \(i.e. openness to investigating cross-border dimensions of the development of Chinese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture\) evident amongst some younger, often Western-educated scholars is pitched against ?a highly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalistic, state-dominated academic establishment that continues to police the boundaries of culture and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(race? \(p. 362\). This dogged insistence on ethno-biological unity allied to a conviction of Han cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(superiority has had significant negative implications for contemporary Han-?minority? relations, particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Xinjiang and Tibet.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, what of Marxist historiography ? often dismissed nowadays, within China and without, as stale and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(irrelevant? Arif Dirlik reminds us how crucial Marxism was, especially during the inter-war period, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opening up new areas of research into the Chinese past ? even as it constrained researchers to operate within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a framework of historical materialism and ?stages? of social development. The ideologically-inspired )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rigidity of this framework necessitated interpretative contortions, notably over the definition of ?feudalism? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the Chinese context, and over the questions this raised regarding the periodisation of the Chinese past. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj [23 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 283.2797 429.2455 297.2717 441.1255 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 30 0 R ] /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 7498 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dirlik cites the early dispute between Tao Xisheng and Guo Muoro over Guo?s the designation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earliest dynastic period as an era of ?slave society? ? a controversy won by the latter. But despite \(or even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because of\) such arguments over periodisation, the attraction of Marxism for many scholars of the inter-war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years lay in its focus on social history ? ?filling in the nation? by focusing on socio-economic developments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(affecting ?the people?, rather than on the political machinations of officials at the imperial court. From the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mid-1930s to the mid-1960s, Dirlik maintains, historical scholarship conducted within the now-established )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marxist paradigm ? notably Fan Wenlan?s )] TJ ET BT 241.316 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Concise Comprehensive History of China)] TJ ET BT 441.308 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? advanced a subtle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and coherent account of the development of Chinese society.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Following the Cultural Revolution, when historiography was once more suborned to the immediate purpose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of making revolution, Marxist history has been largely discredited, at least within the academic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(establishment. In its place, other approaches have gained popularity ? such as modernization theory. There )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has been an increased focus on science and technology, their role in modernization, and the causes of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?rise and fall? of states, while less attention has been devoted to the history of the ?working masses?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Meanwhile, in contemporary Chinese society, some of those traditional attitudes and practices that Marxists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(used to attack or deride as ?feudal? have made a comeback. Dirlik points out that modernization theory is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(teleological in just the same way as Marxism, and that work conducted in this vein continues the dominant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20th-century trend of focusing on ?meta-historical processes? at the expense of the local or the peripheral. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He suggests that Marxist history today, as ?one current among many? in Chinese historiography, may have a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role to play in promoting the greater study of social history ?from the bottom up?, and in ?empowering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical work to transcend the ideological horizon set by the spatial and temporal teleology of the nation? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 395\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But the prospects for vibrant historical debate within China today seem limited, even if they are greater than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they were 30 or 40 years ago. It is telling that only one of the contributors to this volume \(Luo Zhitian\) is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based at a university in mainland China ? and he obtained his doctorate from Princeton University. The rest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are based in Europe, Australia and \(mostly\) Taiwan or America. Zarrow and Moloughney write in their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduction that ?the establishment of the modern historical discipline was largely complete by the 1930s?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and indeed that the scholarship of the Republican period has supplied resources for a revival of historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies in the post-Cultural Revolution period \(p. 32\). But if the historical discipline really thrives in any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chinese societies today, then it does so principally in Taiwan and Hong Kong \(where this book was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published\). If any criticism could be made of this excellent volume, it is that, with the significant exception )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the observations on Japanese influences, relatively little account is taken here of the transnational, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cross-border, dimension of modern Chinese historiography. This dimension became especially salient in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(post-1949 period, admittedly not the main focus of this volume, but it might still have been worth a chapter.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Historical scholarship within and about Hong Kong and Taiwan also exemplifies the sort of questioning of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boundaries and explorations of local histories and identities that have tended to be neglected, if not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specifically outlawed, on the mainland. The state of the discipline in Taiwan today is particularly vibrant, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while in Hong Kong, teaching and research are nowadays conducted against a backdrop of increasingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crude attempts by the local authorities to impose the orthodox mainland narrative of the national past ? most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recently through a programme for ?Moral and National Education? for secondary schools. This review was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(written two days after students, teachers, academics, parents and the media combined to force the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Government to effectively abandon this initiative. The early 20th century, when the modern discipline of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history was established, has been termed China?s ?Age of Openness? ? but openness, essential for the health )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the discipline, remains highly circumscribed on the Chinese mainland. In the continuing struggle to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?rescue history from the nation?, Hong Kong and Taiwan thus have a pivotal role to play.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 112.563 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 81.946 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Prasenjit Duara, )] TJ ET BT 144.332 81.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rescuing History from the Nation: Questioning Narratives of Modern China)] TJ ET BT 64.016 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Chicago, IL, 1997\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 162.332 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 162.332 66.291 m 216.320 66.291 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 53.434 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frank Dikotter, )] TJ ET BT 141.008 53.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Discourse of Race in Modern China)] TJ ET BT 335.660 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Palo Alto, CA, 1992\); Frank Dikotter, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 39.173 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Age of Openness: China Before Mao)] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 162.3317 66.6055 216.3197 78.4855 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 20 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 34 0 R 36 0 R ] /Contents 33 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Length 774 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Berkeley, CA, 2008\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 170.996 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 170.996 795.075 m 224.984 795.075 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 779.743 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 761.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 761.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1332)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 760.569 m 328.316 760.569 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 735.592 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 721.192 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/36840)] TJ ET endstream endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 170.9957 795.3895 224.9837 807.2695 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 760.8835 328.3157 772.7635 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1332) >> endobj xref 0 38 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000363 00000 n 0000000400 00000 n 0000000615 00000 n 0000000697 00000 n 0000004867 00000 n 0000004976 00000 n 0000005086 00000 n 0000005195 00000 n 0000008756 00000 n 0000008884 00000 n 0000008968 00000 n 0000009033 00000 n 0000016831 00000 n 0000016896 00000 n 0000024510 00000 n 0000024594 00000 n 0000032762 00000 n 0000032792 00000 n 0000032919 00000 n 0000032955 00000 n 0000033039 00000 n 0000040958 00000 n 0000040988 00000 n 0000041116 00000 n 0000041152 00000 n 0000041236 00000 n 0000048787 00000 n 0000048913 00000 n 0000048968 00000 n 0000049059 00000 n 0000049885 00000 n 0000050013 00000 n 0000050068 00000 n 0000050196 00000 n trailer << /Size 38 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 50292 %%EOF