%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 22 0 R 27 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140712053340+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140712053340+01'00') /Title (The Magical Imagination: Magic and Modernity in Urban England 1780-1914) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 2775 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Magical Imagination: Magic and Modernity in Urban England )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(1780-1914)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Magic is difficult to historicize. There are many reasons for this. To begin with, it has long been scorned by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both rationalists and the religious, so that people are often reluctant to confess to believing in it. Indeed in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the period of this study many of its forms were illegal, at least as soon as they were used to make money. At )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the very least, it tended to possess a negative value as cultural capital. As a consequence, those interested in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ferreting it out were often baffled.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the 1920s, for instance, the urban folklorist Edward Lovett observed while collecting magic amulets:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1335)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 18 October, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Karl Bell)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781107002005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(308pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Simon During)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7502 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 772.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The collector in search of folk-beliefs and articles connected with them meets with far more )] TJ ET BT 64.016 758.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficulties than the collector of old china or other merely material objects. The objections to )] TJ ET BT 64.016 743.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(giving him information arise from a double set of motives, those of the ardent believer who will )] TJ ET BT 64.016 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not expose sacred things to an outsider, and those of the unbeliever who refuses information )] TJ ET BT 64.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about what he considers to be degrading superstitions or discreditable survivals.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 447.632 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 447.632 714.051 m 461.624 714.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 677.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thinking like this, Lovett often suspected his subjects of dissimulation when they denied believing in magic. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 662.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But were they in fact dissimulating? It seems precipitate simply to suppose so.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 636.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Magic is conceptually elusive for deeper and more philosophical reasons too. It is closely, indeed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 622.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitutively, connected to ?belief?. When it comes to magic the first step is always ?do you believe in it??, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 608.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the officially approved answer long being ?no? of course. But it is not easy to ascertain whether )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(someone ? including oneself ? )] TJ ET BT 182.324 593.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(believes)] TJ ET BT 220.976 593.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in magic or not.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 567.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I buy an untested anti-aging cream for my skin. Magic? I like to wear a particular pair of shorts when I run a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 553.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marathon. More magic? I avoid walking under ladders. Magic again? I wonder whether aliens might be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communicating through crop circles. Magic too? Are genuine irrational beliefs involved in all these cases? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 524.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Or might they be ? just to float some possibilities ? ways of cheering myself up, or of entertaining myself in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 510.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a kind of fantasy, or of structuring my life around rituals, activities which do not necessarily suppose that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 496.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anti-aging creams work, or one pair of shorts is as better than another when it comes to running )] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(competitively, or ladders actually cause bad luck, or even that crop circles aren?t also a hoax.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 455.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Difficulties like this encroach upon Karl Bell?s book. He has written a very useful account of popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 441.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(magic?s survival in urban England in the long century after the Enlightenment \(although he concentrates in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the period around 1900\). But as contemporary academic historiography strongly encourages, he positions his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument as a revisionist one. He wants to correct what he calls, following Joshua Landy and Michael Saler, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 398.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?ironic? or ?antinomian? understandings of modern magic. The ironic or secular magic thesis emphasizes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 384.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that in the post-Enlightenment world we have the capacity simultaneously to stand in and out of magic, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(believe and not to believe it, which is also to say we can engage in it ?as if? it were true. This new paradigm, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was developed in Terry Castle?s )] TJ ET BT 192.980 356.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Female Thermometer: Eighteenth-Century Culture and the Invention )] TJ ET BT 34.016 341.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of the Uncanny)] TJ ET BT 107.336 341.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and James Cook?s )] TJ ET BT 201.992 341.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Arts of Deception: Playing with Fraud in the Age of Barnum)] TJ ET BT 514.316 341.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 327.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first conceptualized in the terms I have just outlined in my own )] TJ ET BT 340.652 327.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Modern Enchantments: the Cultural Power )] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of Secular Magic)] TJ ET BT 116.672 313.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; it was further extended by Landy and Saler in their edited collection )] TJ ET BT 452.948 313.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Re-Enchantment of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the World: Secular Magic in a Rational Age )] TJ ET BT 249.332 299.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and more recently still in Michael Saler?s powerful and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 284.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(innovative )] TJ ET BT 87.680 284.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(As if: Modern Enchantment and the Literary Prehistory of Virtual Reality)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 444.668 284.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 444.668 283.395 m 458.660 283.395 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 458.660 284.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. It has the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 270.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advantage \(amongst other things\) of being able to deal with the huge increase in commercially produced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fictional forms of magic from the 18th century on ? whether in magic conjuring shows, or special-effects )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spectacles, ghost stories or the like, as well as with more ambiguous magic forms like the spiritualist sance. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 227.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bell sometimes seems to believe that the antinomian account of magic makes the division between ?real? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 213.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and pretend magic harder. In fact it doesn?t, it puts all kinds of magic into a zone of ambiguity where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(largely because of the problem in locating belief\) both can be true at once. In this it is, to use a current term, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 184.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?post-secular?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 158.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At any rate Karl Bell stands against the secular/post-secular magic tide. He insists that, especially when one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 144.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shifts attention away from the middle class, it is possible to uncover 'the previously underestimated extent of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(genuine belief in the fantastical in the nineteenth century' \(p. 6\). In particular he contends that the urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 115.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?plebeian magical imagination? \(as he calls it\) used magic without irony ? seriously, genuinely ? in order to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 101.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(negotiate the various situations in which the working class now found itself. This was possible because )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(urban modernity did not constitute a radical break with older plebeian life-ways, but was rather a continuing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(set of transformations of them. \(This is a ?long revolution? argument that I for one find wholly persuasive.\))] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 447.6317 714.3655 461.6237 726.2455 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 444.6677 283.7095 458.6597 295.5895 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7422 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thus to cite just one of Bell?s concrete examples: beliefs in ghosts and the supernatural were used ?to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(animate and dramatize perceptions of social and moral divides in nineteenth-century English cities? \(p. 224\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as when ghost ballads expressed or predicted violence against class enemies. The picture then is of an urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working class using older folk magic beliefs and practices to deal with the increasingly industrialized, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(massified and commercialized urban life in which relations between classes were rapidly mutating.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I am fairly convinced by this larger case, though it is worth noting that the countervailing tendency among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the working class towards increased engagement in non-magical, non-folkloric knowledges and cultures, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their will to rationality as it were \(as spelled out in Jonathan Rose?s )] TJ ET BT 361.652 672.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Intellectual Life of the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Working-Classes)] TJ ET BT 116.012 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( for instance)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 175.328 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 175.328 657.027 m 189.320 657.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 189.320 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), is not addressed. Could it be that different working-class fractions were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(driven in different directions in this regard? Or could it be \(as the secular magic thesis would lead one to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suppose\) that members of the working class could be )] TJ ET BT 291.644 629.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(simultaneously)] TJ ET BT 363.644 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( more involved in rationality and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(education into rationality )] TJ ET BT 157.676 615.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and)] TJ ET BT 175.676 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( more \(or anyway not less\) involved in magic?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So I am not sure that the evidence that Bell presents, or the functionalist argument that he makes, requires, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even harmonizes with, his revisionist argument against ironic or secular understandings of modern magic. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Much of his evidence is secondary, as it must be in this difficult historiographical field. It is taken from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(newspaper reports about magic events and formations, from legal evidence in trials against fortune tellers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and others, from ballads and stories. That is an archive at some remove from actual magical practices, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therefore is not especially useful in helping us to discover how ?genuine? plebeian magic beliefs actually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were. As we have seen, even those in direct contact with magic practitioners like Edward Lovett found that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hard to figure out. \(For some reason, Lovett is not one of Bell?s sources.\) But in the end I cannot see that it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(really matters. We tend to overestimate the genuineness or seriousness even of pre-modern magic ?beliefs?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Certainly the degree to which, in the 19th century, plebeian Londoners who visited fortune tellers, or bought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lucky charms, or avoided haunted houses actually ?believed? in supernatural powers is all but immaterial in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examining the uses to which their involvement in this culture was put. It?s not just that one cannot know, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is also that that structural ignorance is of little account.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is also the case that Bell?s revisionist argument takes us back some way to those older understandings of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(magic according to which it was the poor and uneducated or the ?primitive? who were mired in magic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beliefs and superstition and the bourgeoisie and the educated and the Westerners who were freed from them. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The secular magic argument undoes that hard division, which is one reason why it was developed in the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(place.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is another important question that Bell?s study raises, and indeed goes some way to answering, even if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bell himself does not place it at his argument?s centre. That question is, why did the ?plebeian magical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imagination? gradually dissolve? The answer Bell suggests is that its commercialization and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?democratization? weakened it. During the period, it was drawn into the apparatuses of consumption and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entertainment. That too strikes me as a persuasive argument, once more not at odds with the secular magic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thesis. But nonetheless it ignores magic?s persistence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After all, it is not as if we are today less magical than they were in the 19th century. We still use lucky )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(charms. We consult fortune tellers \(or Tarot card readers or horoscopes\). We purchase an extraordinary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(range of magical remedies, from penis extenders to baldness cures and anti-aging skin creams, as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many ?health food? products. A whole ?metaphysical? culture has been built around semi-precious stones, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crystals, and astrology. Yet something has changed. Magic belongs to the various worlds of therapy, self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development, entertainment, spirituality, shopping-lifestyles. But these practices and formations have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(removed from the term ?magic? itself, and, by the same stroke, from the incubus of ?superstition?. Non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(magic magic?s cultural-capital value would appear now to be, not a negative number, but rather close to zero.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given this, it would have been interesting had Bell thought less about plebeian magic as a survival, and more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about it in relation to the origins of modern non-magic magic. Those origins are to be found, I?d reckon, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 19th-century worlds of esotericism and spiritualism. Those worlds might then have been too bourgeois )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 175.3277 657.3415 189.3197 669.2215 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 4218 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for Bell?s project. But even if we concede that, had he more fully attended to them, he might have offered us )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a richer analysis of differences and connections between plebeian and bourgeois magics in the period. This, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of course, is not to underestimate the real new contribution to our knowledge of urban plebeian cultures and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lifeways that )] TJ ET BT 98.672 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Magical Imagination )] TJ ET BT 224.336 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 718.803 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 688.186 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(E. Lovett, 'Amulets from costers' barrows in London, Rome, and Naples', )] TJ ET BT 419.120 688.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Folklore)] TJ ET BT 460.448 688.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(,)] TJ ET BT 463.448 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 20, 1 \(March 30 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1909\), 70?1.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 124.340 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 124.340 672.531 m 178.328 672.531 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 659.674 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Terry Castle, )] TJ ET BT 129.668 659.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Female Thermometer: Eighteenth-Century Culture and the Invention of the Uncanny)] TJ ET BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford, 1995\); James Cook, )] TJ ET BT 207.332 645.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Arts of Deception: Playing with Fraud in the Age of Barnum)] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, MA, 2001\); Simon During, )] TJ ET BT 261.344 631.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Modern Enchantments: the Cultural Power of Secular Magic)] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, MA, 2002\); )] TJ ET BT 187.004 616.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Re-Enchantment of the World: Secular Magic in a Rational Age)] TJ ET BT 494.636 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Joshua )] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Landy and Michael Saler \(Berkeley, CA, 2009\))] TJ ET BT 291.968 602.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(; )] TJ ET BT 298.964 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Saler, )] TJ ET BT 371.948 602.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(As if: Modern Enchantment and the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Literary Prehistory of Virtual Reality)] TJ ET BT 243.356 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 2012\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 322.004 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 322.004 586.995 m 375.992 586.995 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 574.138 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jonathan Rose, )] TJ ET BT 139.676 574.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Intellectual Life of the British Working-Classes)] TJ ET BT 387.680 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New Haven, CT, 2000\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 509.984 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 509.984 572.739 m 549.980 572.739 l S BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 558.483 m 78.008 558.483 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 533.621 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Magonia Blog)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://pelicanist.blogspot.co.uk/2012/03/karl-bell.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 503.715 m 294.032 503.715 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 297.032 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 500.383 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 482.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 482.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1335)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 481.209 m 328.316 481.209 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 456.232 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 441.832 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/36849)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.432 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://pelicanist.blogspot.co.uk/2012/03/karl-bell.html)] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 124.3397 672.8455 178.3277 684.7255 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 322.0037 587.3095 375.9917 599.1895 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 509.9837 573.0535 549.9797 584.9335 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 558.7975 78.0077 570.6775 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 504.0295 294.0317 515.9095 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://pelicanist.blogspot.co.uk/2012/03/karl-bell.html) >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 481.5235 328.3157 493.4035 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1335) >> endobj xref 0 41 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000574 00000 n 0000000656 00000 n 0000003483 00000 n 0000003592 00000 n 0000003702 00000 n 0000003811 00000 n 0000007372 00000 n 0000007500 00000 n 0000007584 00000 n 0000007675 00000 n 0000015230 00000 n 0000015260 00000 n 0000015388 00000 n 0000015424 00000 n 0000015454 00000 n 0000015582 00000 n 0000015618 00000 n 0000015702 00000 n 0000023177 00000 n 0000023207 00000 n 0000023335 00000 n 0000023371 00000 n 0000023490 00000 n 0000027761 00000 n 0000027889 00000 n 0000027944 00000 n 0000028072 00000 n 0000028127 00000 n 0000028255 00000 n 0000028310 00000 n 0000028436 00000 n 0000028491 00000 n 0000028618 00000 n 0000028725 00000 n 0000028853 00000 n trailer << /Size 41 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 28949 %%EOF