%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 25 0 R 30 0 R 42 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140820134541+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140820134541+01'00') /Title (The Liberal Unionist Party: A History) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4003 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Liberal Unionist Party: A History)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The split in the Liberal party in 1886 arising from Gladstone?s conversion to the cause of Irish home rule )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a turning point in British politics. The Liberals who, in one form or another, had been the dominant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(party of government over the previous half century spent all but three of the next 20 years in opposition, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the alliance of the breakaway Liberal Unionist party and the Conservatives won landslide victories in three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out of four general elections. Given their significant impact on the course of British political history, it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remarkable that, until Dr Cawood?s volume appeared, there was no full-length published study of the Liberal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unionists.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There may be a number of explanations for this. Gordon L. Goodman?s 1956 University of Chicago PhD )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thesis on the Liberal Unionist party may have created a sense that the topic had already been done. Yet Dr )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Goodman?s work remained unpublished in book form, and is therefore accessible only to more determined )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholars of the field. Historians? fascination with the important and enigmatic figure of Joseph Chamberlain, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radical Liberal turned imperialist and Tory ally, may have crowded out study of the party that he helped to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(found. The fact that the Liberal Unionists were from their inception in alliance with a Conservative party )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that eventually subsumed them has perhaps relegated the party?s history to a mere subplot in Conservative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics. Certainly for a long time there was a tendency to see the Liberal Unionist schism as, in Goodman?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1336)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 25 October, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ian Cawood)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781848859173)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(59.50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(320pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I. B. Tauris)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Iain Sharpe)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R 23 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7980 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(phrase, the ?Revolt of the Whigs? )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 199.652 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 199.652 795.075 m 213.644 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 213.644 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, wealthy, aristocratic Liberals, feeling uncomfortable with their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(party?s increasing radicalism and realising that their true interests lay with the Conservatives. Robert Ensor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in his classic volume of the Oxford History of England saw the Liberal Unionist schism as introducing a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class division to party politics that had previously not existed.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 330.680 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 330.680 752.307 m 344.672 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 344.672 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This is certainly a view that William )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gladstone encouraged, most famously in his ?masses against the classes? speech, seeking thereby to impugn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the motives of his heretical former colleagues.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(More recent historians, from the 1970s onwards, have questioned this view, seeing the Liberal Unionists as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(motivated more by ideology than class. Christopher Harvie has highlighted the overwhelming opposition to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish home rule among Liberal academics in 1886. W.C. Lubenow has shown the lack of correlation between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liberal MPs? class background and their position on Gladstone?s home rule bill. Jonathan Parry and T. A. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jenkins have each argued that Gladstone?s style of leadership, his excessive religiosity and apparent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(willingness to pander to the will of the mob clashed with the more secular and rationalist outlook of many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liberals. His support for home rule was seen by those who refused to follow his lead as a negation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempts by Liberal governments over the previous 50 years to reconcile Catholic Ireland to the Union.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 527.936 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 527.936 597.747 m 541.928 597.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These studies have, however, focused on the attitudes of parliamentarians and academics rather than on party )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisation, propaganda and elections, and they have not taken the story beyond the 1886 split. Dr )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cawood?s volume therefore goes some way to filling a significant gap in published research, and makes a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(powerful case for the Liberal Unionists as a distinct and vital political force, at least until 1895 when they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entered coalition with the Conservatives.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There was an initial reluctance among many Liberal opponents of home rule to break with Gladstone?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liberal party. Dr Cawood demonstrates the diffidence of Hartington?s leadership in 1886, and the slow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of party organisation at least during the first half of the 1886?92 parliament, with the newly-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formed party beset by problems such as the defection of its first organiser, F. W. Maude, back to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gladstonian Liberal party and the lack of impact of its worthy but almost unreadable newspaper, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Liberal Unionist.)] TJ ET BT 116.696 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The situation was not helped by Joseph Chamberlain maintaining his own organisation, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(National Radical Union \(later the National Liberal Union\), separate from the Hartingtonite Liberal Unionist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Association. In addition, many moderate Liberal Unionist MPs took a dim view of the growth of party )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(caucuses, placed great importance on maintaining their own political judgement and were reluctant to soil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their hands with the messy business of party organisation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This began to change after 1889, following a restructuring of the party?s central organisation, and although it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was too late to avoid a disappointing result at the 1892 general election, by 1895 the party machine was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sufficiently effective for it to make an important contribution to the Unionists? landslide election victory. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This was particularly so in areas where a significant number of Liberal MPs had defected to the Liberal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unionists in 1886. Joseph Chamberlain?s Birmingham bastion is the most famous example of local Liberal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unionist success, but the West of Scotland and Cornwall too were areas where the party became the senior )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than junior partner in the Unionist alliance. Dr Cawood also highlights the often difficult relations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the two Unionist parties at constituency level, with squabbles in various constituencies over which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(party contested the parliamentary seat. In some cases it required the intervention of national leaders to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resolve disputes. The Unionist alliance was not all plain sailing.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ideologically, the Liberal Unionists seemed an unlikely combination, comprising those elements of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liberal party that had most often clashed with one another during the 1880?5 government. To some extent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these divisions continued within the new party, over temperance, disestablishment and enthusiasm for social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reform. Yet Dr Cawood convincingly argues that there were at least two important unifying principles of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liberal Unionism, inherited from mid-Victorian Liberalism. These were, first, a commitment to the rule of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(law; the party?s leading thinker, the jurist A. V. Dicey, identified Irish nationalists? encouragement of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lawbreaking for political ends as a key objection to home rule. Liberal Unionists believed in Britain?s liberal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitution and that political progress, in Ireland and elsewhere, had to come about by constitutional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(methods. Secondly, Liberal Unionists believed that theirs was a rational form of politics, based on a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commitment to, as Dr Cawood puts it, ?political evolution from fear, inequality and reaction towards trust, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberty and progress?. Many of them set great store by the notion of character, believing their approach to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 199.6517 795.3895 213.6437 807.2695 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 330.6797 752.6215 344.6717 764.5015 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 527.9357 598.0615 541.9277 609.9415 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R ] /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 7171 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics to be ?manlier? than Gladstone?s ?feminine? appeal to popular emotions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For much of the first decade of the party?s existence, party leaders and activists were keen to emphasise their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuing Liberal identity, seeing themselves as the true bearers of the Liberal torch, and believing, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(breakaway parties often do, that their old party had left them rather than vice versa. Ironically, given Joseph )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chamberlain?s later adoption of tariff reform, they were united in opposing attempts by some Conservatives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the early 1890s to revive support for protectionism. Unlike the Conservatives, they showed a reluctance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(which they sometimes overcame\) to play the sectarian, anti-Catholic card in debates over home rule. And of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(course Joseph Chamberlain continued to champion social reform, although he modified his rhetoric from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language of class conflict and ?ransom? to reconciliation between social classes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dr Cawood therefore makes a persuasive case for the Liberal Unionists as a genuinely independent political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(force within the Unionist alliance, by no means a mere cipher for the Conservative party. Yet in my view he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pushes his conclusions further than is justified by the evidence presented here, in a way that diminishes his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overall argument. For example, writing about areas of Liberal Unionist parliamentary strength, he comments:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 563.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The victory of Liberal Unionists in Bury, as in Birmingham, Cornwall and Scotland, owed )] TJ ET BT 64.016 548.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(everything to their commitment to unbending Liberal principles and absolutely nothing to the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 534.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alliance with the Conservatives.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 496.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This stretches credibility beyond breaking point. To be true, it would mean that the Liberal Unionists in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these places derived no advantage at all from the Conservatives not standing candidates against them and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 467.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allowing their new allies a free run against Gladstonian Liberals. Surely Liberal Unionists benefited at least )] TJ ET BT 34.016 453.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to some degree \(more probably quite a lot\) from the support of Conservatives! To take the example of Bury; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 439.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this seat was won narrowly in 1885 by the Liberal Sir Henry James with the Conservatives just 189 votes or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 425.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.4 per cent behind. Returned unopposed in 1886, James won a comfortable victory in 1892. But the swing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 410.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the Unionists, while impressive, was not dramatically different from that obtained by Conservative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 396.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(candidates elsewhere in Lancashire. And when he stood down at the 1895 general election, he was replaced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 382.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by a Conservative candidate who won by a similarly clear margin. This was far from being a seat where the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 368.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservatives ceased to matter. The position is similar regarding the other areas cited in the above quotation. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 353.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(No doubt the Liberal Unionists appealed to voters who were beyond the Conservatives? reach, but the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 339.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support of Conservative voters undoubtedly made a difference too to their success. We cannot know how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 325.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many seats the Liberal Unionists might have won in a genuine three-way party system, but without the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 311.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guaranteed support of Conservative voters victories would have been much harder to achieve.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 284.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Likewise, I am sceptical of Dr Cawood?s argument regarding the Unionists? landslide victory in the 1895 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 270.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general election that ?it was the )] TJ ET BT 188.648 270.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Liberal )] TJ ET BT 226.988 270.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unionist agenda that convinced the mass electorate?, in particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chamberlain?s social programme. This was not how Liberal candidates at the time saw it ? they put the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blame primarily on Sir William Harcourt?s misguided attempts at prohibitionist temperance reform \(or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 227.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?local veto?\), resistance to which was more a Tory than a Liberal cause, and to the electorate?s continuing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 213.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scepticism about home rule.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 168.668 213.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 168.668 212.115 m 182.660 212.115 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 182.660 213.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Doubtless the obvious divisions among Liberal leaders did not help much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(either. Dr Cawood cites the example of the famous explorer and journalist H. M. Stanley, who won the seat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 184.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of North Lambeth as a Liberal Unionist, as evidence of a candidate winning by stressing social reform in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 170.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(campaign. But Stanley?s result was very much in line with the swing achieved by Conservative candidates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 156.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elsewhere in London. It may be that Conservatives stressed social issues too, but more evidence is needed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before we can conclude that such questions were decisive in determining the result of the election.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 115.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author has, I think, succumbed to the constant temptation for researchers of overstating the importance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 101.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and distinctiveness of their subject. He cites the famous remark of Lady Bracknell in Oscar Wilde?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Importance of Being Earnest )] TJ ET BT 197.000 87.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that ?[Liberal Unionists] count as Tories. They dine with us. Or come in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the evening at any rate?. But he sees this comment as indicating that Liberal Unionists ?remained Liberals, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 58.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so would not be invited to dinner?. Surely, however, the key words here are ?count as Tories?. If one wishes )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 168.6677 212.4295 182.6597 224.3095 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R ] /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 8074 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to draw a political inference from this line of dialogue, it is perhaps that, just as the Liberal Unionists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allowed Tory hostesses to widen their social circle, they may also have helped the Conservative party to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increase its pool of potential voters. In that sense the importance of the Liberal Unionists was that, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(partnership with the Conservatives, they gave resistance to Irish home rule an image of being a national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cause, above class and sectional interests, for which it was worth sacrificing traditional political loyalties. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is much in Dr Cawood?s book to indicate that he would agree with this, and I merely suggest that he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have been better to have left it at that rather than over-egg the pudding.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Similarly, although it is a less important matter, the book?s title overstates its actual content. The innocent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader may assume that this is a complete history of the party from 1895 through to the merger with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservatives in 1912. Yet the last 17 years of the party?s history are dealt with in one fairly short chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that reads more as an extended postscript than part of the main body of the book. This is partly justified by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the increasing convergence of the two parties after the Liberal Unionists entered a coalition government with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Conservatives in 1895. There is much more to be said about the remainder of the party?s history than is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(included here. The title may of course be the choice of the publisher rather than the author ? I note that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Leicester Phd thesis on which the book is presumably based was entitled ?The Lost Party: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liberal Unionism 1886?95?. That would have been a more accurate title for this book as well.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are a few howlers that should have been corrected. It may just be an unfortunate slip that the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sentence of chapter one refers to the work of Gerald when it should be Gordon Goodman, but other errors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(look like carelessness. For example, the Liberal Party?s Newcastle Programme was agreed in 1891, so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liberal Unionist denunciations of socialism in January 1890 were by definition not a response to it \(p. 67\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Irish historian and Liberal Unionist MP W. E. H. Lecky was a Protestant so his adherence to the party )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was not a sign of its drawing support from Roman Catholic intellectuals \(p. 44\). And Gladstone did not retire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the premiership until 1894, so the 1893 Employers? Liability Bill was not a sign of Rosebery indicating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a new direction for the Liberal party \(p. 98\). \(In any case the bill was more associated with Asquith, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(home secretary\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite these quibbles, and my disagreement with elements of the author?s conclusions, it would be churlish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to end this review on a negative note. This is an important book that makes a significant contribution to our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of late 19th?century British party politics. It is written in a clear and accessible style that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes it an enjoyable read. It engages successfully with existing historiography while expanding our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of a neglected historical subject. The author and publishers are particularly to be commended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the illustrations, including the examples of Liberal Unionist leaflets and posters which give a strong )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense of how the party actually engaged with the electorate. As well as being a valuable work in its own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(right, Dr Cawood?s book will, one hopes, rekindle interest among historical researchers in the study of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liberal Unionist party.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 255.123 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 224.506 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gordon L. Goodman ?Liberal Unionism: the revolt of the Whigs?, )] TJ ET BT 385.976 224.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Victorian Studies)] TJ ET BT 468.980 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 3, 2 \(1959\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(173?89.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 102.344 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 102.344 208.851 m 156.332 208.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 195.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Ensor )] TJ ET BT 130.676 195.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(England 1870?1914)] TJ ET BT 228.344 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1936, reprinted 1992\) pp. 206?7.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 433.640 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 433.640 194.595 m 487.628 194.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 181.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christopher Harvie, )] TJ ET BT 162.332 181.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Lights of Liberalism: University Liberals and the Challenge of Democracy, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 167.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1860?86)] TJ ET BT 106.016 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1976\); W. C. Lubenow )] TJ ET BT 270.332 167.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Parliamentary Politics and the Home Rule Crisis: the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 153.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British House of Commons in 1886 )] TJ ET BT 236.024 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford, 1988\); J. P. Parry )] TJ ET BT 367.340 153.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Rise and Fall of Liberal )] TJ ET BT 64.016 138.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Government in Victorian Britain)] TJ ET BT 221.012 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New Haven, CT, 1993\); T. A. Jenkins )] TJ ET BT 413.648 138.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gladstone, Whiggery, and the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 124.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Liberal Party, 1874?1886)] TJ ET BT 189.020 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1988\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 267.668 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 267.668 123.315 m 321.656 123.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 110.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See the survey of Liberal candidates? explanations for their party?s defeat in the )] TJ ET BT 452.252 110.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Westminster Gazette)] TJ ET BT 64.016 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13, 14, 15 16 and 19 August 1895.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 230.012 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 230.012 94.803 m 284.000 94.803 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 79.471 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 61.691 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 61.691 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1336)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 60.297 m 328.316 60.297 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 35.320 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 102.3437 209.1655 156.3317 221.0455 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 433.6397 194.9095 487.6277 206.7895 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 267.6677 123.6295 321.6557 135.5095 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 230.0117 95.1175 283.9997 106.9975 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 27 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 60.6115 328.3157 72.4915 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1336) >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 43 0 R >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Length 154 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.354 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/37827)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 44 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000547 00000 n 0000000629 00000 n 0000004684 00000 n 0000004793 00000 n 0000004903 00000 n 0000005012 00000 n 0000008573 00000 n 0000008701 00000 n 0000008785 00000 n 0000008883 00000 n 0000016916 00000 n 0000016946 00000 n 0000017074 00000 n 0000017110 00000 n 0000017140 00000 n 0000017268 00000 n 0000017304 00000 n 0000017334 00000 n 0000017462 00000 n 0000017498 00000 n 0000017582 00000 n 0000024806 00000 n 0000024836 00000 n 0000024964 00000 n 0000025000 00000 n 0000025112 00000 n 0000033239 00000 n 0000033367 00000 n 0000033422 00000 n 0000033550 00000 n 0000033605 00000 n 0000033733 00000 n 0000033788 00000 n 0000033915 00000 n 0000033970 00000 n 0000034096 00000 n 0000034192 00000 n 0000034257 00000 n trailer << /Size 44 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 34463 %%EOF