%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R ] /Count 3 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150426030908+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150426030908+01'00') /Title (Everyday Life in Fascist Venice, 1929-40) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3954 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Everyday Life in Fascist Venice, 1929-40)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A number of scholars have recently examined the ways in which Italians participated in, supported and/or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resisted the Fascist project of radically transforming politics, society, and the citizens? private sphere, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including the transformation of the boundaries between private life and the public arena. This book is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution to this historiography, and explores the extent to which Fascism was capable of affecting deeply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the private lives of Italians.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The issue of consent/consensus goes back to the mid-1970s, when De Felice, and later a plethora of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(followers, insisted in particular on the capacity of Mussolini and other leaders to create a vast consensus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(around the regime and to mobilise the masses through instruments of mass communication. Historians who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opposed this interpretation, like Rochat, emphasised, among other aspects, that De Felice?s sources were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exclusively from the records of Fascist and institutional groups contained in the Central State Archive, or the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(private papers of Fascist leaders. Like other works from the 1990s in particular, Kate Ferris?s book is based )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on a variety of private and public sources and moves from the institutional to the social aspects of Italian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lives in the 1930s.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Fascist regime created an efficient propaganda machine by utilising the press, radio and cinema to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(valorise in a spectacular way the regime?s successes \(such as the ?Battle for Grain? or the reclamation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1338)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 26 October, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kate Ferris)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780230232860)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(272pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palgrave Macmillan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Basingstoke)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Claudia Baldoli)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7654 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pontine Marshes\), with the aim of maintaining the masses in a state of permanent emotional mobilisation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through collective rites and ceremonies. The major problem, however, is how to measure the extent of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact this had on Italian lives. The book thus aims to compare the regime?s intentions with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population?s reception.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The concept of consensus is problematic also because of the tendency to consider ?Italians? as a generic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(group. Interpretations should vary depending on which social, geographical, or economic group is studied: it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is difficult to describe a ?national? or a ?collective? identity and is more fruitful to be specific and provide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumscribed and well-documented case studies. This is what Ferris has done here, investigating the case of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Venice, and within that, some particular aspects: youth; popular festivals; consumption during the Ethiopian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war; and funerals. In all these cases, she seeks to assert the citizens? agency rather than assuming a direct )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship between propaganda and its reception. The difficulty in drawing conclusions is evident from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very first pages of the introduction, where the author suggests that the impact of dictatorship was not felt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consistently in everyday life, nor was it entirely remote; however, what was taking place in the streets, bars, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(markets, and other public places, and even more at home, remains hard to assess.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A first chapter on Venetian life between the wars illustrates Venice?s peculiarity as a tourist city, where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fascism \(just as the regimes of past centuries had done\) expressed itself as a spectacle not only to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inhabitants but also to a global audience. It was particularly important to exploit the myth of the )] TJ ET BT 497.312 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Serenissima)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in conjunction with that of imperial Rome, of which Venice was described by Fascist propaganda as being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the principal heir in Italy: founded just as Rome fell, Venice continued to expand its influence in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mediterranean, sustaining the link with the capital?s glorious past. Important allies in the establishment and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(re-enacting of that myth were the Catholic Church and the city notables, who claimed a )] TJ ET BT 456.608 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Serenissima )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ancestry. In order to function, the Fascist project had to rely on discourses that were already understood and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on pre-existing rituals. It is evident from other chapters too \(the one on rituals of death in particular\), that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Venetians could empathise with beliefs and practices which were familiar to them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The chapter on youth provides a thorough analysis of what children read, and contributes in this way to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wider studies on the Fascist organisation of culture \(Turi, Mangoni, Isnenghi, Gibelli, for example\). The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fascist message, which sought to persuade children to see themselves as future citizen-soldiers, invaded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their time at school \(through to university\) as well as leisure time. However, the difficulty in moving from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the analysis of propaganda to its reception is evident: the fact that the act of reading is active and not passive, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although important, is not in itself guarantee that children were immune from the Fascist message. Ferris?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research shows that children, when writing about their readings, did not demonstrate a clear interest in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics; however, it can be claimed that this would be typical of their age in any circumstances, at least as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general tendency. Naturally children enjoyed fairy tales and cartoons; in the same way, it can be argued )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(through an analysis of contemporary images, children?s writings and LUCE films\) that when they attended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(summer camps they enjoyed the games more than Fascist speeches. The next step, and the problematic one, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would be to understand the extent of the Fascistisation that occurred while reading fairy tales or playing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(games. The author reaches the balanced \(but not conclusive\) deduction, at p. 76, that children?s essays allow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(us to believe that Venetian children neither held pro-Fascist view, nor did they interiorise the propaganda )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(messages.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The myth of the )] TJ ET BT 114.008 192.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Serenissima)] TJ ET BT 172.004 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Venetian Republic was mostly exploited with the creation of popular festivals, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to which Ferris devotes a chapter. Particularly enlightening is the example of the Festa delle tre Marie, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(variation on an early-Medieval festival in order to make it fit with the new demographic campaign and with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both Fascist racism \(anti-Slav, in this case\) and Fascist foreign policy aims. This was not an entirely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invented tradition, but an attempt to adapt an existing festival in order to reinforce among the city population )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fascist ideals and beliefs that were rooted in a pre-existing outlook \(the city?s centuries-long interest in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Balkans, conventional Catholic demographic principles\). Again the problem is assessing its popularity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among the Venetians, and the extent to which they participated in the event. Here the conclusion seems to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even more uncertain than in the other chapters. At p. 97 the author suggests that the fact that ?for whatever )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reason? the festival was abandoned after two years ?would perhaps? suggest that it was not popular. While )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there is no doubt that the claims of popularity in the local press \(which was very favourable to the regime\) )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 19 0 R 21 0 R 23 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 6343 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cannot be trusted, the opposite view is also difficult to sustain as the evidence found here is limited to a few )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(photographs in the newspapers. Again, what Venetians thought personally remains hard to assess ? and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same difficulty would have lingered on even if the images showed masses of Venetians: as we know, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpreting the Fascist crowd presents complex challenges too.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The chapter on family consumption during the war in Ethiopia raises the important question of what Italians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(in this case Venetians, but it is a stimulating issue for other parts of the country too\) did and thought within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their own homes. How did they )] TJ ET BT 188.336 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(privately)] TJ ET BT 230.996 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( react to sanctions and to a propaganda which sought to construct a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fascist home front while the war was fought in Africa? Ferris, as in other parts of the book, distinguishes the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public and private levels, although she is aware they often intersect, and analyses the relationship between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regime and family. In some cases, as in consumption and reproduction patterns, the family could serve as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(site of resistance to, or at least retreat from, the regime?s impositions. The evidence provided, which pertains )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to both upper and lower social classes in Venice, seems to suggest \(as the author concurs at p. 142\) that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responses were mixed. However, as elsewhere, there appears to be an inclination towards diminishing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact of the regime on everyday life, even when the evidence is indeed diverse. The issue of non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compliance \(discussed at p. 144\) is an example of this: although non-compliance can be interpreted as non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adherence to the regime?s directives, it is hazardous to describe it straightforwardly as resistance, let alone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an active expression of anti-Fascism. Episodes of non-compliance could be seen during the Second World )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War too, and in all belligerent countries \(for example in relation to women?s behaviour regarding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumption and rationing\), but did not necessarily acquire political connotation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, the book focuses on the regime?s attempt to Fascistise funerals and rituals of death. As in the rest of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the book, the author provides interesting examples based on thorough research, and as for all the other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspects, she seems sceptical of the real participation of Venetians in the Fascist initiatives. Here again, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, the evidence provided leaves the reader uncertain about the conclusions drawn. This is because of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the difficulty in interpreting the available data. For example, the author states, at p. 173, that over the decade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1929?40 only 56 per cent of death notices included the Fascist date; however, considering that it was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compulsory, this could be interpreted as not such a low number. On the belief in the ?Fascist death? among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those who had fought in Spain and Ethiopia \(p. 177\), and for reflections on the consensus in that case, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important book by Nicola Labanca )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 204.320 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 204.320 386.163 m 218.312 386.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 218.312 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( would have brought some interesting critical reflections to bear.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By investigating everyday life in Venice in the 1930s, this book provokes crucial questions as to the extent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to which the regime failed in its totalitarian aims. At times the author seeks to draw from mixed evidence the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusion that Fascism had a limited influence on Venetians? daily lives. I wonder whether this can run the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(risk of emptying Fascists of Fascism. The image of Italians as ideologically and politically involved and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convinced Fascists can indeed be as misleading as that of Italians accepting Fascism out of convenience or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because they were forced to.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 255.123 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 224.506 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nicola Labanca, )] TJ ET BT 145.652 224.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Una Guerra per l?impero)] TJ ET BT 269.972 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Bologna, 2005\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 354.632 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 354.632 223.107 m 408.620 223.107 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 207.775 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 189.995 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 189.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1338)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 188.601 m 328.316 188.601 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 163.624 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.224 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/37832)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 204.3197 386.4775 218.3117 398.3575 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 354.6317 223.4215 408.6197 235.3015 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 18 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 188.9155 328.3157 200.7955 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1338) >> endobj xref 0 25 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000335 00000 n 0000000372 00000 n 0000000536 00000 n 0000000618 00000 n 0000004624 00000 n 0000004733 00000 n 0000004843 00000 n 0000004952 00000 n 0000008513 00000 n 0000008641 00000 n 0000008725 00000 n 0000008790 00000 n 0000016497 00000 n 0000016595 00000 n 0000022991 00000 n 0000023021 00000 n 0000023149 00000 n 0000023185 00000 n 0000023313 00000 n 0000023368 00000 n 0000023496 00000 n trailer << /Size 25 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 23592 %%EOF