%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R 36 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141228150052+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141228150052+00'00') /Title (A Country Merchant, 1495-1520: Trading and Farming at the End of the Middle Ages) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R 21 0 R 24 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 5217 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(A Country Merchant, 1495-1520: Trading and Farming at the End )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(of the Middle Ages)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Dyer?s )] TJ ET BT 119.324 266.195 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Country Merchant)] TJ ET BT 218.648 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( represents the development of several emerging themes in late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval and early modern history: for one, the increasing recognition of the long 15th century, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially the period roughly framed by the reign of Henry VII, as an important ?Age of Transition?, most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eloquently highlighted in his own book of that title.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 281.024 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 281.024 222.033 m 295.016 222.033 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 295.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Secondly, it continues the revival of biographical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history, or rather the use of individuals to tell the stories of historical transition through the prism of lived )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience, and applies this to economic history for the first time. As Dyer puts it, ?this book is about an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual, but also about the times and places in which he lived? \(p. 1\). The parallel which most obviously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comes to mind, especially in relation to England in this period, is Eamon Duffy?s )] TJ ET BT 427.988 166.403 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Voices of Morebath)] TJ ET BT 543.644 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which so evocatively brought to life the issues and events discussed in )] TJ ET BT 374.648 152.147 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Stripping of the Altars,)] TJ ET BT 505.664 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the experience of the Devon parish of Morebath, and its characterful priest, Christopher Trychay.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 500.564 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 500.564 136.497 m 514.556 136.497 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 514.556 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement toward considering history through lived experience, drawing upon exceptional surviving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources, is also seen, for example, in Wrightson?s )] TJ ET BT 276.308 109.379 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ralph Taylor?s Summer)] TJ ET BT 392.972 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 395.972 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 395.972 107.985 m 409.964 107.985 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is also a contribution to the wider debate on thelate medieval economy. Late medieval economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history has long been defined by negativity, with studies focusing upon declining tithe incomes, falling or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stagnant populations, declining credit and money supply and falling productivity.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 424.328 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 424.328 53.217 m 438.320 53.217 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 438.320 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The focus of many of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1339)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 25 October, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christopher Dyer)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199214242)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(65.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(272pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Justin Colson)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 281.0237 222.3475 295.0157 234.2275 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 500.5637 136.8115 514.5557 148.6915 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 395.9717 108.2995 409.9637 120.1795 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 23 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 424.3277 53.5315 438.3197 65.4115 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 7540 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these pessimistic narratives upon headline indicators and central legal records, however, downplays the rise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in real wages and improvement in living standards seen by many, as well as the ?invisible world? of smaller )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transactions. While there is little doubt that economic output did indeed fall in late medieval England, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persistently low population in the centuries following the Black Death resulted in an improvement in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notional GDP per capita compared to earlier centuries. Dyer is certainly one of the more positive historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with regard to the late medieval economy \(a view more fully espoused in )] TJ ET BT 387.620 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Age of Transition)] TJ ET BT 492.632 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspective ?from below? in this volume provides a very different impression to that of the traditional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The protagonist of the story, the ?country merchant? himself, is John Heritage, a somewhat enigmatic figure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of whom we would know very little, if it were not for the exceptional and somewhat mysterious survival of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one of his rather rough and ready account books amongst the muniments of Westminster Abbey. John was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(born around 1470 in the south-east Warwickshire village of Burton Dasset, the son of Roger Heritage, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was named after his grandfather. The elder John had established a respectable holding of around 30 acres in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the village during the mid-15th century. As the eldest son, John junior took tenancy of the family lands, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including additional leased holdings in neighbouring villages, on his father?s death in 1495. He was not, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidently, one for tradition or sentimentality, and quickly sold the original holdings in return for a lease on a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more coherent parcel of lands in Burton in 1497, but by 1500 took the opportunity of his wife?s inheritance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to move to the small town of Moreton-in-Marsh. From this point onward, Heritage combined the activities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a farmer with that of a small scale wool merchant or ?brogger?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Heritage?s activities fit the ?ideal type? of the ?acquisitive proto-capitalist?as hewould have been seen by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many historians over the years: breaking the family traditions and dispensing with customary holdings, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encouraging enclosure by leasing large scale pasture lands, and acting as a middle man, taking a profit on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transfer of wool to the London markets. This was all true, and, to this extent, John was perhaps characteristic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of his times, and ofthe ?commercialisation? which is seen as having gripped the country at this time. Dyer?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consideration of Heritage as a person, however, is much more nuanced. Personal considerations, including )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the obligation to fulfil the somewhat onerous conditions of his father?s will, weighed heavily upon him, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while his profit margins appear to have been perilously thin much of the time, and his access to ready cash )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(usually extremely limited as a result of the constant cycle of credit into which he was locked. Furthermore, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men like Heritage, Dyer demonstrates, played a vital role in marketing the wool of small and medium scale )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(producers, who collectively accounted for the same total volume of production as the great estates. In fact, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the trend toward the decline of demesne agriculture meant that there was less of a role for the great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(merchants who had formerly signed bulk, advance contracts for wool, and a greaterneed for smaller traders, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who, like Heritage, were prepared to ride out to meet and negotiate relatively small purchases from farmers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and more prosperous peasants.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The fourth chapter, which focuses upon Heritage?s account book, revealing the nature of his day-to-day )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(business activities in the wool trade, will probably be of most interest to economic historians. The premise of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the chapter is the question of whether or not Heritage had a ?capitalist mentality?, and whether his patterns )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of trade were typical of his time. While the somewhat erratically compiled and incomplete account book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might not be a perfect source to answer these questions, Dyer employs its entries to evocatively recreate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Heritage?s daily, seasonal, and annual patterns of activity and trade. The basis of his business was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collection, sorting and winding of local wool, including his own and that of many small farmers and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peasants, and the transport of the best of it to London, where he would sell to a variety of staplers before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(returning with primarily Hanesatic goods for sale in the local area. Despite an optimistic start, signing large )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contracts with major local landowners, most of Heritage?s business was conducted with small producers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within an eight mile radius of his home. The most revealing aspects of the accounts reveal the day to day )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practicalities of his trade, and especially the tangled, and it appears often fraught, world of credit in which he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was immersed. Transactions began with the payment of relatively small amounts of ?earnest money?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(followed by as many as seven further instalments, often made on the road, or on feast days at local churches, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indicating the opportunistic nature of his creditors? attempts to extract their debts from him. Barter was also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant, with debts being excused in return for lambs or other goods. At the other end of his business, in )] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 31 0 R 34 0 R ] /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 8038 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London, Heritage was similarly subject to long payment terms, reinforcing the cycle of credit. The imperfect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature of the accounts, with many debts never fully accounted for, renders quantitative analysis difficult. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dyer?s estimates of his profit margins, before transport costs, range from an improbable \(and unviable\) 2 per )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cent through to a still paltry 9 per cent. John?s customers, the London staplers, could, by contrast, expect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(profits of around 20 per cent. As a small middleman, Heritage was pressed from below by intense )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(competition from other local woolmen, and from above by powerful international merchants. It hardly seems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surprising that he appears to have made most of hisprofit from his activities as a farmer.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Intriguingly, there is no evidence of instruments recording the many small debts to which Heritage was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(party, indicating that the majority of the small merchant?s activities were carried out on trust. Pessimistic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assessments of the volume of trade in the 15th century, such as those of Nightingale, based on records of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(large debts, inevitably ignore this ?hidden economy? of small-scale unrecorded debts.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 445.940 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 445.940 640.515 m 459.932 640.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 459.932 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Heritage?s day-to-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(day payments illustrate that a considerable amount of economic activity can occur without written record, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with limited ready money, and without debts necessarily being reciprocal. Indeed, when we consider the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of men such as Heritage, connecting the newly prosperous small and medium scale producers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the market at this time, it comes as little surprise to see recorded debts failing to reflect volumes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trade throughout this period. This is another reminder that history viewed through the prism of an individual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allows a deeper insight than any macro analysis, especially those using ever-fallible medieval economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(data, and can add further weight to arguments downplaying the monetarist interpretation of the late medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economy.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 81.008 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 81.008 526.467 m 95.000 526.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Central to Dyer?s approach is the inseparability of the structural and social changes of the late medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period from the economy, an approach that can be equated with new institutional economics. This is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflected in the structure of the book, where John Heritage and his commercial activities form just part of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wider account of his ?country?, or sphere of activity ? an area of around eight miles radius, but spanning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parts of four counties. Chapters five and six, entitled ?Pasture, sheep, wool, and people? and ?Beyond the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account book: changing the countryside?, combine to make explicit the links between the changing form of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the countryside ?because ofthe conversion of customary dues into cash rents, the increasing size of peasant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(holdings \(40 per cent or more held two or more yardlands when before the Black Death only a minority held )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even one\) andthe creation of ?leasows? or enclosed pastures ? and the economic activities which Heritage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exemplified. He was personally implicated in the enclosure of lands and he defied village and manorial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regulation by buying shares of individuals? entitlements to graze on common lands, and he gave the growing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surpluses of the local area greater access to the market. He was, in short, a man of his time.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In another respect, )] TJ ET BT 125.984 318.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Country Merchant)] TJ ET BT 225.308 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( can be read as a more conventional regional study. Great detail is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offered regarding the agricultural and administrative history of this intriguing corner of England. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differing )] TJ ET BT 79.004 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(pays)] TJ ET BT 101.000 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, as Dyer terms them, of the upland Chilterns and the lowlands between Moreton and Shipston )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are woven into the story, as are the differing attitudes of gentry and ecclesiastical lords, illuminating the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(varied field patterns and agricultural practices. While villages and landscapes are identified as primary units )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of identity, the shires are dismissed as ?just a fact of life?. Underlying this analysis is again the perspective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of lived experience: the village fields and the manor court that governed them were of key concern to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(day-to-day lives of the vast majority of rural folk, while the shire only usually became a concern when they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were summoned to court. The discussion of particular local agricultural patterns and innovations runs to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some length, and while it is evident that these agricultural innovations were integral to the commercial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changes Dyer highlights, and especially so within this history of a man, his times, and his milieu, it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps this section which fits least easily within the otherwise closely focused narrative of the book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final chapter addresses the question of ?community? ? another issue that vexes the historian of the late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval period; just as this era has been seen as that of the birth of ?commercialism?, it has also been cast )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as that of the ?death of community?. John Heritage, who was active in the enclosing of pasture and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acquisitive merchant activity, ?seems to epitomise the individualistic spirit of his age? \(p. 218\). However, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dyer has a positive, but balanced, view of the continuing role of manor courts and local communities. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Heritage?s membership of local fraternities and leading role in campaigning for burial rights at his local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapel in Moreton were clearly ?neighbourly? activity, but we are reminded that within the context of local )] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 445.9397 640.8295 459.9317 652.7095 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 81.0077 526.7815 94.9997 538.6615 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R ] /Contents 37 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Length 7100 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communities, religious, social and commercial interests were ?intertwined and in no way incompatible? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(204\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Overall, Dyer?s picture of John Heritage and his milieu serves as an effective exemplification of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic changes of the period, and evocatively captures the sense of ?an age of transition?. Heritage, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all of his failings and flaws, was someone making the most of the opportunities available to him. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structural changes of the 15th century, illustrated through the landholding patterns of the Warwickshire-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gloucestershire-Worcestershire-Oxfordshire area of the study, were allowing locals ever deeper )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationships with national and international markets. Population might have remained low, but farmers were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(embracing capitalist approaches to improve their holdings and technologies \(for example, horses were more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common than oxen on studied farms\) to increase their individual wealth. Overall volumes of trade and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(production might still have been lower than inthe earlier 14th century, but considered in terms of individual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience, this was an age of ?relative material comfort? \(p. 196\) ? an argument that will be familiar from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much of Dyer?s work. )] TJ ET BT 144.320 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Country Merchant)] TJ ET BT 243.644 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is an invaluable contribution to historians? understanding of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practicalities and realities of late medieval commerce, and allows us to see how the more positive account of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the economy of this period can be witnessed in terms of lived reality.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.987 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 519.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christopher Dyer, )] TJ ET BT 153.668 519.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(An Age of Transition? Economy and Society in England in the Later Middle Ages: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 505.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Economy and Society in England in the Later Middle Ages)] TJ ET BT 345.656 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 2005\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 424.304 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 424.304 503.715 m 478.292 503.715 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 490.858 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eamon Duffy, )] TJ ET BT 135.668 490.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Voices of Morebath: Reformation and Rebellion in an English Village)] TJ ET BT 492.992 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2001\); Eamon Duffy, )] TJ ET BT 170.000 476.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Stripping of the Altars: Traditional Religion in England 1400-1580)] TJ ET BT 64.016 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1992\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 142.340 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 142.340 460.947 m 196.328 460.947 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 448.090 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Keith Wrightson, )] TJ ET BT 150.344 448.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ralph Tailor?s Summer: A Scrivener, His City and the Plague)] TJ ET BT 449.660 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New Haven, CT, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 432.435 m 149.000 432.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 419.578 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A broad summary is provided in John Hatcher and Mark Bailey, )] TJ ET BT 375.968 419.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Modelling the Middle Ages: The )] TJ ET BT 64.016 405.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History and Theory of England?s Economic Development)] TJ ET BT 341.984 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 2001\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 420.632 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 420.632 403.923 m 474.620 403.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 391.066 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pamela Nightingale, ?Monetary contraction and mercantile credit in later medieval England?, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Economic History Review)] TJ ET BT 188.660 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 43 \(1990\), 560?75; Pamela Nightingale, ?Gold, credit, and mortality: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinguishing deflationary pressures on the late medieval English economy?, )] TJ ET BT 438.644 362.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Economic History )] TJ ET BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Review)] TJ ET BT 98.672 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 63 \(2010\), 1081?1104.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 213.992 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 213.992 346.899 m 267.980 346.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 334.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. L. Bolton, )] TJ ET BT 126.692 334.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Money in the Medieval English Economy 973?1489)] TJ ET BT 375.320 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Manchester, 2012\), pp. 268?95.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 318.387 m 118.004 318.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 293.525 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(BBC History Magazine)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.historyextra.com/book-review/country-merchant-1495-%E2%80%93-1520-trading-and-farming-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 263.619 m 557.912 263.619 l S BT 34.016 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(end-middle-ages)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 249.363 m 113.996 249.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 116.996 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 246.031 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 228.251 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 228.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1339)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 226.857 m 328.316 226.857 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 201.880 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.480 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/37839)] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.historyextra.com/book-review/country-merchant-1495-%E2%80%93-1520-trading-and-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 158.824 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(farming-end-middle-ages)] TJ ET endstream endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 424.3037 504.0295 478.2917 515.9095 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 142.3397 461.2615 196.3277 473.1415 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.0117 432.7495 148.9997 444.6295 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 20 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 420.6317 404.2375 474.6197 416.1175 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 23 0 R >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 213.9917 347.2135 267.9797 359.0935 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 30 0 R >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 318.7015 118.0037 330.5815 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 33 0 R >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 263.9335 557.9117 275.8135 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.historyextra.com/book-review/country-merchant-1495-–-1520-trading-and-farming-end-middle-ages) >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 249.6775 113.9957 261.5575 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.historyextra.com/book-review/country-merchant-1495-–-1520-trading-and-farming-end-middle-ages) >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 55 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 227.1715 328.3157 239.0515 ] >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1339) >> endobj xref 0 56 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000583 00000 n 0000000693 00000 n 0000005962 00000 n 0000006071 00000 n 0000006181 00000 n 0000006290 00000 n 0000009851 00000 n 0000009979 00000 n 0000010063 00000 n 0000010092 00000 n 0000010220 00000 n 0000010256 00000 n 0000010285 00000 n 0000010413 00000 n 0000010449 00000 n 0000010478 00000 n 0000010606 00000 n 0000010642 00000 n 0000010671 00000 n 0000010797 00000 n 0000010833 00000 n 0000010898 00000 n 0000018491 00000 n 0000018582 00000 n 0000026673 00000 n 0000026703 00000 n 0000026831 00000 n 0000026867 00000 n 0000026897 00000 n 0000027023 00000 n 0000027059 00000 n 0000027199 00000 n 0000034352 00000 n 0000034480 00000 n 0000034535 00000 n 0000034663 00000 n 0000034718 00000 n 0000034845 00000 n 0000034900 00000 n 0000035028 00000 n 0000035083 00000 n 0000035211 00000 n 0000035266 00000 n 0000035393 00000 n 0000035448 00000 n 0000035575 00000 n 0000035733 00000 n 0000035860 00000 n 0000036018 00000 n 0000036146 00000 n trailer << /Size 56 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 36242 %%EOF