%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818102705+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818102705+01'00') /Title (Allenby and British Strategy in the Middle East 1917-1919) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4742 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Allenby and British Strategy in the Middle East 1917-1919)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Until the early 1990s - the insistent writings of John Terraine notwithstanding - the campaign in Palestine in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1917 and 1918 was, more often than not, portrayed by historians and military commentators as perhaps the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most attractive, significant and viable alternative to the carnage of the Western Front. Influenced by the self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serving )] TJ ET BT 72.344 301.835 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(War Memoirs)] TJ ET BT 138.668 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of David Lloyd George and by Basil Liddell Hart's equally persuasive advocacy of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strategy of indirect approach, the ongoing historical debate between `Westerners' and `Easterners' swung )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(noticeably in favour of the latter for several decades from the 1930s onwards. The perceived futility of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(operations in France and Flanders led to an uncritical assumption, in the public mind, that the Palestine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(campaign had not only been less wasteful in human lives but had also been conducted with greater flair, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boldness and tactical acumen. Above all, as Brian Holden Reid has suggested, popular views on the subject )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been undeniably affected by the legacy of T.E. Lawrence. `His glamour', observes Holden Reid, `shone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all the more brightly because of the brutal and indecisive character of the First World War which shattered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the romantic illusions cherished by so many in 1914'. Even within the somewhat thin body of published )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(works on the Palestine campaign, the exploits of Lawrence and the Arabs - of )] TJ ET BT 409.604 173.531 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(marginal)] TJ ET BT 453.608 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( military importance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at best - have arguably received a disproportionate amount of attention.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The intense scholarly scrutiny to which the First World War has been subjected in recent years has, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nevertheless, resulted in general agreement among British and Commonwealth historians that the Western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Front was indeed the decisive theatre of operations and that, in the final analysis, the Entente powers had no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(real alternative to seeking the defeat of the Imperial German Army there. The strategic policies and priorities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(backed so doggedly between 1916 and 1918 by Sir William Robertson, the Chief of the Imperial General )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Staff \(CIGS\), and Sir Douglas Haig, the Commander-in-Chief of the British Expeditionary Force in France )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(134)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 1 July, 2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Matthew Hughes)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780714649201)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1999)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frank Cass)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Simkins)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7551 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Flanders \(BEF\), therefore seem to have been largely justified. Moreover, recent work by Ian Malcolm )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brown, John Bourne, Richard Bryson, Paddy Griffith, John Lee, Robin Prior, Bill Rawling, Shane Schreiber, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gary Sheffield and Trevor Wilson has demonstrated that, under Haig, there was a detectable and fairly steep )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(`learning curve' in the British and Dominion formations in France and also that, by August 1918, the BEF )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was at the tactical and technological cutting edge of the Allied armies on the Western Front. It has, in fact, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taken some twenty or thirty years for a new generation of scholars to acknowledge the veracity of John )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Terraine's assertions that Haig's BEF engaged the main body of the main enemy in a continental war for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only time in British history and, in defeating that enemy, won the greatest )] TJ ET BT 390.992 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(succession)] TJ ET BT 442.316 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of victories ever )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achieved by the British Army. If this revisionist school of First World War historians is at last overturning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many of the most deeply-rooted popular assumptions about the nature and conduct of the war on the Western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Front, the same challenging approach has not hitherto been fully applied to the campaign in Palestine. Now, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in this work by Dr Matthew Hughes of University College, Northampton, we have a welcome attempt to fill )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a long-standing gap in the historiography of the Great War.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Dr Hughes himself points out early in his illuminating study, he is not endeavouring to present yet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another examination of Allenby's mercurial temperament and character but rather to analyse Allenby's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(command of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force \(EEF\) and to set his military operations firmly within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overall context of British strategy during and after the First World War. In the process, the author certainly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides a more balanced and substantial assessment of Allenby's achievements and shortcomings than one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can find in the most recent biography by Lawrence James \()] TJ ET BT 317.948 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Imperial Warrior: The Life and Times of Field )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Marshal Viscount Allenby, 1861-1936)] TJ ET BT 217.340 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London, 1993\). It is perhaps a pity that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hughes does not pay just a little more attention to Allenby's performance on the Western Front - particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as commander of the Third Army from October 1915 to June 1917. The period immediately before Allenby's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transfer to the Middle East tells us much about his relations with the CIGS, Robertson, and about his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professionalism and loyalty - facets of his character which are by no means irrelevant to his command of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(EEF. It is similarly a trifle disappointing that the author does not attempt to probe Allenby's personal and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military relations with Major-General J.S.M. `Jimmy' Shea, who was `degummed' by Allenby for an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indifferent performance as commander of the 30th Division at Arras in April 1917 but was later picked to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(command the 60th \(London\) Division, one of the principal British formations in the EEF. These, however, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are only minor criticisms of what is undoubtedly a work of considerable importance and admirable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarship.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hughes maintains that, despite a patchy performance on the Western Front, Allenby really did make a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difference to the EEF, improving its organisation and restoring its morale after the failures of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(predecessor, Sir Archibald Murray, at Gaza in March and April 1917. In this respect at least, Hughes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confirms, Allenby's reputation stands up to historical inspection. Allenby was, however, impeded in his task )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the civil-military struggle in Whitehall, especially that between Lloyd George and Robertson in 1917 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early 1918. Because the politicians and military strategists were unable to agree on the objectives of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(operations in Palestine or their degree of priority relative to those on the Western Front, Allenby's campaign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(never formed part of a `comprehensive, unanimous British and Entente strategy'. The disputes between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lloyd George and Robertson therefore `worked against the overall usefulness of the campaign to eventual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(victory'. As Hughes remarks, the origins of the struggle lay in the Prime Minister's desire to find a feasible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alternative to the bloody attrition of Flanders while Robertson and Haig - believing that it was precisely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there that the war would be won or lost - wished to concentrate all efforts on the Western Front and felt that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any diversions were dangerous and pointless.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hughes is commendably even-handed in his judgements on the nature and course of these disputes. Like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David French before him, Dr Hughes claims that to divide Lloyd George and his military advisers into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(`Easterners' and `Westerners' is to use terms that are overworked, simplistic and misleading. For all his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humble beginnings and gruff exterior, Robertson possessed too sharp a mind not to appreciate the need to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protect Britain's route to India with an eastern strategy that would offer adequate control or influence in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Middle East both during and after the war. But, even when he had given due consideration to post-war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial requirements, Robertson still saw only minimal value in the campaigns in Mesopotamia and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7543 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palestine, regarding them as a waste of vital energy and resources and preferring to deal with threats in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Middle East through `small, specialist British-led military missions'. Lloyd George, for his part, knew only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(too well that Germany had to be defeated on the Western Front, though not necessarily by Britain. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Prime Minister `hoped to save Britain and the empire for the post-war settlement in which Britain needed its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(army intact and territorial bargaining assets to help secure its imperial desiderata'. Hence, by changing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thrust of national strategy, Lloyd George planned to save the British Army from destruction on the Western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Front and shift the burden of defeating Germany there to the French and, after April 1917, the Americans. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robertson and Haig, on the other hand, were deeply convinced that, in pursuance of this `long term' strategy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lloyd George risked losing the war in the decisive theatre by relaxing the pressure on Germany on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Western Front in the short term, just when the German Army in France was showing signs of collapse. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Matthew Hughes thus supports the view of David French that `it was a question of "time" as much as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasis that divided the two strategies'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author also convincingly clears Robertson and the General Staff of the charge that they prompted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Allenby to inflate his requests for additional troops to such an extent that the Palestine campaign would be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seen as totally impracticable and should consequently be abandoned or wound down. After examining the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence in some detail, Hughes judges that Robertson's correspondence with Allenby, both private and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(official, underlines the consistency of Robertson's belief `that the Palestine campaign was not going to knock )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Turks out of the war, that the war in France was decisive and critical, and that Allenby needed to take )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these factors into account'. However, Robertson's determination `to push his strategy must not be taken for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deceit', and while his correspondence was `robust' it was decidedly not `conspiratorial'. In Allenby's case, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hughes argues, it was faulty military intelligence that led him to misread and exaggerate Turkish capabilities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and intentions and so to continue sending alarmist reports and demands to London. His caution may well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been coloured by his own supposed reverses at Arras in April 1917 but, as a commander, he was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unique in striving to strengthen his forces as much as possible in order to cope with the `vagaries of war'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the most refreshing aspects of this book is that it challenges the long-established orthodoxy that, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(following Allenby's accession to the command of the EEF, the Palestine campaign was invariably conducted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at a much higher level of tactical proficiency than was ever manifest on the Western Front. The view that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prevailed for many years was that, as a cavalryman, Allenby - freed from the constraints of the Western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Front - was in his tactical element in Palestine, where the terrain and conditions favoured mobile operations. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Even allowing for the fact that he was not helped by the civil-military struggle in London - or that many of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the EEF's trained infantry battalions were transferred to France in 1918 and replaced by inexperienced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indian units - Allenby's tactical performance in Palestine was, as Hughes reveals, far from unblemished. For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, at the Third Battle of Gaza, which began at the end of October 1917, Allenby's acceptance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chetwode's frequently-praised plan to use the bulk of the mounted troops to attack the Turkish eastern flank )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at Beersheba is now deemed to have been a serious mistake. Although the vital wells at Beersheba were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(captured virtually intact, along with 90.000 gallons of water in Turkish reservoirs, these supplies were still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not sufficient to sustain the units involved, leaving Allenby's cavalry `impotent and stranded' in the arid land )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between Gaza and Beersheba and therefore negating `the whole purpose of the flanking operation'. The lack )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of mounted troops opposite Gaza itself, where the strength of the Turkish defences was overestimated, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turn prevented rapid exploitation of success in the coastal sector and delayed the highly symbolic occupation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Jerusalem after the artillery of Bulfin's XXI Corps had created the opportunity for a breakthrough.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Matthew Hughes is equally critical of Allenby's Transjordan raids in March-April and April-May 1918. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is careful to set out the seemingly compelling military and political reasons for the mounting of operations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(across the Jordan in the spring of 1918. These included Allenby's 'wish to secure his right flank before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advancing into northern Palestine; the need to cut Turkish communications along the Hejaz railway by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seizing the Jordan valley and Amman; and the obvious desirability of giving extra encouragement and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weight to the Arab revolt. In Hughes's words, if the EEF cleared the Turkish Fourth Army from the Amman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(area, there was a possibility that the Arab revolt `could spread into southern Syria, harrying the Turks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(militarily and providing for British political control of the region after the war'. However, the emasculation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the EEF by the removal of trained troops for the Western Front, coupled with ` a peculiar mix of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 6343 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confusion and hopefulness' in planning, only resulted in operations in which Allenby deployed inadequate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forces in bad weather to seize Amman without artillery, logistical backup or properly co-ordinated support )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from Feisal's Arab forces. The fortunes of the EEF were at a low ebb after the Transjordan raids, obliging )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Allenby to train his Indian replacements before resuming the offensive in the autumn of 1918. Curiously - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(given the amount of operational detail he includes on the Third Battle of Gaza and the Transjordan raids - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hughes makes only passing references to the Battle of Megiddo - Allenby's `masterpiece' in September )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1918 - which dealt the Turks in Palestine a crushing blow and permitted Britain `to consummate the Arab )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolt by placing Feisal in Damascus as ruler of Syria'. This is admittedly a book about strategy but, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hughes has earlier been critical of Allenby's tactical and command weaknesses in late 1917 and the first half )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of 1918, it is unfortunate that he does not devote at least a paragraph or two to Allenby's most successful all-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arms battle - in which `The Bull' was arguably at his operational peak.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hughes himself is at his best when guiding the reader through the complex web of interrelated and shifting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political and strategic factors that shaped British policy towards the Middle East after the fall of Damascus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the Armistice. Allenby's military achievements in Palestine and the installation of the pro-Hashemite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arabs in Damascus were indisputably of value in helping Britain to gain a peace settlement favourable to its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial interests and to win French acceptance for, or acquiescence in, the occupation of Palestine and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(northern Iraq. Even so, for a variety of reasons - which Dr Hughes splendidly outlines - the French were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unwilling to agree to adjustments of the eastern border of Syria in order to guarantee British communications )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(across Arabia by way of a land route to Palestine from Iraq. Post-war )] TJ ET BT 369.272 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(realpolitik)] TJ ET BT 419.276 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and retrenchment dictated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Britain withdrew from Syria and terminated its support for the Hashemite rgime in Damascus.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whatever the successes or failures of Allenby's period of command in the Middle East, Dr Hughes makes it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clear that the Palestine campaign did not significantly contribute to the defeat of the Central Powers. Lloyd )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George's belief that by `knocking away the props' - represented by allies such as Turkey- Germany itself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would inevitably collapse ignored the fact that it was really Germany `that propped up Austria-Hungary, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bulgaria and Turkey and not vice versa'. In addition, following Russia's departure from the war, Turkey was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more interested in pursuing expansionist policies in the Caucasus than in retaining Palestine at all costs. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Therefore, not even the occupation of Damascus would necessarily draw in the major part of the Turkish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(armies, and for the EEF to have played the decisive role in removing the Ottoman Empire from the war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have involved Allenby's forces in a march of hundreds of miles across the inhospitable Anatolian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heartland to threaten Istanbul \(Constantinople\) - a logistical nightmare. Thus, Hughes asserts, there were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only marginal benefits to be gained from the Palestine campaign after the capture of Jerusalem. `Turkey's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eventual surrender', he stresses, `was a consequence of Germany's collapse in the autumn of 1918 and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(breakout from Salonika that threatened Istanbul. This vindicates Robertson, as neither Gallipoli, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mesopotamia nor Palestine did anything to cause the Ottoman Porte's surrender in October 1918'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Matthew Hughes is to be congratulated on an excellent study which casts much interesting new light on our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge of the First World War. He writes lucidly and his grasp of a wide range of material is impressive. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book is highly recommended to all students of the Great War and of British policy in the Middle East.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 202.015 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 184.235 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 184.235 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/134)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 182.841 m 322.316 182.841 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 157.864 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 143.464 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/748)] TJ ET BT 34.016 129.064 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 183.1555 322.3157 195.0355 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/134) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000560 00000 n 0000000642 00000 n 0000005436 00000 n 0000005545 00000 n 0000005655 00000 n 0000005764 00000 n 0000009325 00000 n 0000009453 00000 n 0000009537 00000 n 0000009602 00000 n 0000017206 00000 n 0000017271 00000 n 0000024867 00000 n 0000024951 00000 n 0000031347 00000 n 0000031475 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 31570 %%EOF