%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140417184746+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140417184746+01'00') /Title (The Late Medieval English Church: Vitality and Vulnerability Before the Break with Rome) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4642 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Late Medieval English Church: Vitality and Vulnerability )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Before the Break with Rome)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the greatest challenges facing the historian is the problem of hindsight: we cannot un-know what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(happened next, but must nevertheless try to avoid seeing the past through a distorted lens. Hindsight does, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, have its advantages, and one of them is that it focuses attention on areas of the past which might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(otherwise be relatively neglected. It seems highly unlikely, for example, that the English Church of the late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15th and early 16th centuries would have attracted the attention of so many scholars were it not for our need )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to explain one of the most dramatic moments in English history, the English Reformation. We have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hindsight to thank, therefore, for the existence of a large number of high quality studies of the late medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(church, many of them produced over the past two decades in response to one of the most influential of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many volumes on the subject, Eamon Duffy?s )] TJ ET BT 258.656 137.891 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Stripping of the Altars)] TJ ET BT 386.672 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 389.672 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 389.672 136.497 m 403.664 136.497 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 406.664 137.891 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Late Medieval English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Church)] TJ ET BT 70.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is George Bernard?s response to the Duffy thesis, prompted by his conviction that )] TJ ET BT 469.628 123.635 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Stripping of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the Altars)] TJ ET BT 81.020 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ?did not tell the full story and ? left the subsequent reformation inexplicable.? Taking a broad )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach to the late medieval church \(with a slight bias towards the idea of the church as an institution, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than as a community of believers\), he evaluates it in terms of vitality and vulnerability. The book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opens with a chapter on the Hunne Affair. The case of Richard Hunne ? a London merchant tailor and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suspected heretic who died in mysterious circumstances whilst imprisoned in the Lollards? Tower at St )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1341)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 November, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(G. W. Bernard)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780300179972)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(304pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Haven, CT)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Katherine Harvey)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 389.6717 136.8115 403.6637 148.6915 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7345 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul?s Cathedral ? will be extremely familiar to any historian \(and indeed student\) of the late medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English church, but here we are provided with a new interpretation of the mystery which has exercised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians for centuries: was Hunne killed, or did he kill himself? Combining the testimony of Thomas More )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the records of the King?s Bench, Bernard stresses the role of Henry VIII in this case, and comes to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusion ?that Hunne committed suicide is all too plausible?. This reinterpretation will not convince all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readers, but it certainly challenges us to rethink our opinions of the familiar, and in doing so very much sets )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the tone for the volume.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The tale of Richard Hunne nicely encapsulates many of the key themes of Bernard?s study, and from this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(springboard he launches into a sequence of eight thematic chapters on various aspects of the late medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(church. Chapter two, ?The monarchical church?, examines the relationship between crown and church in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later medieval England. The first half of the chapter takes a long view, identifying the late 13th century as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turning point in church-state relations, with particular emphasis being placed on the king?s role in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ecclesiastical appointments, royal taxation of the church, and ecclesiastical support for the crown, especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in times of conflict. The second portion focuses on the late 15th and early 16th centuries, uncovering the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(major causes of tension \(primarily familiar issues such as benefit of clergy and the role of the Papacy\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between crown and church in the years leading up to the Reformation. For Bernard, the ?symbiotic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship between crown and church? was one of the strengths of the late medieval church, but also one of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its weaknesses. Since the relationship was largely beneficial to the church, there was no ?coherent or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sustained campaign? for its freedoms. Instead, there were intermittent objections to specific royal actions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(usually relating to small points of jurisdiction\), which simply served to make the church appear petty and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(self-interested.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The next pair of chapters examines the personnel of the late medieval church: ?Bishops? \(chapter three\) and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Clergy? \(chapter four\). The first of these highlights the many challenges faced by the medieval bishop, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the contradictions inherent in his office. Late medieval prelates were still trying to live up to an ideal created )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in apostolic times; their attempts to adhere to standards which were both impossibly high and hopelessly out-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dated were doomed to failure. Many of their problems were linked to the existence of the monarchical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(church: bishops were expected to serve the crown, but would inevitably be criticised for becoming entangled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in worldly affairs. The suggestion that there were no late medieval saint-bishops because there was ?a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sparsity of truly holy men? seems a little simplistic, not least because late medieval changes to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mechanisms of saint-making meant that holiness was far from being the only factorthat determined an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual?s chances of canonisation. Overall, however, this is an understanding portrayal of a group of men )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who did their best to ?muddle through? in challenging circumstances.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Similarly, Bernard is broadly sympathetic to the plight of the lower clergy who form the subject of chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(four. Like the bishops, they attempted to live up to unrealistic ideals and, like the bishops, many of them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failed in their efforts. The numerous problem areas \(amongst them celibacy, learning and preaching, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pluralism and non-residence, and involvement in secular affairs\) are examined in turn. The cathedral clergy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were, Bernard suggests, particularly worldly, and therefore particularly vulnerable to criticism. Out in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parishes, the picture was far more complex: some priests were very good, some very bad, and most fell )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(somewhere in between. As Bernard himself points out, it is immensely difficult to make valid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generalisations about such a large number of individuals.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapters five and six examine an even larger group: the laity. The first of these chapters, ?Lay knowledge?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considers the religious commitment and understanding of late medieval laymen and women. There is, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bernard suggests, substantial evidence for popular devotion, but by the evidence for popular understanding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he is somewhat less convinced: ?ignorance and misunderstanding of Christian theology? was ?one of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(greatest areas of vulnerability of the church.? In addition, there may have been an increasing divide between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the growing minority of individuals who sought to live ?model Christian lives? and the rest of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population; ironically, the intense devotions of the most pious served to highlight the inadequacies of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less devout, and thus undermined the church as a whole. Chapter six, ?Lay activity?, takes a closer look at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two specific aspects of lay piety: confraternities and chantries, and pilgrimage. Both flourished in the later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Middle Ages, and serve as important evidence of the strength of popular devotion. But here too was )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 5534 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vulnerability, for it was all too easy to point out that there were too few priests to celebrate as many masses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the dead as were requested, or to question the motives of those who went on pilgrimage, or to suggest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that much-worshipped relics were not what they were purported to be.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A brief seventh chapter, ?Criticism?, considers popular anti-clericalism. Disputes between church and laity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were not infrequent, with the main causes of such disputes relating to finance and jurisdiction: tithes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mortuary fees and the probate of wills were all relatively common causes of contention. Townsfolk and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cathedral chapters were often at odds, and there was probably some popular resentment at the considerable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wealth of the church. For Bernard, however, none of this suggests that there was widespread anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clericalism: violence against the clergy was extremely rare, and much of the contemporary criticism came )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the church itself. Critics typically directed their anger not at the church as a whole, but at individuals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who were perceived to have failed to live up to the standards of the church.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The eighth chapter re-examines ?The condition of the monasteries? in the late 15th and early 16th centuries. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The picture is not entirely bleak: recruitment remained high into the early years of the 16th century, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectual pursuits and learning flourished in many religious houses, and the vast majority of monks and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nuns would appear to have been genuinely committed to the religious life. Certainly, very few were guilty of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the lurid crimes of which the reformers accused them. Yet there were also many problems, and many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious were somewhat preoccupied with worldly affairs: profitable agricultural enterprises, costly building )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(projects, and the cultivation of wealthy lay patrons. Monasteries ?were becoming cosy, comfortable and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inward-looking?, and early 16th-century bishops \(including Thomas Wolsey\) were convinced that reform )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was needed. Like many of his predecessors in this field, Bernard sees the monasteries as one of the greatest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weaknesses of the late medieval church.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In its final chapter, ?Heresy?, the book returns to its starting point. Bernard traces the English experience of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heresy from the end of the 14th century to the beginning of the 16th, and argues that the evidence for its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existence is somewhat limited. Some historians have assumed that the surviving records of heresy reflect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only the tip of the iceberg, with Lollardy being widespread by the early 16th century. Here, however, we are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encouraged to think again about the nature of anti-heresy campaigns: was Lollardy essentially an artificial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(construct or, as Bernard puts it, ?Were the ?lollards? the witches of early Tudor England?? Attempts to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counter heresy were, it is suggested, manifestations of reforming spirit within the late medieval church, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should be seen as evidence of that institution?s vitality.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The church which emerges from this study is a vibrant and dynamic institution, and the Reformation does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not appear to have been in the least bit inevitable. In many respects, this version of the late medieval church )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is not so different from that presented by Duffy and his followers. But Bernard?s church is not without its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flaws. If this is a less impassioned account of the late medieval church than Duffy?s, it is also more even-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(handed and nuanced. We see both the vitality and the vulnerability, the light and the shade, and the overlap )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the two; some of the church?s greatest strengths also numbered amongst its most serious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weaknesses. Undergraduates tackling essays on the strengths and weaknesses of the late medieval church )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should be eternally grateful to Professor Bernard for providing them with both sides of the argument in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(single volume.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R 25 0 R 27 0 R 29 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 4886 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What the reader will not find in this volume are the roots of the English Reformation. Whilst the English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Church had vulnerabilities which the reformers were able to exploit, the existence of these vulnerabilities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would not seem to explain why a reform movement came into being in 1520s England. Indeed, some of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vulnerabilities which Bernard identifies in the late medieval church apply equally to religion as a whole. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Much emphasis is placed on the impossibly high ideals which the late medieval church aspired to, and failed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to meet ? but surely the pursuit of impossibly high standards is the raison d?tre of the majority of religions. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Even more striking are the many similarities between the English church of the early 16th century, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same institution in the 15th, 14th and even 13th centuries. If the vulnerabilities of the late medieval church )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were, for the most part, centuries old, then where does that leave our quest for the causes of the English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reformation? Such questions are clearly beyond the scope of this particular work, but that they arise at all is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an indication of the extent to which Bernard succeeds in making his reader think about the bigger picture. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Overall then, this is a deeply engaging and thought-provoking study of a familiar and thorny problem. One )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Bernard?s great strengths as a historian is his ability to take a historical problem which has been endlessly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussed, and to reinvigorate the debate. Once again he has succeeded in doing so; this volume will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undoubtedly encourage its readers to rethink their opinion of the late medieval church. Hopefully it will also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attract interest beyond the world of Reformation scholars; there is certainly much here to interest the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval ecclesiastical historian, and indeed the general reader. The combination of a perennially appealing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject and Bernard?s clear, engaging prose make for an extremely readable book which deserves a wide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(audience. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 480.963 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 450.346 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 450.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eamon Duffy, )] TJ ET BT 135.668 450.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(T)] TJ ET BT 142.340 450.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(he Stripping of the Altars)] TJ ET BT 263.684 450.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(: Traditional Religion in England, 1400?1580)] TJ ET BT 485.036 450.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New Haven, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 436.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(CT, 1992\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 116.348 436.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 116.348 434.691 m 170.336 434.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 409.829 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 395.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Times Higher Education)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 381.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 379.923 m 270.668 379.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 273.668 381.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 367.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tablet)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 352.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.thetablet.co.uk/issue/1000328/booksandart)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 351.411 m 297.008 351.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 300.008 352.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 348.079 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 330.299 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 330.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1341)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 328.905 m 328.316 328.905 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 303.928 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 289.528 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/38758)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.128 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp?storyCode=421105&sectioncode=26)] TJ ET BT 34.016 260.728 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.thetablet.co.uk/issue/1000328/booksandart)] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 116.3477 435.0055 170.3357 446.8855 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 380.2375 270.6677 392.1175 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp?storyCode=421105§ioncode=26) >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 351.7255 297.0077 363.6055 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.thetablet.co.uk/issue/1000328/booksandart) >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 329.2195 328.3157 341.0995 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1341) >> endobj xref 0 31 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000590 00000 n 0000000679 00000 n 0000005373 00000 n 0000005482 00000 n 0000005592 00000 n 0000005701 00000 n 0000009262 00000 n 0000009390 00000 n 0000009474 00000 n 0000009503 00000 n 0000009631 00000 n 0000009667 00000 n 0000009732 00000 n 0000017130 00000 n 0000017195 00000 n 0000022782 00000 n 0000022887 00000 n 0000027826 00000 n 0000027954 00000 n 0000028009 00000 n 0000028136 00000 n 0000028267 00000 n 0000028394 00000 n 0000028498 00000 n 0000028626 00000 n trailer << /Size 31 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 28722 %%EOF