%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 46 0 R 84 0 R 95 0 R 122 0 R 172 0 R ] /Count 7 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140416050359+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140416050359+01'00') /Title (Victorian Religious Revivals: Culture and Piety in Local and Global Contexts) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4402 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Victorian Religious Revivals: Culture and Piety in Local and Global )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Contexts)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Bebbington?s latest book endeavours to shed light on the subject of Victorian revivalism by means of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a series of case studies into various religious awakenings which took place between 1841 and 1880. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author?s research has not been confined to Britain; instead his objective is to demonstrate that there was ?a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common revival culture that bound together people on opposite sides of the globe? \(p. 262\). This, of course, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is in keeping with recent trends in the historiography of revivalism, which has emphasised the existence of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?transatlantic community of saints?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 207.332 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 207.332 179.265 m 221.324 179.265 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 221.324 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( For this reason, he has chosen to analyse instances of revivalism in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(various parts of the English-speaking world. Hence the book considers the Baptist Revival at Washington-on-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the-Brazos, Texas in 1841; the Wesleyan Methodist Revival in Cornwall, 1849; the Primitive Methodist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revival in Weardale, County Durham in 1851; the Presbyterian Revival at North Carolina, 1857; the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ferryden Revival, Forfarshire, Scotland in 1859; the Moonta Mines Revival, South Australia in 1874; and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Baptist Nova Scotia Revival, 1880. By covering such a broad geographical basis, the book should appeal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to scholars interested in similar awakenings which occurred contemporaneously with the specific revivals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examined here. For instance, those concerned with the 1859 Revival in Ulster will benefit by comparing it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the awakening in Forfarshire. Hence this is an important volume for those engaged in comparative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies, especially within a transatlantic context. It may be wondered why the author has chosen to examine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1342)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 November, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Bebbington)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199575480)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(320pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Daniel Ritchie)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 207.3317 179.5795 221.3237 191.4595 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R 26 0 R 29 0 R 32 0 R 35 0 R 38 0 R 41 0 R 44 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 9560 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(several instances of revival, as opposed to simply offering a general survey of evangelical awakenings. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Bebbington basically maintains that the study of localised instances of revivalism helps us to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accurately comprehend the true nature of such phenomena. The author points out that a micro-history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach has been successfully employed in other areas of religious history, the most conspicuous recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example being Eamon Duffy?s portrayal of the Reformation in an English village.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 428.624 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 428.624 738.051 m 442.616 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 442.616 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Consequently, it is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(false dichotomy to assume that micro-history and macro-history are opposed to one another. As long as one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(keeps in mind the broader context, micro-history can be immensely valuable in demonstrating how broader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas were lived out and movements experienced in local situations.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 360.632 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 360.632 695.283 m 374.624 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 374.624 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This helps the historian avoid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reductionist conclusions and sweeping generalisations, which are often a problem with more general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surveys. It really is only a matter of common sense that specific detail, based on diligent empirical research, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is required in order to understand a revival in any depth \(p. 229\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of course, a review of a monograph of this nature immediately raises questions as to what type of revivals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are being considered and how is revival being defined. In this volume, the author?s over-riding concern is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with revival among evangelicals. He does, nevertheless, recognise that non-evangelical groups had their own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(variants of revivalism \(the Anglo-Catholics being one example\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 343.304 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 343.304 583.491 m 357.296 583.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.296 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Unlike other commentators on revivals, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Bebbington is aware of the fact that various self-confessed evangelicals were not entirely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(committed to all forms of popular revivalism.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 253.004 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 253.004 554.979 m 266.996 554.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 266.996 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Recognition of this, however, does not obscure the general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(principle concerning the centrality of revival as a phenomenon at the core of evangelical Protestant identity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout the Victorian era. In terms of definition, revivals were usually considered to be periods when the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(church received a special outpouring of the Holy Spirit, which resulted in the revitalisation of the church and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the conversion of sinners to Christ. It is helpful that Professor Bebbington?s opening chapter \(?The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trajectory of revival?\) includes an interesting taxonomy of how revival was defined in various traditions. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claims that revival, in the modern sense, was a discovery of Scottish Presbyterianism in the 17th century. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is argued that these revivals were orderly, carefully controlled by the parish minister, and whenever )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excitement didthreaten to break out it was quickly restrained.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 330.632 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 330.632 440.931 m 344.624 440.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 344.624 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Other patterns of revival subsequently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerged, often associated with Methodism, which stressed the need for immediate conversion and permitted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uninhibited self-expression. During the 19th century, such separate denominational approaches did not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remain intact; instead there was a process of synthesis as a result of the exuberance at Kentucky in 1801 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the emergence of Charles G. Finney?s new measures. Professor Bebbington argues that this led to the rise of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a homogeneous evangelical approach to awakenings, which retained many features of Methodist revivalism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but also attracted people from other denominations owing to their common evangelicalism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Victorian Religious Revivals)] TJ ET BT 171.344 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( contributes significantly to the historiographical debate concerning the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretation of the revival phenomenon. The first ideological outlook that the author critiques is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(providentialist school of history, often associated with J. Edwin Orr?s work on revivals.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 455.636 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 455.636 300.627 m 469.628 300.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 469.628 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Professor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bebbington does not dispute the validity of appealing to the supernatural, but the failure of historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(belonging to this school to adopt a sufficiently analytical method. In particular, he suggests that Dr Orr spent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(too much time focusing on what revivals had in common, rather than what distinguished them. On the other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hand, a more recent contributor to this school of thought, Iain H. Murray, has argued that the failure to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account for the supernatural explains why historians have been unable to elucidate the difference between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the revivals associated with the First Great Awakening and the revivalism associated with Charles G. Finney.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 200.835 m 48.008 200.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.008 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The historical theologian, R. Scott Clark, has noted that this perspective effectively poisons the well by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assuming what it has not proved. It presumes that one cannot come to the conclusion that revivals have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unhelpful to the church if one is a believer in providence.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 308.960 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 308.960 172.323 m 322.952 172.323 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 322.952 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This perspective is self-defeating, because )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surely the revivals which Mr Murray designates as spurious also came about in the providence of God as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well. Thus it is inadequate to appeal to providence in order to determine which revivals are good or bad. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(observation further confirms the analysis of the ecclesiastical historian and Reformed scholar, Carl Trueman. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In his recent book on historical method )] TJ ET BT 224.996 116.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Histories and Fallacies)] TJ ET BT 337.664 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Professor Trueman refers to the 9/11 attacks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as an example of the insufficiency of appealing to providence to explain the secondary causes of historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events. He states, ?[m]ost believers in providence, when pushed, would agree that all things are providential; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thus, if the Twin Towers had not been attacked that day, it would still have been providential?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 488.288 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 488.288 72.531 m 508.280 72.531 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 508.280 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Hence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the recognition of divine providence as the universal cause of why everything happens does not tell us why )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 428.6237 738.3655 442.6157 750.2455 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 360.6317 695.5975 374.6237 707.4775 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 343.3037 583.8055 357.2957 595.6855 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 253.0037 555.2935 266.9957 567.1735 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 330.6317 441.2455 344.6237 453.1255 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 455.6357 300.9415 469.6277 312.8215 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 37 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 201.1495 48.0077 213.0295 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 40 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 308.9597 172.6375 322.9517 184.5175 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 43 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 488.2877 72.8455 508.2797 84.7255 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 49 0 R 52 0 R 55 0 R 58 0 R 61 0 R 64 0 R 67 0 R 70 0 R 73 0 R 76 0 R 79 0 R 82 0 R ] /Contents 47 0 R >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Length 9952 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specific historical episodes occurred in the way that they did, which is what the historian has to do when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysing particular events.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The next school of thought Professor Bebbington considers is the ?psychological interpretation? offered by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians such as F. M. Davenport and Elizabeth Nottingham. This school, working on the suppositions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Social Darwinism, argued that revivals should be assigned to a low stage on the scale of civilisation, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which people had their imaginations inflamed as a result of mob psychology to the point that they reverted to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?primitive? characteristics.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 163.316 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 163.316 697.539 m 183.308 697.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 183.308 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The obvious problem with this is that not all preachers who sought to work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up a revival were successful, thus such an over-arching explanation is insufficient. Likewise, the ?Frontier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thesis? is also rejected, as it fails to account for revivals which took place in localities with developed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agrarian economies. The English Marxist historian, E. P. Thompson, regarded revivalism \(especially of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Methodist variety\) as a form of social control in which working-class people were submitted to ?psychic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploitation? and ?emotional violence? in order to divert them from radical social action through a ?psychic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process of counter-revolution?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 183.644 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 183.644 612.003 m 203.636 612.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 203.636 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Although it may be the case that some revivals were the works of elites )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trying to control the masses, this in no way justifies the reduction of revivalism to social control. In other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contexts, as the laity felt sufficiently empowered to throw off clerical shackles, evangelicalism and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revivalism were populist movements that led to the democratisation of Christianity.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 434.996 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 434.996 569.235 m 454.988 569.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 454.988 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It could even be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argued that movements such as the 1859 Ulster Revival were actually examples of religious anarchy, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opposed to being instances of authoritarian social control.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 311.312 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 311.312 540.723 m 331.304 540.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 331.304 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( A related approach to revivals is the assertion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that they were the products of economic change. The difficulty with this view is establishing a definite link )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between economic conditions and revivals. Clearly the 1857?8 Revival in America was stimulated by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(financial collapse )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 121.328 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 121.328 497.955 m 141.320 497.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 141.320 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; however, there are other cases were revivals took place in a context of economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prosperity \(p. 32\). Indeed, Eric Hobsbawm acknowledged there was no inextricable link between economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depression and revivalism, as he recognised that revivals did not normally occur when the economy was at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its worst.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 78.020 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(16\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 78.020 455.187 m 98.012 455.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 98.012 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Finally, the social integration thesis, that presents revivals as events which consolidated the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nation in which they took place, does appear to have some substance. It is true that people such as William )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wilberforce regarded evangelicalism as essential to national well-being.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 380.600 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(17\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 380.600 426.675 m 400.592 426.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 400.592 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The 1859 Revival in Ulster, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(furthermore, was a boost to Protestant self-confidence and it may have contributed to the estrangement of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(province from the rest of Ireland. Obviously, this is important in terms of understanding the emergence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Northern Ireland state. There may be other examples where this is also true, but this will have to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(determined on a case-by-case basis, and not on an ideological assumption that revivalism is a tool of nation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(building. Hence David Hempton and Myrtle Hill correctly warn that revivalism cannot be reduced to mere )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural and sociological categories, as it has an internal dynamic of its own.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 400.628 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(18\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 400.628 341.139 m 420.620 341.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 420.620 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( All of the above approaches )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may have some relevance to specific instances of revivalism, but to suppose that all revivals can be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explained in such terms is crudely reductionist.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 260.324 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(19\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 260.324 312.627 m 280.316 312.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 280.316 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Professor Bebbington?s critique of the existing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography would seem to confirm that this case-by-case approach is correct.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In addition to the above historiographical critiques, there are various other major interpretative issues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addressed in this volume. First, the empirical evidence does not appear to support a sharp dichotomy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between ?prayed down? and ?worked up? revivals. Using the examples of the Cornish Revival in 1849 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the revival at Moonta Mines in 1875, it appears that popular zeal for revival was a major reason why such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events occurred.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 112.652 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(20\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 112.652 215.091 m 132.644 215.091 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 132.644 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In relation to the 1859 Revival in Ulster, Janice Holmes concludes that revivalism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?gloried in the abandonment of rationality?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 244.652 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(21\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 244.652 200.835 m 264.644 200.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 264.644 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This, however, was not the case in all revivals. Professor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bebbington points out that even the revival among the Primitive Methodists at Weardale was led by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?cerebral figure? Colin McKechnie. Moreover, he was assisted by various lay people who also placed a high )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(value on learning and displayed evidence of considerable intellectual discrimination. One of McKechnie?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associates, John Snaith, even published a monograph on the philosopher Hegel \(pp 123-9\). Thus, in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minds of these revivalists, there was no antithesis between self-improvement and revivalism. In light of this, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one is reminded of E. P. Thompson?s comment, ?We are often tempted to forgive Methodism some of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sins when we recollect that at least it gave children and adults rudimentary education in its Sunday schools?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(22\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 86.787 m 54.008 86.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 54.008 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( So although revivalism has often been associated with irrationalism, it is unsafe to assume that every )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outbreak of revival can be characterised in this way. Professor Bebbington also argues that revivalism should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not be assessed in terms of appeals to gender differences. In relation to the revival at North Carolina in 1857, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 48 0 obj [46 0 R /Fit] endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 163.3157 697.8535 183.3077 709.7335 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 51 0 obj [46 0 R /Fit] endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 183.6437 612.3175 203.6357 624.1975 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 54 0 obj [46 0 R /Fit] endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 56 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 434.9957 569.5495 454.9877 581.4295 ] >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 57 0 obj [46 0 R /Fit] endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 59 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 311.3117 541.0375 331.3037 552.9175 ] >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 60 0 obj [46 0 R /Fit] endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 62 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 121.3277 498.2695 141.3197 510.1495 ] >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 63 0 obj [46 0 R /Fit] endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 65 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 78.0197 455.5015 98.0117 467.3815 ] >> endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 66 0 obj [46 0 R /Fit] endobj 67 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 68 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 380.5997 426.9895 400.5917 438.8695 ] >> endobj 68 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 69 0 obj [46 0 R /Fit] endobj 70 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 71 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 400.6277 341.4535 420.6197 353.3335 ] >> endobj 71 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 72 0 obj [46 0 R /Fit] endobj 73 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 74 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 260.3237 312.9415 280.3157 324.8215 ] >> endobj 74 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 75 0 obj [46 0 R /Fit] endobj 76 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 77 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 112.6517 215.4055 132.6437 227.2855 ] >> endobj 77 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 78 0 obj [46 0 R /Fit] endobj 79 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 80 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 244.6517 201.1495 264.6437 213.0295 ] >> endobj 80 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 81 0 obj [46 0 R /Fit] endobj 82 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 83 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 87.1015 54.0077 98.9815 ] >> endobj 83 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 84 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 87 0 R 90 0 R 93 0 R ] /Contents 85 0 R >> endobj 85 0 obj << /Length 8185 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he argues that women made no specific emotional input to the revival \(p. 152\). On the other hand, in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assessment of the Ferryden Revival, the author admits that contemporary accounts of physical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manifestations among men and women may have been distorted by those with a vested interest in not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wishing to convey the impression that the movement was an outburst of female hysteria \(p. 173\). It also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appears from Kenneth Jeffrey?s research on the 1858?62 Revival in the north east of Scotland that there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were some cases where women were more prone to the physical manifestations than men.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 465.248 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(23\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 465.248 723.795 m 485.240 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 485.240 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This point )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(raises important methodological questions concerning the use of sources, especially those written by revival-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supporting clerics who wished to downplay the more exotic expressions of revivalism. Distinguishing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between rhetoric and reality in these cases is not easy, and requires the historian to exercise considerable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discernment.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A recurring theme in this volume is the clash between the evangelical Enlightenment and the Romantic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Movement, with the latter?s emphasis on emotion as opposed to reason.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 379.316 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(24\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 379.316 626.259 m 399.308 626.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 399.308 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The author suggests the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ferryden Revival was an instance of radical evangelicals, influenced by Romanticism, placing greater )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasis on instant conversion and immediate assurance, while showing more tolerance towards the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(physical phenomena than moderates who still adhered to Enlightenment rationality. This divergence goes a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(long way to explaining why moderates generally held a dualistic concept of revivals \(they were good, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were also accompanied with some regrettable incidental physical evils\), while the radicals held a monistic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(view that the physical manifestations were part of the work of God \(pp. 176?9, 185, 191\). Furthermore, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claims that the view of holiness taught at Moonta, that sanctification was not a matter of strenuous effort but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of peaceful trust, was tinged with Romanticism. Indeed, it appears that ?[t]hey were practising Keswick )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spirituality before Keswick began? \(p. 224\). These are fine examples of how trends in theology were shaped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by wider cultural and intellectual movements. Another interesting example of the interaction between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religion and society is the relationship between urbanisation and revivalism. Professor Bebbington argues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that urbanization promoted the synthetic approach to revival, being neither explicitly Calvinist nor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arminian. Since revival meetings in urban centres were often funded by local business elites, it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important to appeal to the widest possible audience \(pp 13?14\). This raises interesting questions concerning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the relationship between evangelism and commercial practices in the 19th century. The above examples )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adequately highlight how refusing to reduce the explanation of revivalism to social, cultural, economic or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political factors does not require the historian to only examine religious history in theological terms. At the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same time, a failure to adequately understand theology is surely fatal to the correct understanding of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of belief. Professor Bebbington?s grasp of theology and his working knowledge of the Bible are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearly evident in this book. This should be expected of all historians of evangelicalism: after all, to write )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political or economic history without an adequate comprehension of politics or economics would surely be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(irrational.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In conclusion, )] TJ ET BT 105.008 287.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Victorian Religious Revivals)] TJ ET BT 242.336 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a crucial source for the study of revivalism and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evangelicalism. Although the employment of a case-studies approach could have been problematic, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author?s decision to examine the revivals in chronological order significantly contributed to the book having )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a more holistic feel than is sometimestrue ofworks of this nature. While the reviewer was primarily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interested in the historiographical and interpretative questions which the book addressed, the analysis of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specific revivals is of a high order. Each chapter is based on analysis of the primary sources related to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different revivals. This is a considerable feat when one considers that seven different movements, on three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continents, have been examined. The present reviewer is of the opinion that the chapter on the Weardale )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revival was the most significant, owing to its correction of the myth that Methodists were all raving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fanatics. There are, nonetheless, a few places were the reviewer would perhaps diverge from the author. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Bebbington?s characterisation of the Scottish Presbyterian approach to assurance perhaps needs to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be qualified further. He says that ?[t]here was often less firmness about the teaching of assurance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(salvation than in several other traditions. It was sometimes considered to be an actual advantage to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uncertain about being accepted by God, because then a sinner would persist in seeking salvation until the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(goal was definitely reached? \(p. 4\). I suspect that he means that Scottish Presbyterians denied that assurance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was of the essence of faith or that infallible assurance could be immediately conferred upon new converts. If )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so, that is basically what the Westminster Confession teaches on the issue.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 390.980 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(25\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 390.980 58.275 m 410.972 58.275 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 410.972 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Nevertheless, it would be )] TJ ET endstream endobj 86 0 obj [84 0 R /Fit] endobj 87 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 88 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 465.2477 724.1095 485.2397 735.9895 ] >> endobj 88 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 89 0 obj [84 0 R /Fit] endobj 90 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 91 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 379.3157 626.5735 399.3077 638.4535 ] >> endobj 91 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 92 0 obj [84 0 R /Fit] endobj 93 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 94 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 390.9797 58.5895 410.9717 70.4695 ] >> endobj 94 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 95 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 98 0 R 101 0 R 104 0 R 106 0 R 108 0 R 110 0 R 112 0 R 114 0 R 116 0 R 118 0 R 120 0 R ] /Contents 96 0 R >> endobj 96 0 obj << /Length 9785 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(helpful to stress further that early Scottish Presbyterians placed great emphasis upon the possibility of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christian having full assurance \(even if they believed that infallible assurance was not meant for new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(converts\). The National Covenant of Scotland \(1638\), for instance, condemns the Pope for ?his general and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doubtsome faith?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 120.008 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(26\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 120.008 752.307 m 140.000 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 140.000 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Covenanter divines such as George Gillespie and David Dickson, moreover, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associated sceptical views concerning the possibility of the assurance of salvation with Roman Catholicism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Laudian Prelacy, and Arminianism.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 204.992 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(27\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 204.992 723.795 m 224.984 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 224.984 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It is also debateable if there is really as much difference between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Presbyterian and Methodist revivals as is sometimes supposed. The awakenings at the Kirk O?Shotts in 1625 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and at Cambuslang in 1742 do not appear too dissimilar to revivals among Methodists \(p. 5\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 479.660 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(28\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 479.660 695.283 m 499.652 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 499.652 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( While the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reviewer would concur that E. P. Thompson?s theory of social control cannot pass the test of empirical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research, one would question whether or not the decline in popularity of such interpretations should be so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(closely linked to the fall of the Soviet Union \(p. 31\). If this is correct, then it appears to be a weak basis upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which to reject Marxist interpretations. Many Marxists \(especially Trotskyites\) disagree with the variant of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marxism represented by the Soviet Union; thus the latter?s fall alone cannot represent conclusive evidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the weakness of Marxist history. Aside from these minor points, in the judgment of the current reviewer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Bebbington has successfully integrated analysis of specific revivals into a broader study of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international revivalism in the Victorian age. The book should be carefully perused by all scholars of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revivalism and evangelicalism, and the chapters on specific revivals are a good model for those writing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(journal articles on similar themes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 519.219 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 488.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For examples of what Professor Bebbington is referring to, see Susan O?Brien, ?A transatlantic )] TJ ET BT 64.016 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community of saints: the great awakening and the first evangelical network, 1735?1755?, )] TJ ET BT 495.944 474.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(American )] TJ ET BT 64.016 460.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical Review)] TJ ET BT 150.344 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 91, 4 \(October 1986\), 811?32. Richard Carwardine, )] TJ ET BT 407.288 460.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Transatlantic Revivalism: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 445.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Popular Evangelicalism in Britain and America, 1790?1865)] TJ ET BT 354.344 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1978; Milton Keynes, 2006\). John )] TJ ET BT 64.016 431.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wolffe, )] TJ ET BT 104.000 431.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Expansion of Evangelicalism: The Age of Wilberforce, More, Chalmers and Finney)] TJ ET BT 64.016 417.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Leicester, 2006\), p. 84.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 178.988 417.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 178.988 415.923 m 232.976 415.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 403.066 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 403.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eamon Duffy, )] TJ ET BT 135.668 403.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Voices of Morebath: Reformation and Rebellion in an English Village)] TJ ET BT 492.992 403.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New )] TJ ET BT 64.016 388.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Haven, CT, 2001\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 153.668 388.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 153.668 387.411 m 207.656 387.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 374.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 374.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As an example of weaving together the study of piety and culture, Professor Bebbington recommends )] TJ ET BT 64.016 360.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A. R. Holmes, )] TJ ET BT 136.016 360.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Shaping of Ulster Presbyterian Belief and Practice, 1770?1840)] TJ ET BT 462.332 360.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 2006\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 346.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 344.643 m 118.004 344.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 331.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 331.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For more on Anglo-Catholic revivals, see John Kent, )] TJ ET BT 321.320 331.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Holding the Fort: Studies in Victorian Revivalism)] TJ ET BT 64.016 317.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1978\), pp 236?94; P. B. Nockles, ?The Oxford Movement as religious revival and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 303.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resurgence? in )] TJ ET BT 136.652 303.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Studies in Church History 44: Revival and Resurgence in Christian History)] TJ ET BT 499.304 303.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Kate )] TJ ET BT 64.016 289.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cooper and Jeremy Gregory \(Rochester, 2008\), pp. 214?24.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 351.620 289.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 351.620 287.619 m 405.608 287.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 274.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 274.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For examples of evangelicals who either opposed or had significant reservations about an evangelical )] TJ ET BT 64.016 260.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(awakening, see A. R. Holmes, ?The Ulster Revival of 1859: causes, controversies and consequences?, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 246.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Ecclesiastical History)] TJ ET BT 222.344 246.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 63, 3 \(July 2012\), 505?7.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 348.668 246.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 348.668 244.851 m 402.656 244.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 231.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 231.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There was significant debate about this among Ulster evangelicals in the 19th century. In response to )] TJ ET BT 64.016 217.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the claim that the 1859 Revival was the modern equivalent of earlier Scottish revivals, the Reverend )] TJ ET BT 64.016 203.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Isaac Nelson \(while recognising some credulity among early Presbyterians\) vehemently denied this. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 189.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conversely, an Anglican critic of the movement, the Reverend William McIlwaine, traced the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 174.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extravagances of 1859 back to the early Scottish Presbyterians. Cf. Isaac Nelson, )] TJ ET BT 455.600 174.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Year of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 160.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Delusion: A Review of ?The Year of Grace? )] TJ ET BT 278.660 160.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Belfast, 1860?6\), pp. 10?13; Daniel Ritchie, ?William )] TJ ET BT 64.016 146.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McIlwaine and the 1859 Revival in Ulster: a study of Anglican and evangelical identities?, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 132.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forthcoming article.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 159.332 132.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 159.332 130.803 m 213.320 130.803 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 117.946 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 117.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. E. Orr, )] TJ ET BT 110.672 117.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Second Evangelical Awakening in Britain)] TJ ET BT 332.324 117.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1949\); idem, )] TJ ET BT 446.984 117.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Fervent Prayer: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 103.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Worldwide Impact of the Great Awakening of 1858)] TJ ET BT 330.668 103.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Chicago, 1974\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 414.656 103.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 414.656 102.291 m 468.644 102.291 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 89.434 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 89.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I. H. Murray, )] TJ ET BT 130.664 89.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Revival and Revivalism: The Making and Marring of American Revivalism 1750?1858)] TJ ET BT 64.016 75.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Edinburgh, 1994\), pp. xvii-xx. Mr Murray regards the revivals which he approves of as true )] TJ ET BT 64.016 60.917 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?revivals?, but rejects the revivals based on Finneyite principles as ?revivalism?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 451.280 60.917 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 451.280 59.523 m 505.268 59.523 l S endstream endobj 97 0 obj [95 0 R /Fit] endobj 98 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 99 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 120.0077 752.6215 139.9997 764.5015 ] >> endobj 99 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 100 0 obj [95 0 R /Fit] endobj 101 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 102 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 204.9917 724.1095 224.9837 735.9895 ] >> endobj 102 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 103 0 obj [95 0 R /Fit] endobj 104 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 105 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 479.6597 695.5975 499.6517 707.4775 ] >> endobj 105 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 106 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 107 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 178.9877 416.2375 232.9757 428.1175 ] >> endobj 107 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 108 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 109 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 153.6677 387.7255 207.6557 399.6055 ] >> endobj 109 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 110 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 111 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 344.9575 118.0037 356.8375 ] >> endobj 111 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 112 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 113 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 351.6197 287.9335 405.6077 299.8135 ] >> endobj 113 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 114 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 115 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 348.6677 245.1655 402.6557 257.0455 ] >> endobj 115 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 28 0 R >> endobj 116 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 117 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 159.3317 131.1175 213.3197 142.9975 ] >> endobj 117 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 31 0 R >> endobj 118 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 119 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 414.6557 102.6055 468.6437 114.4855 ] >> endobj 119 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 34 0 R >> endobj 120 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 121 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 451.2797 59.8375 505.2677 71.7175 ] >> endobj 121 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 37 0 R >> endobj 122 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 124 0 R 126 0 R 128 0 R 130 0 R 132 0 R 134 0 R 136 0 R 138 0 R 140 0 R 142 0 R 144 0 R 146 0 R 148 0 R 150 0 R 152 0 R 154 0 R 156 0 R 158 0 R 160 0 R 162 0 R 164 0 R 166 0 R 168 0 R 170 0 R ] /Contents 123 0 R >> endobj 123 0 obj << /Length 11920 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 796.474 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. S. Clark, )] TJ ET BT 123.356 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Recovering the Reformed Confession: Our Theology, Piety, and Practice)] TJ ET BT 473.972 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Phillipsburg, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(NJ, 2008\), pp. 81?2.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 161.672 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 161.672 780.819 m 215.660 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 767.962 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(C. R. Trueman, )] TJ ET BT 141.344 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Histories and Fallacies: Problems Faced in the Writing of History)] TJ ET BT 461.000 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Wheaton, IL, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010\), p. 167.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 131.012 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 131.012 752.307 m 191.000 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 739.450 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(F. M. Davenport, )] TJ ET BT 150.008 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Primitive Traits in Religious Revivals: A Study in Mental and Social Evolution)] TJ ET BT 527.672 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New )] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(York, NY, 1917\), pp. vii?ix.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 200.336 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 200.336 723.795 m 260.324 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 710.938 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(E. P. Thompson, )] TJ ET BT 147.356 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Making of the English Working Class )] TJ ET BT 351.692 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Harmondsworth, 1968\), pp. 411, 418?19, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(428?30.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 102.344 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 102.344 695.283 m 162.332 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 682.426 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(N. O. Hatch, )] TJ ET BT 128.000 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Democratization of American Christianity)] TJ ET BT 352.004 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New Haven, CT, 1989\), pp. 9? 10.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 524.636 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 524.636 681.027 m 552.296 681.027 l S BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 666.771 m 96.344 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 653.914 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See the outbreak of 1859 in Holmes, ?Ulster Revival?, pp 492-3.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 374.972 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 374.972 652.515 m 434.960 652.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 639.658 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Carwardine, ?The religious revival of 1857?8 in the United States?, in )] TJ ET BT 444.620 639.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Studies in Church )] TJ ET BT 64.016 625.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History 15: Biographical and Sociological Problems for the Church Historian)] TJ ET BT 441.020 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Derek Baker )] TJ ET BT 64.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford, 1978\), pp. 396?7.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 192.992 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 192.992 609.747 m 252.980 609.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 596.890 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(16.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(E. J. Hobsbawm, )] TJ ET BT 148.676 596.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Labouring Men: Studies in the History of Labour)] TJ ET BT 385.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1968\), p. 32.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 496.340 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(16\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 496.340 595.491 m 556.328 595.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 582.634 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark Hutchinson and John Wolffe, )] TJ ET BT 237.320 582.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Short History of Global Evangelicalism)] TJ ET BT 438.320 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 2012\), p. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(63.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 79.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(17\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 79.016 566.979 m 139.004 566.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 554.122 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(18.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Hempton and Myrtle Hill, )] TJ ET BT 224.672 554.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Evangelical Protestantism in Ulster Society 1740?1890)] TJ ET BT 491.660 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1992\), p. 160.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 131.012 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(18\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 131.012 538.467 m 191.000 538.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 525.610 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cf. S. J. Connolly, ?The moving statue and the turtle dove: approaches to the history of Irish religion?, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 511.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Irish Economic and Social History)] TJ ET BT 230.672 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 31 \(2004\), p. 17; R. F. G. Holmes, ?The 1859 Revival )] TJ ET BT 64.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconsidered?, new introduction to J. T. Carson, )] TJ ET BT 297.644 497.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(God?s River in Spate: The Story of the Religious )] TJ ET BT 64.016 482.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Awakening in Ulster in 1859)] TJ ET BT 202.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2nd edn, Belfast, 1994\), p. xii.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 355.004 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(19\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 355.004 481.443 m 414.992 481.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 468.586 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Holmes, )] TJ ET BT 107.348 468.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Shaping)] TJ ET BT 146.684 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 313.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 185.684 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(20\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 185.684 467.187 m 245.672 467.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 454.330 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(21.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Janice Holmes, )] TJ ET BT 140.336 454.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Religious Revivals in Britain and Ireland 1859?1905)] TJ ET BT 395.000 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Dublin, 2000\), p. 40.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 502.328 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 502.328 452.931 m 542.324 452.931 l S BT 64.016 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 438.675 m 84.008 438.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 425.818 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(22.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thompson, )] TJ ET BT 121.352 425.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Working Class)] TJ ET BT 232.028 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 389.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 271.028 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(22\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 271.028 424.419 m 331.016 424.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 411.562 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(23.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 411.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(K. S. Jeffrey, )] TJ ET BT 130.664 411.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(When the Lord Walked the Land: The 1858?62 Revival in the North East of Scotland)] TJ ET BT 64.016 397.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Carlisle, 2002\), p. 207.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 178.340 397.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(23\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 178.340 395.907 m 238.328 395.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 383.050 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(24.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 383.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The issue of Romanticism is discussed in some of the author?s other writings. See D. W. 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