%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 19 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141124003756+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141124003756+00'00') /Title (The Spanish Holocaust: Inquisition and Extermination in Twentieth-Century Spain) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4495 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Spanish Holocaust: Inquisition and Extermination in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Twentieth-Century Spain)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Preston is a renowned historian, and is considered one of the world?s leading experts on 20th-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spanish history. His book on the genocidal actions taken against Spanish civilians between 1936 and 1945 is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an important resource that has changed historiography on the period. From the perceived failures of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elected government to the rise of Francisco Franco and his subsequent authoritative takeover of Spain \(that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lasted 41 years\), his book covers these events in painstaking detail. The ensuing, bloody civil war led to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(death of hundreds of thousands, and the author carefully detailed every aspect of how the murders enfolded. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Repression occurred on both sides, and Preston carefully laid out the origins of extermination in Spain, from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the legacy of the )] TJ ET BT 116.660 152.147 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Africanistas)] TJ ET BT 174.668 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, to emerging genocidal rhetoric to finally murder on a massive scale. He has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(written a text that is masterly and authoritative in scope, seeking to place the extermination of the Spanish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during this period in analysis of genocide. He quite evenly, detailed the crimes against humanity of both the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(left and the right as well as the subsequent concealment of the same. The radical rightists, the army, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even citizen mobs carried out mass acts of genocide against civilians who had been categorized, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dehumanized, and purposely targeted for death. Preston, who in March 2012 speaking at the Embassy of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spain in London, argued that the Francoists, like Francisco Franco and other military ? and civilian ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conspirators killed more Spanish than the Nazis killed Germans.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 342.980 52.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 342.980 50.961 m 356.972 50.961 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 356.972 52.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Preston begins the text with a prologue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1345)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 8 November, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Preston)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780002556347)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(30.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(720pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harper Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wendy A. 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Franco, and many others, were )] TJ ET BT 286.964 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Africanistas)] TJ ET BT 344.972 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. These )] TJ ET BT 382.628 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Africanistas)] TJ ET BT 440.636 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( were veterans of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spanish colonial wars in North Africa. Like Franco, some were referred to as Bridegrooms of Death because )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of their extreme nationalistic belief that they should stop at nothing to free Spain from the degradation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(caused by modernists and others, even if this meant genocide. Preston attempts to argue that these events )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were, in part, a response to 20th-century modernity coupled with anti-Semitic, anti-Masonic, anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Communist, anti-decadency propaganda, and combined with additional propagandist constructs that saw )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other groups defined as an antagonistic threat, and therefore as an enemy to be exterminated. Few groups )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were left untouched, from across a broad socio-economic range. Farm-workers were depicted as subhuman, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but so were some university professors. Indeed, the Francoists saw modernity as a threat, and those who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defended it were put to death in barbaric ways.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parts one and two continue to explain how historical precedent set the stage for later events, the societal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upheavals, exterminationist policies, and later genocidal acts that defined so many of the actions of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radical right in their quest to destroy any defined enemy of the Spanish fatherland. The first two parts of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book explain how conflicts emerge in Spain before the Civil War, and also consider how societal upheavals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as well as differing ? sometimes extremist ? political ideologies set the stage for genocidal acts against the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(citizenry once the Francoists came to power. Preston?s careful chronological analysis of what preceded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(genocide is important and presents a complete picture of what predated Franco, what set precedent for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perpetrators, and why genocide eventually unfolded. Painstaking in detail, both major and minor figures are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(included in this analysis, as Preston is careful to explain that both sides, the left and the right, committed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(barbaric acts. Repression emerged after the military collapse, with criminality prevalent, and who were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encouraged to act against a predefined enemy. Thus, he argues that the rightists had intent, which was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(planned out \(although to be careful in considering this context, many actions were sporadic and led by mobs, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without any central plan issued\), and prepared for some time before the murders were carried out. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(militia rebels had a deliberate plan of extermination that emerged after the coup.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As the book unfolded, we learn about adolescent killing squads \(p. 202\) and other horrors perpetrated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against the populace. Even religious figures were fined, abused, and/or imprisoned for questioning the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actions of the regime, and soon thousands of clergy would be killed. Resistance seemed futile, as no one was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(untouched by these horrors. Perhaps more on bystanders, resisters, and upstanders could have been included; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surely there were more than the book suggested? Evacuations of citizens as well as media condemnation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the atrocities did occur, and certainly, the world media covered what was happening to the populace. People )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were tortured by being ?forced to drink castor oil and beaten? \(p. 202\). Children were often killed while their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parents were forced to watch in order to increase psychological suffering. The horrors continue to be detailed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Preston through every single part of the book. Part three addressesthe aftermath of the coup and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(momentous increase in genocide against citizens. The final three parts, from the autumn of 1936 on, address )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the increasing campaign of terror from Madrid, to Talavera de la Reina, to years past the end of the Second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World War. Were the actions of the killers a central act of state? Preston argued that yes, some acts were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part of centralized orders from the authorities, but early on, pogroms were led by the mobs. The explanation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the terror enacted against thousand and thousands of citizens is detailed exhaustively throughout the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(latter half of the text, while placing the acts in a construct that explains the events surrounding the abuses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and murders.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Throughout the book, Preston attempts to set the actions of the Francoists and the militia in a genocidal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context. Further, as mentioned, he begins the text with an explanation as to why he chose the word holocaust )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to describe what happened in Spain between 1936 and 1945. Arguing that the Spanish extermination had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?anti-Semitic rhetoric? \(p. xi\) he seeks to place the events that saw the extermination of hundreds of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thousands of Spanish citizens in a larger, yet relative construct to the Nazi Holocaust. Should the word )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(genocide have been used instead? One feels that had Preston made this decision, criticism about the work )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7738 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(itself would not focus so heavily on his use of the word holocaust.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The narrative topics are controversial, and debate among reviewers is still ongoing as to the specificity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crimes against humanity in this period, crimes that Preston has so thoroughly made a case for. One issue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centered on the very emotive word holocaust in the title of the book. Scholars may disagree with Preston?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intent with the use of the word holocaust; however, it remains an undeniable fact that thousands of Spanish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(citizens died in Nazi camps, placing these victims in the larger Nazi Holocaust construct. What about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other victims who died not by the hands of the Nazis and their non-Spanish collaborators? Indisputably, they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were also victims of genocide. Why the connections beyond the Nazi Spanish victims? There are parallels )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that are undeniable; in 1933, after the Nazi concentration camp Dachau was opened, Juan Tusquets Terrats, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(priest and later collaborator of Franco, a vehement anti-Masonist and anti-Semite, was invited to tour the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(camp, later remarking that ?they [Nazis] did it [issue the invitation] to show what we had to do in Spain? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(36\). Spanish refugees died in several Nazi camps, including Mauthausen, where ?about 60 per cent of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spanish Republicans who died in German camps perished? \(p. 516\). Conversely, Franco allowed Jews to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enter Spain as a passageway out of Europe, and other Francoists saved Jews, especially in 1944, when some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hungarian Jews were given refuge. Using the word holocaust to describe what happened in Spain could be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argued as perhaps somewhat problematic, in that because it is, again, an emotive word, the usage detracts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from Preston?s line of reasoning, which was to present what happened to hundreds of thousands of people as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(genocide.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Genocide, using Preston?s text and research as reference, was committed and this fact was indisputable. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Preston was careful to state that in no way did he mean to equate the Nazi Holocaust with what happened in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spain; simply, he used the word to make a case for comparative analysis. Preston has argued that he does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(need to defend the use of holocaust, and has explained that he viewed it [holocaust] as having had myriad )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical constructs; consequently, in the aforementioned 2012 speaking engagement he himself explained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that his purposeful use of the word holocaust was meant to shock. Even so, Preston?s narrative suggested )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that there were indeed deeper connections to the Nazis than previously understood. Therefore, his argument )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supports additional investigation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From 1936?39, rhetoric against the targeted Spanish citizens included conflation with anti-Semitism; further, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language used included such as the need for extermination because of a regimental constructed connection )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with not only Judaism, but Bolshevism as well. Having not been previous placed in the category of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(millions of non-Jewish other victims targeted by the Nazi regime and their collaborators Preston?s argument )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the placement of the victims within the context of genocide indeed needs further extrapolation. He has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argued that the usage of the word holocaust was not used to identify actions against Jews until the Nazi )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Holocaust. That is simply not correct. One of the first recorded usages of the word holocaust to describe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actions against the Jews occurred in 1189 by a court chronicler of Richard I. Was the word holocaust used in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other ways to describe events that did not include Nazi victims? Yes, but in the second half of the 20th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, and until today, it has been used historically in the context of the Nazi Holocaust. In a 29 June 2010 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(article in the )] TJ ET BT 97.004 247.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Los Angeles Times)] TJ ET BT 187.004 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Marvin Hier argued that the use of the word in any other context is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incorrect, as ?The Holocaust had one purpose: the total annihilation and extinction of a race? whereas the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events in Spain did not have this outcome.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 237.344 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 237.344 217.347 m 251.336 217.347 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 251.336 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Why did Preston then make the decision to use the word? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Surely he understood that many would take umbrage with it. Using the word seemingly suggested that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author wanted to conflate Franco with Hitler, and vice-versa; therefore, did the actions of both equal the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other?s deeds? Anyway, conflating the two men and their regimes remains difficult, as it is factually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incorrect to suggest this, and although Preston does not do so general readers could be left with this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impression. Doing so presents an enormous problem and could potentially dissuade readers from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approaching Preston?s authoritative work, which asserts that looking more closely at the crimes of the right )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could possibly place these events in a larger construct which includes the crimes of the Nazis. The wide-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spread use of anti-Semitism was one such argument that Preston made for considering his thesis.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Because anti-Semitism was prevalent, and used in propaganda to classify who was the ?enemy?, was it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correct to then suggest that the Francoist form of anti-Semitism be examined alongside that of Nazi-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constructed anti-Semitism? The Nazis had a clear goal of )] TJ ET BT 311.624 49.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Endlsung)] TJ ET BT 362.960 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or Final Solution to the Jewish )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 237.3437 217.6615 251.3357 229.5415 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 7514 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Question, and six million Jews \(and five million others\) were killed by them. The Nazis had an explicit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intent: kill every single Jew in the world. The Nazis, for total annihilation, specifically targeted the Jews, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this was not what happened in Spain. Can what happened in Spain be classified as genocide? Preston argues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that yes it must, but clearly stated that he did not mean to equate the Nazi Holocaust and Spanish genocide. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He chose to use the term holocaust so that discussion in a ?comparative context? can occur \(p. xii\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, although the text implies that the goal of the perpetrators was to exterminate the entire left ? of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which the targets included various groups, from feminists to vegetarians \(p. 37\) to ?Socialists, trade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unionists, Republican officials and schoolteachers? \(p. 204\) ? this is not borne out by the time the book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reaches its conclusion. More is needed on other civil wars of the late 19th and early 20th century, as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a clearer analysis as to if these events had, in any way, shaped or influenced what happened in Spain. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Additionally, analysis on European fascism, totalitarianism, and authoritarianism as well would have helped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contextualizing the Spanish events with Europe as a whole.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nonetheless, a debate over nomenclatures aside, what happened to Spanish citizens was genocidal, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deserves to be analyzed as such. There are eight stages of genocide currently recognized \(classification, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(symbolization, dehumanization organization, preparation, extermination, and denial\), and while not all have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be present in order for an event to be declared genocide, Preston makes an argument that what happened )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Spain during this period under investigation should be considered in this context. Did the events meet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some or most of those genocidal categories? The enemies of the state were classified and symbolized as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(threat; the rural proletariat were depicted as subhuman, and in some cases, denied their Spanish identity. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Until 1947, almost 200 Spanish concentration camps existed, and the slave labor system lasted for years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after Franco?s takeover of the government. Execution squads, vigilantes groups, and ?ordinary? citizen mobs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(set out to rape, plunder, and kill; the goal was extermination of the enemy. Denial abounded, and one aspect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Amnesty Act of 1977 forbade any punishment for perpetrators of crimes against humanity, effectively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(denying the victims justice.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One important aspect of the book is its ongoing analysis of crimes against women during this period, a topic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seldom discussed in other works. Throughout the narrative, Preston exposes horrific crimes against women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and girls. Women had their breasts branded like animals, typically because of the activities of their husbands )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(such as if he was a writer who critiqued the Francoists, or belonged to another group classified as the enemy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as teachers or unionists\) leading them to be damned by association. For example, women did not have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be associated herself with communism, but if her husband or other male relative was, she was constructed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a ?red? enemy who needed to be eradicated. Even women who did not marry in civil ceremonies were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(targeted. Feminists were also a target, and were identified as unnatural and classified as such. The abuses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knew no bounds. Pregnant women were abused, raped, shot. Women with children were tortured in freezing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prison cells with little to no food, water, medicine or even proper bedding \(p. 204\). One woman who had just )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(given birth was forced to climb stairs repeatedly, causing life-threatening injuries. The doctor at the jail )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(declined to help her, telling her that ?the best cure for her was death? \(p. 205\). Preston refers specifically to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(numerous rapes, yet the word rape is not found in the index. Problematic of course, and the entry in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(index for women only covers an association, and women prisoners and prisons. This could have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expanded upon in the index, especially because Preston includes throughout the narrative ongoing crimes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against women that, as the book details, increased as the state infrastructure disintegrated after the 1936 coup )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(d'tat. Mass rapes by Republican perpetrators were commonplace rather than not, with one example of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(young girl raped by 50 men \(p. 333\). Rape, often done right before the women were murdered, was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intentional \(shockingly defined by the perpetrators not as atrocities but as ?fun?\) \(p. 333\). Wives were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tortured and shot if their husbands could not be found. Enslavement of women and girls occurred, and gang )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rape was promoted; thus, rape was entirely systematic. These actions all had genocidal consequences; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therefore, scholars should begin to consider Preston?s narrative in a new light: that an argument be made that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gendercide was indeed committed against thousands of females. Subsequent Franco policies towards women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were misogynist, with women experiencing deeply unequal treatment until well after his death in 1975.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In conclusion, Preston?s scholarship rectifies historical falsisms that have overlooked this period of Franco )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spain, and appropriately portrays what happened as genocide. Still an ardent enthusiast of the period, the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R 51 0 R 53 0 R 55 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 7444 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author doggedly and indisputably exposed the criminals of both sides without fail. For this, his scholarship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in revealing the criminals is commendable, and his narrative remains highly deserving of praise. The book is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incredibly detailed, and is accompanied by over a hundred pages of footnotes, maps, images, and a concise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(glossary of terms. Numerous primary sources are used throughout the text, many unpublished. Also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extremely helpful to the non-Spanish experts is the use of maps as a point of reference for the numerous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cities and towns painstakingly detailed as centres of crimes against humanity. For those unfamiliar with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period, Sebastian Balfour?s )] TJ ET BT 169.328 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Deadly Embrace: Morocco and the Road to the Spanish Civil War )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 491.624 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 491.624 709.539 m 505.616 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 505.616 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a good )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(starting point before approaching Preston?s opus.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Spanish Holocaust)] TJ ET BT 145.352 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is absolutely, and most highly, recommended to scholars interested in genocide, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of Spain, the Spanish Civil War, and the regime of Franco.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 621.267 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 590.650 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Cultural Office-Spanish Embassy, )] TJ ET BT 252.992 590.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Book Launch: The Spanish Holocaust by Paul Preston)] TJ ET BT 515.312 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London, 5 March 2012 <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 184.436 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://vimeo.com/38161651>)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 184.436 574.995 m 324.884 574.995 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 327.884 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 341.876 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( [accessed 19 September 2012].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 494.168 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 494.168 574.995 m 548.156 574.995 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 562.138 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marvin Hier, ?Holocaust: a huge word made small?, )] TJ ET BT 318.632 562.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Los Angeles Times)] TJ ET BT 408.632 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 29 June 2010. <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://articles.latimes.com/2010/jun/29/opinion/la-oe-hier-holocaust-ove...)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 546.483 m 420.332 546.483 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 423.332 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 437.324 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( [accessed 1 October )] TJ ET BT 64.016 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 532.227 m 149.000 532.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 519.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sebastian Balfour, )] TJ ET BT 155.672 519.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Deadly Embrace: Morocco and the Road to the Spanish Civil War )] TJ ET BT 477.968 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford, 2002\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 503.715 m 118.004 503.715 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 478.853 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 464.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Independent)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 450.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/books/reviews/the-spanish-holocaust-inquisition-and-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 448.947 m 531.632 448.947 l S BT 34.016 436.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extermination-in-twentiethcentury-spain-by-paul-preston-7468500.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 434.691 m 378.968 434.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 381.968 436.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET BT 34.016 421.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Guardian)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2012/mar/09/spanish-holocaust-paul-preston-review)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 406.179 m 449.636 406.179 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 452.636 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5])] TJ ET BT 34.016 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Telegraph)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/books/historybookreviews/9103580/The-Spanish-Holocaust-by-Paul-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 377.667 m 539.636 377.667 l S BT 34.016 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Preston-review.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 363.411 m 131.672 363.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 134.672 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([6])] TJ ET BT 34.016 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Times Higher Education)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 334.899 m 270.668 334.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 273.668 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([7])] TJ ET BT 34.016 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ceasefire)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ceasefiremagazine.co.uk/spanish-holocaust-inquisition-extermination-twentieth-century-spain/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 306.387 m 517.280 306.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 520.280 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([8])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 303.055 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 285.275 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 285.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1345)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 283.881 m 328.316 283.881 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 258.904 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.504 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/39669)] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.104 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://vimeo.com/38161651>)] TJ ET BT 34.016 215.704 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://articles.latimes.com/2010/jun/29/opinion/la-oe-hier-holocaust-overuse-20100629>)] TJ ET BT 34.016 201.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4] http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/books/reviews/the-spanish-holocaust-inquisition-and-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.048 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extermination-in-twentiethcentury-spain-by-paul-preston-7468500.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 172.648 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5] http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2012/mar/09/spanish-holocaust-paul-preston-review)] TJ ET BT 34.016 158.363 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([6] http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/books/historybookreviews/9103580/The-Spanish-Holocaust-by-Paul-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 143.992 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Preston-review.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 129.592 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([7] http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp?storycode=419372)] TJ ET BT 34.016 115.192 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([8] http://ceasefiremagazine.co.uk/spanish-holocaust-inquisition-extermination-twentieth-century-spain/)] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj [26 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 491.6237 709.8535 505.6157 721.7335 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 184.4357 575.3095 324.8837 587.1895 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://vimeo.com/38161651>) >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot 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