%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 34 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818063812+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818063812+01'00') /Title (England?s Culture Wars: Puritan Reformation and its Enemies in the Interregnum, 1649-1660) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4199 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(England?s Culture Wars: Puritan Reformation and its Enemies in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(the Interregnum, 1649-1660)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bernard Capp explores how godly reformers in England sought to create a better society and assesses the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extent of their achievements at a time when Puritans were in an unprecedented position of power to reshape )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English society. Capp draws on many different sources from central and local government, personal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anecdotes and pamphlets to give a lively and fascinating account of godly reformation from Whitehall to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(small village parish. Indeed, it is often the highly personal and localised material which offers the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amusing, interesting and sometimes heartbreaking stories, and using this material Capp gives us many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(valuable insights into the lives of everyday people during a period of turbulent change. The book is divided )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into three parts: Part One discusses the mechanics of reformation, the institutions, the people and press, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which drove thedemand for a better society. Part Two focuses on offences or areas targeted for reform in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English society, highlighting the exact issue under examination, how it was tackled by the reformers and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(success, or otherwise, of such endeavours. Part Three focuses on local aspects of reformation outlining the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reasons for the variety of successes within the localities. There are several major questions within this study: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how far did the reformers tryto change local communities by uprooting traditional behaviour and imposing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their ideals? What methods would they employ and who would implement their programmes? What sort of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resistance to their ideas did they encounter within their local and wider communities? How much did the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1346)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 8 November, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bernard Capp)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199641789)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(288pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kirsteen MacKenzie)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7471 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reformers achieve? How far did those with different values evade the pressure for change?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Important points are laid down at the outset before these questions are fully tackled. As Bernard Capp )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrates, the drive for godly reformation in the Interregnum was a significant stage in a culture war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which had been going on for generations and where the fault-lines ran deep. On one side of this war there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were the reformers pushing for godly discipline, moral reformation, humility, sobriety and good order. On )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the other side there were those who enjoyed a free community spirit and revelled in traditional folk culture )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and festivities. These factions clashed publicly over their different values and these clashes took centre stage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the 1650s. Places like Bury St Edmunds in Suffolk had already sustained and actively encouraged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changes long before the 1650s. Parliament had passed acts prohibiting certain sexual offences, drunken )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disorder and blasphemy in the 16th and early 17th centuries. Certain aspects of godly reformation were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(already established and well known within English society. The Long Parliament, which put the Puritans in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(position of power during the civil wars, had attempted godly reformation but encountered fierce opposition, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leaving the reformation incomplete and confused by the end of the 1640s. The radical political changes in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1650s brought a driven elite to power, with new motivations for godly reformation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From the outset the Commonwealth had a major problem because many of those who actively supported a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reformation in English society hated the new regime for the execution of Charles I and the establishment of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(republic. As Capp notes, the reforming agenda attempted by the Commonwealth was highly ambitious and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians have declared that godly reformation failed during this decade ? even from the outset the regime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had trouble in removing all royal images from English society. The Rump Parliament also tried to reform the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditional English calendar by removing fairs and market days and Christmas. These reforms had a limited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact on daily life because the traditional calendar had been in use for generations and people continued )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(old customs.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In order to advance reformation the regime recognised the importance of the law and a legal framework to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support its work. As Bernard Capp highlights, many of the laws passed in the 1650s that are regarded as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?fanatical? by historians developed from earlier legislation. Acts regulating alehouses and certain sexual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offences were already well established by the time of the Tudor and Stuart Parliaments. However, to enforce )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these laws the State had to rely on dedicated men at all levels of government. As Bernard Capp makes clear, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the highly controversial circumstances surrounding the creation of the republic meant that parliament was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(left with a narrow base of supporters to enact and enforce reformation. This major weakness continued )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout the 1650s. Despite purges and the engagement that was imposed on boroughs and the judicial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(benches, loyalty fluctuated. When the Protectorate was established not everyone welcomed it with open )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arms and it had to earn the loyalty of reformers. Luckily for Cromwell, Capp argues, the magistrates were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more favourable and the Protectorate gradually attracted moderate support. However, this did not improve )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prospects for reformation, as the establishment of the Major-Generals shows. Another major instrument in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promoting godly reformation during the Interregnum was the printing press. The regime tightly controlled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the printing press as it tried to gain the public?s acceptance. Ministers favourable to the regime were given )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(access to the printing press and promoted reformation, but Royalists continued to use the press, encouraging )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the observance of festive and folk traditions whilst mocking Cromwell through poetry and bawdy song. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Capp concludes that the men and machinery behind godly reformation fell short of their ambitious goals.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part Two examines the way reformers tackled various misdemeanours, and the extent to which they were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successful in their efforts. The regime targeted blasphemy, swearing and non-observance of the Sabbath. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issues emerged partially as a result of the collapse of the national church. In particular blasphemy became a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concern, with the emergence of groups like the Ranters and the Quakers. Bernard Capp points out that one of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the root causes of the difficulty of suppression is to be found in the conflicts between previous and existing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(laws on blasphemy and the pledge in the Instrument of Government to allow liberty of conscience. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addition, although many ministers and city corporations were active in bringing cases to court, an indictment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(largely depended on the line being taken by the individual magistrate. Accusations of blasphemy were often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(used to curb anti-social behaviour, but they could also be used as means of attack in highly personal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disputes, leading to a misuse of law. The observance of the Sabbath was a long standing flashpoint for both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sides in the cultural war. Often the less observant would taunt those who were devoutly religious by playing )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7344 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(games outside church or their houses. Again, the enforcement of the law depended on the magistrate and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some magistrates did not enforce the law or were deliberately obstructive. There was some success in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forcing markets to open on different days and banning travelling on Sundays, but on the whole Sundays )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continued to be a day of rest, rather than a day of religious observance. Capp concludes that the reformers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failed in their goals.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author then turns to look at the central focus of godly reformation -the reformation of religion in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parish, where ?elect? Puritan reformers stood against the sinful majority. As Capp points out, there were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many problems with the Interregnum church. It had no leadership structure and a lack of ministers. Religion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often became a spectator sport with two opposing religious factions arguing, laughing and mocking their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opponents. In many cases, as Capp is at pains to point out, far from ?toleration?, puritan ministers often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(caused schism in parishes due to their exclusion of the majority and their uncompromising and short-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tempered stance. The sacrament of baptism, for example, became more confusing for all, ministers and laity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alike. With the focus on the elect, it was sometimes difficult for parishioners to get their children baptised. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addition, there were questions over whether an illegitimate child could be baptised. Faction and schismwere )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(onlypart of the story, however, as many puritan ministers became respected throughout their communities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for their pastoral work.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Bernard Capp highlights, the Interregnum was infamous for attempting to regulate the sexual behaviour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the community. The Adultery Act is indeed often remarked upon because the death penalty was aimed at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(married women only and not their partner in crime. The central question of this chapter is?Was it a decade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of fierce sexual oppression or one where the law was a mere ?scarecrow??? As Capp highlights, there were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legal barriers to the enactment of the Adultery Act which made it ineffective, including the gaping loophole )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about affairs between married men and single women. There were convictions, but often the evidence was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumstantial and many of the accusations came from neighbours. However, Capp argues that the fear of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(punishment under the Act was enough to deter people from committing adultery. In reality, fornication could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(land you in prison for six months. This punishment was not rooted in moral concerns but financial, due to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fears that the community would have to support many illegitimate children. Prostitution was also targeted as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this was a longstanding concern, particularly in London. Prior to the 1650 act people were ducked, but after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the act was passed people were whipped and branded and later deported to the colonies. One of the major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failures during this decade was the lack of clarity over the legality of marriages. There had been many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changes in the law and in addition to the upheavals of war many unforeseen issues appeared that were not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(catered for by existing legislation. Many couples were confused and many ?irregular unions? were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consummated which bred anger. Overall, Capp concludes there were few convictions for sexual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(irregularities in the 1650s, despite the strict laws.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For Puritans alcohol alone was not an evil but the dangers connected with overconsumption were. There )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a concern that people would spend too much on drink and other narcotics \(which included coffee\) rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than feeding their children. The Puritans targeted the alehouses which attracted pickpockets, prostitutes and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gaming, often resulting in drunken brawls which disturbed the peace. In addition the alehouses encouraged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Royalist disaffection, providing a location for them to gather to drink to the King?s health. The civil war had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disrupted alehouse regulation, making the problems endemic and as a result the Puritans targeted alehouse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(licences for reform. However, as Capp highlights, there were major obstacles in the way of reform. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alehouses were often central to trade, many licences were held by widows, and often the magistrate would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not wish to antagonise the community. The efforts to reform alehouse licences were localised and were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tackled in many different ways. For example, John Bradshaw, Commonwealth judge and magistrate in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cheshire, limited the number of alehouses in certain locations and in Norfolk applicants sat stringent tests. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Overall, Capp concludes that alehouse reform was patchy and ineffective. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final two chapters of the second part of the book explore the authorities? attitudes towards worldly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pleasures: dress, dancing, music, art, performance and sport at both national and local levels. In this section )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Capp builds on earlier research to prove that the decade, although challenging for the arts, was not one of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comprehensive suppression. Capp makes clear that restrictions placed on the arts were not products of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(puritan fanaticism but rooted in a myriad of biblical passages and existing laws. The Commonwealth saw )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7375 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempts to regulate dress building upon regulations which had existed for centuries. Bills went through the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(House to ban make-up and black patches and to encourage modest dress; however, these did not become )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Acts. Oliver Cromwell wore what some considered extravagant clothing and many continued to wear their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hair long. On the subject of music, Puritans disliked music in church regarding it as popish but, as Capp )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows, Puritan attitudes to music outside of the church were far more complicated. During the 1650s it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficult for musicians to earn a living. Many traditional sources, such as the court, theatre and church did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notoffer patronage. However, music still played a ceremonial role during thanksgiving days and banquets. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Cromwellians, upon realising the damage done to the profession, set up the Committee for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Advancement of Music, but it was not a success. Despite this, there were many public concerts and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(musicians relied on teaching. Recreational music flourished as people continued to learn how to play their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own instruments. Concerns over travelling musicians were not a new issue, as the Elizabethans had classed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these people as vagrants. Again, these concerns about musicians in the 1650s reflected fears of disruptive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and bawdy behaviour at alehouses. Capp concludes that music survived as musicians were still hired at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weddings, revels and dances.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Again, similarly to music, dancing was only permissible in certain contexts and there was not a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comprehensive ban. For example, John Hutchinson, the famous parliamentarian, had taken dancing lessons )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and private dance parties still remained popular in London and the provinces. The university towns of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford and Cambridge both supported dancing schools. Dancing for the poor was permissible as long as it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did not take place in alehouses. However, there was a genuine fear that Royalists used dances to host covert )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meetings. Regarding the visual arts, few Puritans shared Charles I?s passion for them, regarding them as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popish, but again, attitudes varied, depending on context and content. Art had no place in churches or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious worship. Erotic art was considered foreign and popish, although clearly some art was considered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acceptable, Cromwell kept marble busts in Whitehall and Hugh Peters had paintings commissioned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depicting civil war battles. Almost everyone would have owned family portraits. Capp concludes that in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1650s art was allowed to continue unless it transgressed moral decency.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Theatre closures, often associated with the Puritans, started in 1642 on the grounds that the theatres )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encouraged pickpocketing, brawls and promiscuity. However, at this time, the ban was only temporary and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(used in times of national crisis. In 1648 the ban became permanent and any transgressions led to actors being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whipped. In 1649 soldiers destroyed the remaining theatres. However, as Capp is keen to show, this is only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one side of the story and he argues that the theatre survived and that private performances and plays )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continued to be sponsored by patrons. As there were no full length plays acted in public, performers resorted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to drolls. These were simple pieces which required little preparation. Playwrights, like Sir Willam Davenant, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wrote more morally acceptable plays to get past the censors. Play reading and oddities were still popular, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the ?Thundering Elf? drawing in many crowds. As the 1650s progressed spectacles and sports grew in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popularity. In 1655 the London Mayor?s parade was revived and wrestlingcould not besuppressed because )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of its overwhelming popularity. The root cause of many concernswas fear over public order. There were no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems with hawking and hunting because they did not threaten to disrupt the community. Horse racing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the Interregnum suffered periodic bans due to security fears, as Royalists used them for covert )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meetings. However, many race organisers ignored these restrictions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part Three of the book looks at the implementation of godly reformation in various local contexts. Capp first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examines Kidderminster, the locality of the famous minister Richard Baxter, and concludes that many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accepted church discipline. This was due to Baxter being able to win over communities due to hismediating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abilities and charitable gifts. As Capp states, Baxter was lucky because Kidderminster was not bitterly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divided over religion. Capp then asks why reformation failed in specific communities, focusing on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Southampton and Headon. In these cases the corporation and the boroughs were unresponsive to reform, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whereas moderate progress was made in Scarborough and York because radical puritan groups offset the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Royalist influence. In places such as Berwick, Northampton and Coventry godly reformation was a major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(success due to the effective co-operation between ministers and magistrates. In the cases of Wallingford and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maidstone, the councils had been purged leaving a hardcore puritan minority in charge. In the case of Rye in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sussex there had been a longstanding puritan presence and godly reformation had been underway for )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R 26 0 R 29 0 R 32 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7632 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decades. Capp admits that Puritans realised that total reformation was impossible, but they tried hard to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gather and inspire the elect and encourage the majority to live ?decent? lives.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Capp then analyses the extent of the success of reformation in Exeter, a place which was horrified by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regicide but became successful inits drive for a godly society during the 1650s. In some respects godly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reformation was a success. Schools were built, and an orphanage and almshouses were repaired and there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a relief of the poor. There was an active pursuit of reformation of manners, especially blasphemy, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convictions fluctuated according to the town?s overall priorities at the time. The authorities were active in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enforcing the Sabbath; prosecutions started as a trickle but gathered pace as the decade continued.They )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wereusually aimed at youths who would actively disrupt church services. Efforts to convict drunkards, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(single mothers and adulterers rose sharply. However, like all communities, there was defiance and divisions. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For example, a large crowd assembled in the centre of the town on Christmas Day in 1655 and Puritans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(endured mocking and name calling. In addition, Quakers caused disruption to religious communities and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Independents and Presbyterians quarrelled. Exeter was divided in 1642 and remained so throughout the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1650s.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bernard Capp concludes that the Puritan reformation in the 1650s fell short of its ambitious ideals. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parliamentarian movement had split into many groups and there were many structural problems within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Church, in addition to communication problems between the localities and Whitehall. The Church was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?toothless? and could not enforce discipline. Despite this, Capp insists that historians should not write off the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Interregnum?s drive for godly reformation completely and suggests that the Interregnum only lasted for 11 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years and therefore the regime?s limits should be recognised. However, in some local areas, the reformation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had made significant progress. Compliance is rarely documented, but clashes and drama often are. Some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(goals were widely shared within communities and this did benefit the drive for reformation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The subject of godly reformation in early modern England has been debated amongst historians for decades )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the Civil War and Interregnum has always been acknowledged as a key period in these developments. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Previous to Ronald Hutton?s fascinating and all encompassing account of ?The Rise and Fall of Merry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England? )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 82.340 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 82.340 402.675 m 96.332 402.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 96.332 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, assessments on specific aspects of godly reformation during the Interregnum were to be found )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amongst the many local and county based accounts of the period or articles focusing on specific issues.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 528.932 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 528.932 388.419 m 542.924 388.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although the local accounts were often fascinating and comprehensive they gave us little insight into how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(godly reformation during that decade operated across England as a whole, only giving tantalising insights )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the successes and failures of the reformers. Many of the articles that have discussed godly reformation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the 1650s on a national scale have often emphasisedits failure.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 348.632 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 348.632 331.395 m 362.624 331.395 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 362.624 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Bernard Capp, like Hutton, puts the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(efforts of the puritan reformers into a wider perspective, showing that puritan efforts were often built upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those attempted by earlier monarchs. The major breakthrough in gauging the impact of godly reformation in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England in the 1650s came with Christopher Durston?s pioneering study into Cromwell?s Major Generals. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This study showed that it was possible to analyse godly reformation in the 1650s on a national scale )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comprehensively and systematically, and thus the successes and failures of godly reformation during this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decade could be adequately assessed. Christopher Durston had succeeded where many historians before him )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had tried and failed and his study was a remarkable achievement.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 346.940 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 346.940 231.603 m 360.932 231.603 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Therefore, with this in mind, it serves as a reminder that analysing and assessing godly reformation across )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England in the 1650s is by no means impossible, but it is certainly a major undertaking,beset bysubstantial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenges. Bernard Capp has written a highly significant work which greatly aids our understanding of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(godly reformation in England during the 1650s and is a ?must read? for all scholars of the period. In this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work Bernard Capp brings together many varied accounts from all localities across England and at all levels )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of government, bringing together all the pieces of the jigsaw puzzle and giving us a full and comprehensive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(picture of godly reformation during a fascinating decade.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 86.307 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 55.690 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 55.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. Hutton, )] TJ ET BT 117.356 55.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Rise and Fall of Merry England: The Ritual Year 1400?1700)] TJ ET BT 432.020 55.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1994\) pp. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 82.3397 402.9895 96.3317 414.8695 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 528.9317 388.7335 542.9237 400.6135 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 348.6317 331.7095 362.6237 343.5895 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 346.9397 231.9175 360.9317 243.7975 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R ] /Contents 35 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Length 4680 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(200?26.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 102.344 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 102.344 795.075 m 156.332 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 782.218 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are numerous local studies which discuss godly reformation- too many to be listed; however, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some of the most significant are A. Fletcher, )] TJ ET BT 280.652 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A County Community in Peace and War: Sussex )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1600?1660)] TJ ET BT 118.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1975\); David Underdown, )] TJ ET BT 297.656 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Somerset in the Civil War and the Interregnum)] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Newton Abbot, 1973\); J. S. Morrill, )] TJ ET BT 243.344 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cheshire 1630?1660)] TJ ET BT 343.676 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1974\); Andrew Coleby, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Central Government and the Localities: Hampshire 1649?1689)] TJ ET BT 369.332 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1987\); A. Hughes, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Godly Reformation and its opponents in Warwickshire 1640?1662)] TJ ET BT 383.012 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Dugdale Society, 1993\); A. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hughes, )] TJ ET BT 106.676 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Politics, Society and the Civil War in Warwickshire)] TJ ET BT 354.668 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1987\). Articles on specific )] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspects of godly reformation in England include: K. Thomas, ?The Puritans and the Adultery Act of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1650 reconsidered?, in )] TJ ET BT 175.988 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Puritans and Revolutionaries)] TJ ET BT 317.324 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. D Pennington and K Thomas \(Oxford, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1978\); I. Green ?The Persecution of ?scandalous? and ?malignant? parish clergy during the English )] TJ ET BT 64.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Civil War?, )] TJ ET BT 123.008 639.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Historical Review)] TJ ET BT 249.008 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 94 \(1979\); K Wrightson, ?Alehouses, order and reformation in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rural England, 1590?1660? in )] TJ ET BT 209.660 625.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Popular Culture and Class Conflict 1590?1914)] TJ ET BT 438.020 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Eileen and Stephen )] TJ ET BT 64.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yeo \(Brighton, 1981\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 170.672 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 170.672 609.747 m 224.660 609.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 596.890 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(D. Hirst, ?The failure of Godly rule in the English Republic?, )] TJ ET BT 361.976 596.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Past and Present)] TJ ET BT 443.972 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 132 \(1991\) 33?66; )] TJ ET BT 64.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christopher Durston ?Puritan rule and the failure of cultural revolution? in )] TJ ET BT 424.964 582.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Culture of English )] TJ ET BT 64.016 568.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Puritanism 1500-1700)] TJ ET BT 172.352 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Christopher Durston and Jacqueline Eales \(Basingstoke, 1996\), pp. 210?33.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 552.723 m 118.004 552.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 539.866 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(C. 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