%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R 23 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141218150652+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141218150652+00'00') /Title (Governing Post-War Britain: The Paradoxes of Progress, 1951-1973) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4189 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Governing Post-War Britain: The Paradoxes of Progress, 1951-1973)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Joseph Heller?s 1979 novel )] TJ ET BT 182.324 273.323 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Good As Gold)] TJ ET BT 250.988 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the hapless protagonist, college professor and would-be public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectual Bruce Gold, writes a light-hearted magazine article entitled ?Nothing Succeeds As Planned?. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sends a copy to his contact at the White House, the ineffable Ralph Newsome, who is delighted with it. ?I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can?t tell you how you?re boggling our minds?, Newsome tells Gold. ?If nothing succeeds as planned ? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(you really present such a strong argument ? then the President has just the excuse he needs for not doing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anything?. He goes on to explain that photocopies have been made so that everyone in government can read )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it, but that because they have all been stamped ?secret? nobody will be able to.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Political satire is full of such moments of unintended consequence: the high-sounding initiative that gets the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minister into hot water, the policy that rebounds on its creator, the economy drive that ends up costing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(money. This type of narrative both gives us the satisfaction of seeing the pomposity of the powerful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(punctured and at the same time warns/reassures us of the fundamental impossibility of change. We are all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(given the excuse we need for not doing anything. It is important then, that Glen O?Hara?s book, which deals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explicitly with the problem of unintended consequences in modern politics, distances itself such negative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readings. Although its pages are full of policies gone wrong ? or at least, gone not quite right ? O?Hara )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assures us that he does not mean to advance the conservative precept of ?perversity?, that is the idea )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1347)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 8 November, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Glen O'Hara)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780230230569)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(320pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palgrave Macmillan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Basingstoke)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Toye)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7662 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purposive social or political action always has a negative impact. ?Though perhaps often achieving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?perverse? effects, the British government?s actions rarely made the exact problem under scrutiny worse?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he writes of the period under study. ?They usually caused problems to emerge in other arenas, evoked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unheralded opposition, or produced unexpected second-order problems of management and administration? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 199\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is distinguished by the depth of its research, in American as well as British archives, and by its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grasp of a quite astonishing range of secondary literature. It is written with great lucidity, and provides a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wealth of information on a range of fascinating topics. The subject matter is indeed quite eclectic. O?Hara )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes use of the ?core samples? approach used by Lawrence Black in )] TJ ET BT 373.916 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Redefining British Politics: Culture, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Consumerism and Participation, 1954-70)] TJ ET BT 234.020 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 237.020 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 237.020 654.771 m 251.012 654.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 251.012 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This involves making use of case studies to cast light on bigger )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issues, rather than seeking a ?comprehensive? treatment of a single theme. It can be effective because it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allows for the thorough exploration of byways that might otherwise be ignored. It is also potentially risky, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because of the possibility of excessive diffuseness, but it works well in O?Hara?s hands. His decision to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(group his chapters into sections helps create a sense of thematic coherence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In substantive terms, the chapters cannot be praised too highly. They represent an important contribution to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarship, and will be referred to by specialists for years to come. My sole criticism of the book is that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some of the ideas it raises, especially the problem of unintended consequences, could have been analysed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more systematically throughout. Therefore, in this review, having first described the contents of the chapters, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I will put forward some issues for clarification and discussion. My aim is to foster a dialogue in order to help )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advance the intellectual agenda put forward by O?Hara, with which I am very much in sympathy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Section one, ?Ideas from ?the Outside??, deals with British policymakers? use of foreign exemplars. Within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it, chapter one explores ?The use and abuse of foreign archetypes in British economic policy?. It examines )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anxieties about Britain?s place in the world during an era of relative economic decline, and the ways in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which political thinkers became obsessed with apparently more successful foreign models. We learn that, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surprisingly, there was ?relative silence? with regard to West Germany, partly because it took a long time for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the British to adjust to the fact that the ruined and vanquished former enemy could be a serious competitor, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and partly because the Germans were seen as old-fashioned in their ?pre-Keynesian? approach. French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic planning seemed more attractive up until the 1960s, and, in the age of the Sputnik, Soviet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(performance seemed both impressive and threatening. As O?Hara notes, what the British thought about these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other countries tell us a lot about what they thought about themselves. Looking abroad, they thought they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(saw order, purpose and rationality; at home they perceived chaos, loss of willpower and muddle.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter two is called ?Archetype, example or warning? British views of Scandinavia? and is one of the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fascinating parts of the book. It shows how there was a strong tendency to view Scandinavian countries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(almost as utopian societies, in spite of suspicions of their geopolitical stance during the Cold War. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Scandinavian model? of society generated enthusiasm even though the economic success of the countries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerned may have been better explained by their liberal trade policies in combination with their position in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the world economy. However, although many British thinkers were interested in in theory in importing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scandinavian ideas, it was a different matter in practice. A 1962 TUC delegation to Sweden was impressed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the cooperative atmosphere but was ?entirely unpersuaded of the need to change to change its own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plant-level practices? \(p. 39\). During the same period, the Conservatives did actually legislate to facilitate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scandinavian-type housing cooperatives, but the impact was minimal, as the government, retaining its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?obsession with owner-occupation? \(p. 45\) failed to provide adequate subsidy. As O?Hara notes, the interest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Scandinavia remains important today. For example, Sweden has been an influence on today?s ?free )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(schools? concept. It seems not only that the foreign archetype has been wrenched out of context, but that its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actual success even in Sweden is also open to doubt. )] TJ ET BT 288.980 121.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Plus a change)] TJ ET BT 362.300 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Section two, ?Sliding away from stability?, focuses on the economy in the 1960s, in its international )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dimension. Chapter three, ?President Kennedy, Prime Minister Macmillan and the gold market, 1960?63?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows the complex interplay of political and economic factors at a time when the cracks were beginning to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(show in the international monetary system established at the end of the Second World War. In a system of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 237.0197 655.0855 251.0117 666.9655 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7561 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fixed exchange rates, both the dollar and the pound were vulnerable in the face of balance of payments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deficits. Moreover, in spite of the huge power of the United States, it had considerable difficulties in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bringing its will to bear on its allies, including the British. The Americans could not easily contemplate a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sterling devaluation, for fear that the dollar would be the next target of the speculators. Thus, the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could extract more help from Washington than might have been expected in the light of their rapidly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(declining status. This is seen in chapter four, ?President Johnson, Prime Minister Wilson and the slow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collapse of equilibrium, 1964?68?. O?Hara is sceptical of the idea of a ?secret deal? between Harold Wilson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and LBJ. He notes that the two men ?shared a number of unspoken objectives which may have tied the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interests of the two leaders together without any formal pact. However, the difficulty with arguments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focusing on their ?deal? is that such work often underestimates the extent to which the British were able to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manipulate the relationship to their won ends? \(p. 73\). Thus in spite of the pressure from the Americans to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maintain their defence role East of Suez, the decision to withdraw ? albeit in the face of economic crisis - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can be seen as much as ?a signal of continuing freedom as an admission of failure? and as ?a retreat which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(signalled an assertion of independence? \(p. 90\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Section three, ?Governing Britain?, provides a similarly mixed picture. Chapter six, ?The creation and early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work of the parliamentary ?Ombudsman??, tells the origins of an institution that is now rather taken for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(granted, at least by those who know of its existence. A prominent advocate of the idea was Donald Johnson, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a Conservative MP who, although extremely eccentric, was rightly concerned about the arbitrary use of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power in respect to people considered to have mental illness. \(Johnson had been incarcerated for six months )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a few years before he entered Parliament in 1955, and believed himself to be a victim of a conspiracy by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unnamed gangsters.\) Here is another case where Scandinavia was an inspiration, Sweden having established )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an Ombudsman in 1809 and Finland having done so in 1919. The Wilson government legislated to create the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new office in 1967. As O?Hara notes, this move can be seen as an example of the widespread late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20th?century desire to put certain types of decision-making ?beyond politics?, a tendency which may have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflected suspicions of democracy and popular control. On the other hand, this particular reform appears to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been a desirable one, and the expansion of the role beyond its original narrow limits is cited in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusion as an example of a)] TJ ET BT 178.316 413.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( positive )] TJ ET BT 221.648 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unintended consequence which benefitted ?many citizens? \(p. 199\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter seven, ?Sir Alec Cairncross and the art and craft of economic advice, 1961?69?, might perhaps have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sat more naturally within the previous section, but is nonetheless a stimulating account of the frustrations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life within government. As a supposedly key official adviser to successive governments, Cairncross might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have expected wide influence, but repeatedly found his uncomfortable advice ignored. He knew that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incoming Labour government faced a choice between deflation and devaluation, and his own preference was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the former. But ministers would not choose either, and so ended up doing each in turn. Chapter eight, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(??An All Over Expansion?: the politics of the land in ?Golden Age? Britain? contains further evidence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such shortsightedness. The Land Commission created in 1967 was an attempt to address the problem of high )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(land prices, but it resulted in ?the far-from-welcome consequence of actually pushing up the price of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(property under conditions of planned scarcity? \(p. 148\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Section four, ?Educating the nation?, contains two chapters. Chapter nine, ?Planning the education system in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the post-war era? paints what is some ways a rather positive picture. Education spending as a share of GDP )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expanded quite dramatically from the end of the Second World War until the mid-1970s. This resulted in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many more teachers, schools, and further education places. The comprehensive revolution may have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperfect, but it was a major achievement. Moreover, although O?Hara mentions the 1963 Robbins report )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only in passing ? many more people gained the opportunity to go to university. The unintended consequence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(here was not that things got worse but rather that the genuine improvements failed to put an end to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ongoing sense of educational ?crisis? which persists to this day. Chapter ten, ?Slum schools, civil servants )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and sociology: Educational Priority Areas, 1967?72?, examines efforts to address educational deprivation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(via positive discrimination. One problem with this approach was that targeting was difficult. As one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary observed, ?Most children in EPAs are not specially deprived, and most of the deprived are not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in EPAs? \(p. 183\). Even before the Thatcher era, the concept of positive educational discrimination was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(running into the sands. The Education Action Zones initiated under Blair marked a revival, although )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 7274 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policymakers at that point seemingly had no knowledge of the previous experiments.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With all these examples in mind, are there any ways to make the helpful concept of unintended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequences more analytically rigorous? Such consequences are, after all, an innate party of the human )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(condition. O?Hara sees them ? in the form under discussion in his book - as a particular product of recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modernity, arguing that ?ever more complex ambitions and trade-offs definitely )] TJ ET BT 420.284 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(were)] TJ ET BT 443.612 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( a characteristic of post-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war governance? \(p. 4; emphasis in original\). Without disputing that, one might well ask whether the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problem of unintended consequences was in fact any more acute in the 1950s than in, say, the 1930s. Going )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further back, one thinks of the period described in Ronald Robinson and John Gallagher?s )] TJ ET BT 469.616 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Africa and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Victorians)] TJ ET BT 84.020 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1961\), which showed how the expansion of Empire followed logically from official assumptions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without anyone ever having quite willed it to happen. Certainly, the nature of the problem of governance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subsequently changed, but increased complexity provided opportunities for the state as well as difficulties.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It might be helpful, then, to distinguish more clearly between the different types of unintended consequence. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For example, the consequences of the design flaws in the Bretton Woods system, which no state actor could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hope to overcome on its own, were rather different from the consequences of the poor decisions of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wilson government with respect to deflation/devaluation, which were equally unintended but more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(avoidable. Then there are the consequences of misjudged policy transfers, which may, in fact, sometimes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represent accurately what politicians wanted to do, even if we think them foolish or immoral for having )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wanted to do it. If, for example, the Education Secretary wants to justify his half-baked policies by reference )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the supposed experience of other countries, and in so doing helps ruin the British school system, can the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequences really be described as unintended? Presumably our model needs to leave some room for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(genuine stupidity and bloody-mindedness as well as for the muddles produced by the well-intentioned.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Similarly, I would like to press O?Hara to expand on his concept of ?imagination? which he deploys in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respect to how the British viewed other countries? economies. His use of the term, inspired by Benedict )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anderson?s well-known description of nations as ?imagined communities?, has a great deal of analytical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potential. Nonetheless I wonder if he is right to contrast ?imagination? with ?understanding? \(p. 12\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggesting a gulf between them. Imagination, I would suggest, is a key tool for understanding the world, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it can be used well or badly. Neither O?Hara or I was alive in the 1950s, so we have to try to imagine it, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary evidence is the aid that we deploy in order to do so. In the same way, in order to learn about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other countries, policymakers have to use the tools that are available to them, which are likely to contain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important biases. It is probably impossible to have a view of the world that is not in some way distorted, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some distortions are more problematic than others and some people are more aware than others of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limitations of their own mindsets. So I would urge a more positive view of imagination and a further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploration of its capacity for yielding positive outcomes, in addition to its undoubted potential for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introducing intellectual error.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(My final point is about the media, which receives little explicit mention in the book. During the period in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question it was undergoing rapid changes and was becoming \(from the politician?s point of view\) more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?intrusive?. Increasingly, policy became increasingly media driven, and politics seemed to become ever )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more frenetic. The narrative of ongoing crisis to which O?Hara refers was in part the product of these new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dynamics. One ?crisis? might fade away to be replaced by another, but the media?s interest was always to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(present some topic of fierce urgency or imminent disaster, and that of the politicians was always to be seen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be ?taking action? in order to ?solve? whatever the problem was alleged to be. Unintended consequences, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therefore, are not necessarily exclusively the result of internal flaws in specific policies. Rather, they are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(partly the product of a political-media environment that cannot tolerate a vacuum, and which drives the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governmental agenda in such a way as to create a permanent cycle of public anxiety and reassurance.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In summary, this book is a significant one, which will stand the test of time, and which raises some vital )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions for future scholars to take forward. Doubtless it will also have some unintended consequences of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which we don?t yet know, but, if so, O?Hara will have the satisfaction of being able to claim them as further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proof of his central idea.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R 27 0 R ] /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 1054 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 775.827 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 745.210 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 745.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lawrence Black, )] TJ ET BT 148.316 745.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Redefining British Politics: Culture, Consumerism and Participation, 1954?70 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Basingstoke, 2010\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 163.676 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 163.676 729.555 m 217.664 729.555 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 714.223 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 696.443 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 696.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1347)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 695.049 m 328.316 695.049 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 670.072 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 655.672 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/39676)] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 163.6757 729.8695 217.6637 741.7495 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 695.3635 328.3157 707.2435 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1347) >> endobj xref 0 29 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000574 00000 n 0000000656 00000 n 0000004897 00000 n 0000005006 00000 n 0000005116 00000 n 0000005225 00000 n 0000008786 00000 n 0000008914 00000 n 0000008998 00000 n 0000009082 00000 n 0000016797 00000 n 0000016827 00000 n 0000016955 00000 n 0000016991 00000 n 0000017056 00000 n 0000024670 00000 n 0000024735 00000 n 0000032062 00000 n 0000032153 00000 n 0000033260 00000 n 0000033388 00000 n 0000033443 00000 n 0000033571 00000 n trailer << /Size 29 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 33667 %%EOF