%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140709150117+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140709150117+01'00') /Title (The Regular Canons in the Medieval British Isles) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4046 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Regular Canons in the Medieval British Isles)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This impressive collection has its origins in 2007 when the editors organized a conference on the regular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(canons in the British Isles, to shine a light on current research on this form of regular life. Scholarship on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regular canons has been rather overshadowed by that on the Benedictines and Cistercians, but this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(multidisciplinary publication does much to redress the balance. It combines local, regional and national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies, and includes case studies of individual houses. Whilst most of the 22 chapters are on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Augustinian canons one contributor looks at the Premonstratensians and two focus on the Gilbertines \(Order )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Sempringham\), the only English order to emerge in the Middle Ages. A wide range of topics is covered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but the question of identity emerges as a key theme, in particular the interplay between the canons' role as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agents of reform and their continuity with the past, for a number of their houses were founded on sites of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(former religious and cult significance. The chapters are arranged in four groups: 'Origins and organization, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and regional developments'; 'Community life'; 'Social contexts'; and 'Cultural contexts'. This represents the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vibrancy of current scholarly activity and is a testimony to the diverse nature of the canons' involvement in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the British Isles. There is an extensive bibliography, a useful list of all of the houses of regular canons in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British Isles and individual maps of England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales showing the location of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(various abbeys and priories in each country.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1348)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 15 November, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Janet Burton)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Karen Stober)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9782503532486)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(110.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(508pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brepols)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Turnhout)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Julie Kerr)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7489 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part one is the largest section and comprises eight chapters. It discusses aspects of the canons' organization )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and regional developments, and opens with Sheila Sweetinburgh's \(pp. 19?40\) case study of St Gregory's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Priory, Canterbury, where Augustinian canons replaced secular clerks in 1133 and took on their claim to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possess relics of the Anglo-Saxons saints, Eadburg and Mildred. The revival of these cults was lucrative but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as Sweetinburgh argues it also provided a way for the canons to create an identity through 'remembered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(origins' \(p. 40\). The focus shifts northwards as Janet Burton \(pp. 41?57\) considers the influence of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(episcopate ? and in particular Thomas II, archbishop of York \(1109?14\), and his successor, Thurstan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1114?40\) ? in promoting the regular canons in the north of England. She speculates whether the canons' role )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as priests made them an attractive option to the archbishops given that they could help 'at grass roots level' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 57\). It is difficult to determine the precise nature of the canons' involvement in pastoral care and whether )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this was markedly different to their monastic counterparts, a point that is raised by several contributors. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anne Mathers-Lawrence \(pp. 59?78\) explores the perception and self-identity of the Augustinians in 12th-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century Northumbria. She suggests that the apparent lack of rivalry amongst the religious orders may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indicate that they had different roles and were not in competition, with the Augustinian canons as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('academic wing' of the new monasticism in Northumbria. Andrew Abram's \(pp. 79?95\) detailed study of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Augustinian canons in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield returns to the matter of cults and the canons' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuity with the past. Whereas most of the Benedictine monasteries in the diocese were established on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new sites, a third of the Augustinian houses were founded on pre-existing churches or cult centres and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commonly retained the former cult. This, he argues, was 'a significant feature of the devotional and political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landscape' in the diocese \(p. 93\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Three national studies follow. Karen Stber \(pp. 97?113\) assesses the role of the regular canons in Wales )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and through case studies of two rather modest priories \(Penmon and Beddgelert\) demonstrate that 'size )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doesn't always matter' \(p. 107\). She argues that houses for which there are scant remains and little surviving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence should not be dismissed, for they were often of considerable spiritual, social, political and cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance within the locality. Andrew Smith and Garrett Ratcliff \(pp.115?44\) analyze relations amongst )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Augustinian houses in Scotland before 1215 and undermine the assumption that the order lacked unity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and organization. They argue that there was homogeneity which had much to do with David I who gave )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them a common economic policy, and Bishop Robert of St Andrews who had himself been an Augustinian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and united the houses through his patronage and by engaging them as his advisors. Miriam Clyne's \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(145?72\) chapter on the founders and patrons of Premonstratensian houses \(White Canons\) in Anglo-Norman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ulster and Gaelic Connacht is the sole contribution on this order. Clyne explains that these houses were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generally founded in areas that were undergoing change, whether conquest, colonization or conversion, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that those in Ulster and Connacht remained independent of each other. Whereas the Ulster houses were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(founded for political reasons and settled by canons from Dryburgh in Scotland, those in Connacht were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(founded as part of the process of ecclesiastical reform and colonized by canons from Prmontr, France. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(final chapter in this section turns to the Gilbertines, an order that comprised nuns, canons, lay sisters and lay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brothers. Jane Sorrentino \(pp. 173?89\) looks at the significance of Augustinian identity to the Gilbertine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(canons through analysis of their capitular office. She argues that the inclusion of incipits from the Rule of St )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Augustine suggests that the Gilbertine chapter office reinforced these canons' Augustinian identity to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(greater extent than previously thought.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second section, 'Community life', comprises five chapters, and topics range from corrodies and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(education to diet and office-holding. Allison Fizzard's \(pp. 193?211\) essay represents part of a larger project )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on corrodies in English and Welsh houses during the reigns of Henry VII and Henry VIII. Here she focuses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the regular canons in England in the later Middle Ages and concludes that they granted relatively few )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(corrodies and mostly to folk they knew. Like the other orders, they might however be obliged to award )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(corrodies to royal servants although these often amounted to cash payments and did not involve residency. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The canons' participation in a wider monastic culture is similarly noted by Nicholas Orme \(pp. 213?32\) who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considers the importance of education to the Augustinians, especially from the 14th century. Orme looks at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study both within the cloister and at the universities when education was formalised. Like the Benedictines )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Cistercians the Augustinians established a university college, albeit at a rather later date. The )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7377 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Augustinians also made a contribution to the education of others through patronage of public schools and by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(teaching and housing almonry boys who in turn might be expected to help in the church or sing in the choir. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, as Orme explains, there was nothing distinctive or consistent about the Augustinians' education )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy and they probably did much the same as their Benedictine and Cistercian counterparts. Dave Postles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(pp. 233?249\) explores the practical and symbolic importance of food to the canons and, significantly, how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this was used to cement relationships ? the canons received gifts of food and awarded it to others. Analysis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centres on the period c. 1200?1350 given that there is little surviving evidence before the 13th century and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the mendicants dominate from the second half of the 14th century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final two chapters in this section are case studies and focus on office-holding and leadership. Judith )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frost \(pp. 251?66\) draws on a 16th-century chronicle of Thornton Abbey, Lincolnshire, to examine the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claustral careers of its canons. She focuses on Thomas Greetham who presided over Thornton in the late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14th century. Frost concludes that age or seniority as well as previous experience were important factors in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(securing election to the abbacy. Greetham's comparatively swift rise was likely a consequence of the Black )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Death when juniors were promoted to seniors more quickly to compensate for the loss of manpower. Martin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Heale's \(pp. 267?87\) case study of Abbot Henry Honor of Missenden \(1462?c. 1506\) continues the theme of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(office-holding in Augustinian life and, like Stber, he gives prominence to a more modest house. Heale )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(draws on Honor's register to assess the role and duties of an abbot of a middling house of canons. This rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal and informal work includes miscellaneous entries such as medical recipes, weights and star signs in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addition to leases, and reveals that Honor was an effective administrator and was actively involved with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local community.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The third part of this collection comprises five essays on 'Social contexts' and discusses aspects of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(canons' contacts with the world such as patronage and their involvement with parish churches. The section )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opens with Glyn Coppack's \(pp. 291?311\) study of Gilbertine architecture which represents a work in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(progress and makes the case, based on Watton Priory, for a reinterpretation of the prototype Gilbertine plan. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Coppack examines the phasing of the groundplan of Sempringham, which was the motherhouse of the order, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to better understand how Gilbertine houses were planned, developed and modified, in particular how they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were adapted to accommodate the Augustinian canons who were introduced at Sempringham and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Haverholme in 1148 \(p. 293\). Aerial photography, excavations and especially a recent topographical survey )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indicate that the canons' cloister at Sempringham was simply attached to the pre-existing design and that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(church was modified to accommodate the canons.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The self-identity of the Augustinian canons is addressed by Nick Nichols \(pp. 313?37\). He draws on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statistical analysis and historical narratives relating to the Augustinians in the Worcester diocese to argue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the possession, exploitation and protection of parish churches was a hallmark of the order. Not only was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a significant proportion of their income from spiritualities but they actively sought to acquire parish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(churches, even swapping lands for them, and went to great lengths to reclaim lost churches.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Patronage of the Augustinian canons is the subject of the next two chapters. Graham St John \(pp. 339?61\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considers why the order drew such tremendous support from members of the nobility and gentry in 14th-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century England. He identifies subtle differences that marked out the Augustinian canons from their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monastic counterparts and which made an enormous difference to would-be founders and patrons. St John )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concludes that the canons' prayers were more important to founders than their pastoral work and the fact that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(each canon was a priest and could celebrate mass was a particular draw. Moreover, the flexibility of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Augustinian rule meant that the canons could offer a more personalized form of commemoration and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accommodate special requests from their patrons such as extra masses. Not least the fact that relatively little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(financial outlay was required to found an Augustinian house would have appealed, especially as most of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these founders were men on the rise; the canons thus offered 'atonement on a budget' \(p. 360\). Emma )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cavell's \(pp. 363?85\) detailed analysis of Wombridge Priory in Shropshire explores kinship, locality and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(benefaction amongst the lesser nobility through analysis of a local knightly family, the Mussons of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Uppington, who were renowned for their predominant female line. Following the death of Sir Roger )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Musson, c. 1191, patronage of Wombridge passed to his widow and nine daughters. Cavell draws on a series )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of over 200 charters relating to the patronage of Wombridge by the Mussons and explores the relationship )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 6591 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the priory and members of the family, and how each side sought to fully exploit its spiritual and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(temporal gains. She notes that the charters reveal how patronage of Wombridge enabled a relatively modest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family with limited resources to imitate the greater aristocracy and effectively establish a family mausoleum )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at the priory.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the final chapter of this section Claire Cross \(pp. 387?400\) considers how the Augustinian canons of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yorkshire responded to the prospect of dissolution and adapted to life after the suppression. Whereas a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of canons remained in their priory's livings or acquired them as benefices after they had passed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Crown, some, whose priories had run schools, continued to teach to boost their income. Cross argues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that, whilst few former canons committed themselves fully to Protestantism, what distinguished these men )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was their ability to exploit their contacts and 'soldier on' \(p. 400\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final section, 'Cultural contexts', comprises four chapters on the Augustinian canons and explores their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence on art, architecture and literature. James Clark \(pp. 403?16\) challenges the contention that Latin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(learning was obsolete amongst the Augustinian canons of late medieval England and finds evidence for an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectual culture in surviving book collections and library catalogues. These suggest an interest in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(innovation ? in the )] TJ ET BT 126.680 572.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(studia litterarum)] TJ ET BT 207.692 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 231.020 572.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ars scribendi)] TJ ET BT 294.020 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? and a similarity to the Augustinian friars on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mainland Europe. Julian Luxford \(pp. 417?42\) considers retrospection in Augustinian art in the later Middle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ages and explores how communities evoked their institutional history both by retaining or collecting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together old objects such as ancient furnishings and tombs, and commissioning new retrospective objects. A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(striking example is the series of seven painted panels at Hexham depicting bishops of the cathedral. This was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commissioned in the late 15th century and may have replaced an earlier series. Luxford concludes that, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whilst there was nothing distinctive about the Augustinians' visual retrospection \(other orders were doing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same\), the canons made a significant contribution to this in medieval England. The penultimate chapter turns )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Thurgarton Priory, Nottinghamshire, which was founded in the 12th century and was the largest and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wealthiest Augustinian house in the county. Jennifer Alexander \(pp. 443?67\) seeks to 'reconstruct' the former )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(priory and demonstrates what can be revealed through analysis of the few standing remains and surviving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fragments in the village, in addition to 18th-century illustrations and depictions of the ruins. She draws )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparisons with surviving architectural features from other religious buildings and concludes that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thurgarton reflected regional design, displaying similar styles to other Augustinian houses in the country as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as to major buildings such as Lincoln Cathedral.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final chapter returns to Ireland as Tadhg O'Keeffe \(pp. 469?84\) explores the architecture, history and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identity of the Augustinian canons here in the 12th and 13th centuries. The order was introduced to Ireland )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Malachy \(d. 1148\), bishop of Down and archbishop of Armagh, prior to the Anglo-Norman conquest of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland in 1169; in contrast to the Cistercians the Augustinians initially recruited from the native population. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The order was patronized by both the native Irish and the foreign settlers but O'Keefe stresses that these men )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were first and foremost Augustinians rather than Irish or Anglo-Norman. Similarities emerge between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Augustinians in Ireland and elsewhere in the British Isles. O'Keefe, like other contributors, argues that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flexibility of the Augustinian rule and the fact their houses needed less land outside the precinct made them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attractive to patrons. He also notes their continuity with the past, for all Augustinian houses in Ireland were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(founded on sites of former Christian significance, and he suggests that their architecture was influenced by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regional design ? the canons did not really exhibit a distinctive Augustinian style. O'Keefe concludes by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(raising several areas that require further consideration, in particular the matter of ethnicity. He argues that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis of the Augustinians could be especially fruitful in this respect since the order was present in Ireland )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before and after the conquest and was patronized by both natives and Anglo-Normans.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 1752 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The editors are to be congratulated for bringing together a rich and multidisciplinary work that reflects the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wealth and diversity of recent and ongoing research in the field. It conveys the breadth of influence that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regular canons had throughout the British Isles and stimulates important questions about the identity not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only of the regular canons but of the religious orders )] TJ ET BT 289.304 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(per se)] TJ ET BT 318.296 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? what made them distinctive; in what ways did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they share a common monastic culture and to what extent were they influenced by regional developments? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This collection will make a significant contribution to our understanding of the order and will hopefully spur )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on further research into the regular canons.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The editors are happy to accept this review, and do not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 655.951 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 638.171 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 638.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1348)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 636.777 m 328.316 636.777 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 611.800 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 597.400 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/40605)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 637.0915 328.3157 648.9715 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1348) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000558 00000 n 0000000640 00000 n 0000004738 00000 n 0000004847 00000 n 0000004957 00000 n 0000005066 00000 n 0000008627 00000 n 0000008755 00000 n 0000008839 00000 n 0000008904 00000 n 0000016446 00000 n 0000016511 00000 n 0000023941 00000 n 0000024006 00000 n 0000030650 00000 n 0000030734 00000 n 0000032539 00000 n 0000032667 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 32763 %%EOF