%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 27 0 R 47 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818071422+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818071422+01'00') /Title (Sinners? Scroungers? Saints? Unmarried Motherhood in Twentieth-Century England) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4042 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Sinners? Scroungers? Saints? Unmarried Motherhood in Twentieth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Century England)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sinners? Scroungers? Saints?: Unmarried Motherhood in Twentieth-Century England)] TJ ET BT 449.672 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( offers a rich and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fascinating study of the National Council of the Unmarried Mother and Her Child \(later the National Council )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for One Parent Families, then One Parent Families and now Gingerbread\), a charitable organization that was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established to provide support for unmarried mothers and their children. In doing so it also reveals much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the lives of unmarried mothers and the changes and continuities in attitudes towards them over the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(course of the 20th century. However it is more than an account of unmarried motherhood and adds to our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of the interaction between the state and voluntary sector, the changing position of women in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society, and the relationship between political and popular debates.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book takes a chronological approach, telling the parallel stories of unmarried mothers? experiences and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the dealings of the National Council with women, the public and the state both before and after the creation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the welfare state. Through these ?intertwined stories? they aim to counter the conventional narrative that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(until the 1960s unmarried motherhood was always seen as shameful, with a transformation then occurring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during this decade which has since seen the raising of children outside of marriage becoming normalised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within society and condoned and even facilitated by the state. In order to challenge this assumed history the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1349)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 15 November, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tanya Evans)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Patricia Thane)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199578504)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(240pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Angela Davis)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7526 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authors principally draw on the archives of the National Council itself, but place this in the context of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parliamentary papers and official reports, social surveys, newspapers and a small number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(autobiographical sources.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A vivid anecdote at the beginning of the first chapter about a young Catherine Cookson learning of her own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illegitimacy during a quarrel with her friend ? who shouted ?YOU haven?t GOT NO DA? ? illustrates the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(real anguish that illegitimacy could cause at the turn of the 20th century. However, while Catherine?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiences feel like they belong to a by-gone age, the authors also aim to show the continuity in lone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(motherhood over the century by demonstrating that cohabitation had been a more enduring phenomenon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than has often been thought the case. Indeed it was even recognized by the state, as is seen in the support )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(given to the ?unmarried wife? and illegitimate children of servicemen during the First World War. Not all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cases were as accepted, though, and there was a difference in the attitudes towards, and experiences of, those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(couples who cohabited as if man and wife and unmarried women raising their children alone. While both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(groups were subject to the pressures of hiding their status from their communities, Thane and Evans argue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there was a greater level of toleration shown towards the former rather than the latter group.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed it was the vulnerability of many unmarried mothers and their children \(which aroused particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention during the First World War\) that encouraged the voluntary sector to step in to support them. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book is as much, and perhaps more, about the role of voluntary action in supporting unmarried mothers as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the lives of the women themselves. The National Council was founded in April 1918, chaired by Lettice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fisher, with the aims of reforming the Bastardy Acts, securing the provision of adequate accommodation for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mothers and babies \(with the special aim of keeping mother and child together\), and dealing with enquiries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from unmarried mothers. It was part of a general expansion of voluntary action between the wars with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(voluntary agencies proving to be important providers of services to those marginal groups that were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neglected by the state. Within 20 years the National Council was, in the words of Fisher, ?solidly established )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the recognized central organization for dealing with unmarried mothers and illegitimate children? \(p. 52\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In many histories of British social policy the Second World War emerges as a turning point, both in terms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(welfare provision and societal attitudes.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 224.984 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 224.984 402.675 m 238.976 402.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 238.976 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Thane and Evans dispel the myth that the war was a time of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unprecedented sexual ?immorality?, but they do show that the war played an important part in changing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attitudes towards unmarried motherhood. While the war caused a moral panic ?over the supposed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(irregularities of unmarried younger people in wartime? by the end of the war there were ?signs that the veil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of secrecy around illegitimacy was gradually becoming more transparent, and attitudes were shifting? \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55, 73\). The war also precipitated a change in the provision of services for unmarried mothers as the lessons )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(learned from the wartime experiences contributed to the post-war reform of policy and practice. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nonetheless, although the introduction of the welfare state benefited lone mothers, as it did all mothers, gaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in state provision soon became obvious. A central tenet of Thane and Evans? argument is that the welfare )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state did not supersede the voluntary provision that existed before it, rather the two continued to work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alongside one another and in co-operation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Change in the post-war period was therefore complex and contradictory. On the one hand new patterns of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family life were emerging in the context of rising rates of female labour participation, improved living )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standards for many combined with the safety net of the welfare state, and greater control of family size )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through better contraception. Yet at the same time these years have been characterized as a period of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conventional attitudes towards the family which stressed the nuclear family with breadwinner husband and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(homemaker wife as both the norm and the ideal. Such views were supported by the mother-centred theories )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of child development that were in the ascendancy after the war as popularized by John Bowlby. Thane and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Evans question how influential these views were in determining responses to unmarried mothers, stating: ?It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is possible to exaggerate their dominance in this much stereotyped but little understood period? \(p. 85\). This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is one area where it would have been interesting to hear more from mothers and children themselves to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discover how important they thought such theories were in shaping their lives.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While the 1960s are popularly imagined as being transformative in the status and numbers of unmarried )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mothers, )] TJ ET BT 78.680 52.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sinners? Scroungers? Saints?)] TJ ET BT 222.680 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( argues that such a characterisation of the ?permissive sixties? over-)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 224.9837 402.9895 238.9757 414.8695 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 25 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7431 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(estimates both the sexual conformity of society in previous decades and the extent of change in the 1960s. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whilst there was change, it was ?slow, uneven, and contested? \(p. 139\). This of course is not a new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument, but is nonetheless persuasive.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 227.324 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 227.324 766.563 m 241.316 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 241.316 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Perhaps a more innovative angle taken by Thane and Evans is to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(show how there was a shift in the social policy discourse in the 1960s from a representing unmarried, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(widowed, divorced and separated lone mothers as distinct groups with distinct problems, to emphasizing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what these )] TJ ET BT 88.004 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fatherless Families)] TJ ET BT 183.668 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, in the words of Margaret Wynn \(1964\), or Dennis Marsden's )] TJ ET BT 484.100 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mothers Alone)] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1969\) had in common, in particular their material difficulties, poverty, and poor housing. Reflecting this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change, the National Council for National Council for the Unmarried Mother and Her Child changed its title )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the National Council for One Parent Families in 1973, arguing that ?all lone parents share one crucial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characteristic: the responsibility of bringing up children single-handed in a society that is geared )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economically, socially and emotionally to two-parent families? \(p. 137\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The 1970s saw the continuation of many of the developments that began in the 1960s, encouraged by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publication of the landmark Finer Report, which the authors describe as ?the most thorough description and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis of the situation of lone-parent families of the twentieth century? \(p. 167\). The Finer Committee on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One-Parent Families was set up in 1969 and considered issues such as housing, employment and ?the social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and personal life of one-parent families?, concluding that the circumstances of one-parent families were far )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worse than those of two-parent families. Amongst its recommendations were that claimants should be spared )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(going through the courts to receive their maintenance, the introduction of family courts, and that a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Guaranteed Maintenance Allowance \(GMA\) should be available for all lone-parents. However, publication )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the report in 1974 coincided with the economic crisis that followed the 1973 Arab oil embargo. Rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than pursue costly and potentially unpopular reforms to help one-parent families the Labour government )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preferred to try and help all families through Child Benefit reforms. Thane and Evans? account of the Finer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Report, its recommendations, and why these were not adopted, is an interesting one, and it is also indicative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the 1970s ? a story of laudable aspirations that came unstuck in the face of economic crises.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 487.256 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 487.256 455.187 m 501.248 455.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The chapter on the 1980s and early 1990s is the most thought-provoking in the book, but perhaps the least )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusive. The decades saw a significant growth in the numbers of unmarried mothers, openly cohabiting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(couples and one parent families, yet, the authors argue, they were also subject to an unprecedented attack )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(unseen at any point in the preceding century\) from representatives of the government. It was)] TJ ET BT 64.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an extraordinary time. Never in history had so many children been born outside marriage in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England and Wales and never had so many unmarried couples lived together openly, facing )] TJ ET BT 64.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(little evident disapproval from friends and neighbours but attacked by a government which )] TJ ET BT 64.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(objected strongly to any transgression of ?family values?, which appeared to mean raising )] TJ ET BT 64.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children in a lasting marriage \(p. 194\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However the chapter raises many questions that are not fully addressed, perhaps because it is yet too soon to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fully understand what was occurring during these years. Was the hardening of governmental attitudes simply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attributable to the politics of the Thatcher, and then Major governments? If so, why was the approach so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different to previous Conservative administrations? Was there really a new approach to unmarried mothers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or were existing views being more expressed more forcefully? How did the tough political rhetoric influence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular attitudes towards unmarried mothers? In order to fully probe some of these questions it would have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also been helpful to hear more of the narratives of those involved. For instance, in order to assess whether )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lone mothers and their children really did face a new level of stigmatisation in the 1980s it would be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting to contrast their experiences to their counterparts earlier in the century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thane and Evans take us up to the present to evaluate the position of unmarried mothers in 21st?century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain. They show how they have continued to be vulnerable to the changing political and economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(climate. Following the election of ?New Labour? in 1997 the vilification of lone parents by politicians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ceased and there were ?real, if limited, improvements? in their incomes and the services available to them \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(198\). However the authors are less hopeful about the future for lone-parent families under the coalition, with )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 227.3237 766.8775 241.3157 778.7575 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 487.2557 455.5015 501.2477 467.3815 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 8367 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the threat of reforms and cuts and single mothers again being blamed for the ills of society after the 2011 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(riots. They are also critical of David Cameron?s idea of the ?Big Society? and its assumption that voluntary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(services had been squeezed out by the state. They counter that their account of the National Council )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrates the vital support such organisations have always provided: ?Throughout its history, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(National Council, now Gingerbread, has drawn attention and when possible filled the gaps in state provision, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working with the state \(both local and central\), not in competition with it \(p. 208\)?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sinners? Scroungers? Saints?)] TJ ET BT 178.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is, then, an excellent example of why the histories of voluntary organizations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as the National Council should be conducted. Through exploring the past of this one organisation they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have challenged conventional understandings of both unmarried motherhood and the relationship between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the state and voluntary sector before and after the welfare state. However there are also some significant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absences from the story they tell. As they note, there is little in their account about the fathers \(whether )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absent or present\). In addition, while the importance of class is discussed at length, ethnicity receives far less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention. In a book of this length it is of course not possible to cover every aspect of the topic and these gaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reveal the need for more research in this area. The book?s claim to be the ?first book to describe the real )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lives of unmarried mothers? also seems over-stated. In comparison to the wealth of new information the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book sheds on the National Council, there is relatively little on the actual experiences of mothers. The small )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of published autobiographies and memoirs that are consulted are selective and principally of public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figures. The voices of ordinary women do come through in the case notes and letters to the National Council, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but these offer snapshots rather than the opportunity to examine how women experienced unmarried )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(motherhood over the course of their lives and their paths in and out of it. One further small, although not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trivial, criticism is that there is no list of abbreviations, which in places makes the text difficult to follow. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nonetheless, these comments in no way detract from the book?s valuable contribution to the history of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family and social policy in 20th-century England.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.939 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 405.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See, for example, Harry Hendrick, )] TJ ET BT 232.628 405.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Children, Childhood and English Society 1880?1990)] TJ ET BT 487.304 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1997\); Nikolas Rose, )] TJ ET BT 168.680 391.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Governing the Soul: The Shaping of the Private Self )] TJ ET BT 421.664 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1990\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 499.988 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 499.988 389.667 m 553.976 389.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.000 RG 57.816 367.910 m 57.816 368.460 57.589 369.006 57.201 369.395 c 56.812 369.784 56.266 370.010 55.716 370.010 c 55.166 370.010 54.620 369.784 54.231 369.395 c 53.842 369.006 53.616 368.460 53.616 367.910 c 53.616 367.360 53.842 366.814 54.231 366.425 c 54.620 366.037 55.166 365.810 55.716 365.810 c 56.266 365.810 56.812 366.037 57.201 366.425 c 57.589 366.814 57.816 367.360 57.816 367.910 c f BT 64.016 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This argument was made in Kathleen Kiernan, Hilary Land and Jane Lewis, )] TJ ET BT 431.936 364.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lone Motherhood in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 350.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Twentieth-Century Britain: From Footnote to Front Page )] TJ ET BT 344.348 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford, 1998\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 419.996 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 419.996 349.155 m 473.984 349.155 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.000 RG 57.816 339.398 m 57.816 339.948 57.589 340.494 57.201 340.883 c 56.812 341.272 56.266 341.498 55.716 341.498 c 55.166 341.498 54.620 341.272 54.231 340.883 c 53.842 340.494 53.616 339.948 53.616 339.398 c 53.616 338.848 53.842 338.302 54.231 337.913 c 54.620 337.525 55.166 337.298 55.716 337.298 c 56.266 337.298 56.812 337.525 57.201 337.913 c 57.589 338.302 57.816 338.848 57.816 339.398 c f BT 64.016 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are parallels with the dropping of plans to expand nursery provision, see Vicky Randall, ?The )] TJ ET BT 64.016 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(irresponsible state? The politics of child daycare provision in Britain?, )] TJ ET BT 404.972 322.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British Journal of Political )] TJ ET BT 64.016 307.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Science)] TJ ET BT 100.664 307.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(, 25 \(1995\), 327?47.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 198.656 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 198.656 306.387 m 252.644 306.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 281.525 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 267.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Times Higher Education)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 253.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 251.619 m 270.668 251.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 273.668 253.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(HistoryExtra.com)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf 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