%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 27 0 R 35 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140730213239+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140730213239+01'00') /Title (Nights Out: Life in Cosmopolitan London) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3629 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Nights Out: Life in Cosmopolitan London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bordered by Oxford Street to the North, Regent Street to the West, Charing Cross Road to the East and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leicester Square to the South, the area of Soho can be depicted as an exotic island within the oceanic sprawl )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of London. Judith Walkowitz?s latest book, )] TJ ET BT 246.668 259.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nights Out: Life in Cosmopolitan London)] TJ ET BT 447.032 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, explores the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cosmopolitanism of this geographical enclave and asks how this area, not more than 130 acres and with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population that has never exceeded 24,000, came to be regarded as a ?potent incubator for metropolitan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change? \(p. 3\)?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Walkowitz?s mission is to present an account of Soho from the streets, fixing the inhabitants and the area?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(daily flood of visitors as central characters in her study of its history, discussing both the positive and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(negative dimensions of cosmopolitanism and how this has shaped the Soho we know today. In her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduction, Walkowitz astutely suggests that Soho may in fact be read as a blueprint for how London )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would later develop from the 1960s onwards, with the social heterogeneity and negotiations of cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similarities and difference evident in today?s London modelled upon the cosmopolitan history of Soho life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 3\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1350)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 15 November, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Judith Walkowitz)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780300151947)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(400pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Haven, CT)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kevin Guyan)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6438 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nights Out)] TJ ET BT 86.360 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( opens with an exploration of Soho from around 1890, beginning with discussions about the built )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environment and efforts to preserve Old Soho, most notably the preservationist campaign of 1914 to save )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hogarth?s Soho House.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This discussion is followed by a chapter entitled ?Battle of the Empire?, focussing on events at the Empire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Theatre in Leicester Square. Highlighting the purity campaigns targeted at the theatre throughout the late-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Victorian and Edwardian period and the ever-present spectre of prostitution and sexual depravity associated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with West End venues, Walkowitz expands her analysis to look beyond London and notes the venue?s links )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the wider themes of international cultural exchange. Interestingly, it is also suggested that performances at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Empire Theatre chimed with debates taking place across the Empire itself, particularly in regards to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concepts of masculinity and pleasure around the globe.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter three presents an engaging account of dance in Soho, importantly considering dance as exhibited at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theatres and popular dancing at halls and nightclubs. Walkowitz is keen to argue that the dancing body can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be studied for expressions of how people responded to cultural imports and changes in society, particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for women. Through the observation of dance and engagement in its practice many women, for the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time, accessed previously ?forbidden spaces of the nocturnal city? \(p. 91\). The impact of the popularity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social dancing is also highlighted and how this leisure activity shaped other aspects of life in Soho, including )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the production and sale of female dresses.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The dominance of Italian catering in Soho between 1890 and 1940 and the evolution of eateries in this area, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflective of the shifting tastes of their metropolitan clientele, is the theme of the Walkowitz?s chapter ?The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Italian restaurant?. Links between those who worked at Italian restaurants and broader political shifts on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Continent are explored, most importantly the spread of fascism during the 1930s and the impact this had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upon Italians living in Soho. Unlike the East End of London, however, battles between fascists and anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fascists were primarily kept indoors ? perhaps the result of Soho?s spatial geography and its maze of small )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(streets, courtyards and absence of any conspicuous assembly point.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Continuing the theme of commerce, ?Schleppers and shoppers? details the history of Berwick Street Market, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its link with Soho?s Jewish community and its function as a working-class alternative to Oxford Street. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(style of business adopted by market traders and the importance of this space for the livelihood of many Soho )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(residents is stressed, serving as an important reminder of the commercial aspects underpinning this area.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 325.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This chapter is packaged alongside the following chapter, which transfers the focus from the actions of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 311.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(market traders by day to the nocturnal activities of the young people who worked on Berwick Street. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 296.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Walkowitz explores the spaces frequented by the young people, most notably Lyons Tea Shop on Oxford )] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Street, and how, in these locations, people expressed their bodies in new and exciting ways. Whether this be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how women applied their makeup or male fashion choices, ?going out? offered a new language of bodily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practices.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 227.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This codification of the body is a trend also discussed in Walkowitz?s chapter ?The shady nightclub?, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 213.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explores the nighttime venues of Soho, with a particular focus on those run by Mrs Kate Meyrick. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nightclub is framed as, among other things, a site of interracial mixing, both through the provision of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 184.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entertainment by black performers and the opportunities presented to form romantic and sexual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 170.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationships. Mrs Meyrick?s skill in juggling the dual threats of Soho?s criminal underworld and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 156.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scrutiny of the Metropolitan Police emerges as particularly important, raising questions as to what extent the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of Soho has been driven by big personalities.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 115.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Walkowitz concludes with a further exploration of bodies, considering the activities of the Windmill Theatre )] TJ ET BT 34.016 101.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the Second World War and whether the wartime spirit of the venue \(performances continued )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout The Blitz\) masked deeper problems regarding its presentation of English womanhood and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(solidification of white, feminine beauty.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 19 0 R 22 0 R 25 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7612 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapters in )] TJ ET BT 92.012 784.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nights Out)] TJ ET BT 144.356 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( offer a thematic spread of Soho life, each loosely presenting an episode with similar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(threads running throughout, notably dancing, food, sex, commerce and politics. Walkowitz?s decision to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chart Soho?s history thematically rather than chronologically is ultimately a wise decision and there is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguably some sense of linear development across chapters. The downside of this approach, however, is that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readers will undoubtedly favour certain chapters above others.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Walkowitz?s strongest chapter discusses the social and leisure pursuits of the young, Jewish market traders )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Berwick Street. She presents an engaging account of Lyons Tea Shop and the difficult work of the tea )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shop?s waitresses, affectionately known at Nippies due to their speedy service, and the financial limitations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(placed upon the events of a night out, forcing many of the young people to enjoy little more than a ?meal? of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(egg mayonnaise.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Her study of Lyons Tea Shop is equally engaging in its flirtation with ideas of space and the impact this had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upon the history described. Walkowitz explains that certain spaces of the Tea Shop would be frequented by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certain clientele, as ?Jews, Nippies and queers maintained distinct identities and spatial enclaves within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broad expanse of Lyons? commercial spaces? \(p. 207\). This is undoubtedly a theme that would be worth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploring further in future works.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nights Out)] TJ ET BT 86.360 534.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( makes no claim to offer an insight into ?real? London life, whatever this foggy term may entail, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and instead focuses primarily on the exotic, the interesting and the marginal. For this reason, Walkowitz?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work reads very easily and holds the reader?s interest throughout. Accounts of the dancing girls working at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Windmill Theatre during the Blitz or the links between Italian restaurateurs and plots to assassinate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mussolini during the 1930s will excite interest among even the most reluctant reader of history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 451.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, it is also important not to be distracted by the exoticism of the material presented, as )] TJ ET BT 491.624 451.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nights Out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 437.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguably mirrors a wider trend among those writing about the history of twentieth?century London. Recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 422.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(works by Frank Mort )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 139.340 422.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 139.340 421.443 m 153.332 421.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 153.332 422.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and Matt Houlbrook )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 257.324 422.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 257.324 421.443 m 271.316 421.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 271.316 422.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( offer equally fascinating insights into the world of sex and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 408.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scandal in central London in the first half of the twentieth century. Yet, after reading these three books one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does feel perhaps satiated. As interesting as the lives of prostitutes, homosexuals, strippers and gangsters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(operating within a small pocket of London may be, it is possible for readers to simply have too much. There )] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is clearly a need to apply an academic lens to this exciting period of London?s history but it is also vital to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question whether this recent glut of research on marginal activities in London?s zone one romanticises sleaze )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at the expense of exploring the experiences of average Londoners.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 311.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At times, it reads as if Walkowitz is conscious of this risk and makes efforts throughout to avoid the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 296.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accusation that writing about music, food, sex and dance in twentieth?century Britain is little more than a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(light foray into ?pop-culture?. Phrases like ?[Maud Allan?s] American body seemed to embody many of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(qualities associated with Anglo-Saxonism: innocence, racial purity, and the cherished freedoms of a liberal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political heritage? \(p.75\) are indicative of her need to address this challenge and, although at times these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sections can be unnecessarily wordy, they do remind readers that this work is more than a quick read and is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instead a detailed, academic examination of one of Britain?s most formative periods and geographical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(locations, by an established, international, scholar.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 184.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As argued by Mort in )] TJ ET BT 140.336 184.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Capital Affairs)] TJ ET BT 212.024 184.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Soho is as much a state of mind as it is a bounded physical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 170.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environment.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 97.676 170.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 97.676 169.347 m 111.668 169.347 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 111.668 170.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( When attempting to explain how Soho was experienced, one must utilise as much material )] TJ ET BT 34.016 156.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as possible and look beyond the traditional sources of print media, state archives, censuses and business )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(records. Walkowitz does well in this respect, yet it would have been interesting if her research had explored )] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the psychological experiences of Soho more deeply and more frequently departed from reading Soho as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(physical space that simply )] TJ ET BT 163.340 113.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(contains)] TJ ET BT 204.008 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the events depicted. This could have been achieved by considering more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fictional literature, films and paintings that depict the area, breaking down the divide between Soho as ?real? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Soho as ?imagined?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 58.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sections that push deeper with analysis than would perhaps normally be expected are successful, in )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 139.3397 421.7575 153.3317 433.6375 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 21 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 257.3237 421.7575 271.3157 433.6375 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 97.6757 169.6615 111.6677 181.5415 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 30 0 R 33 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 7500 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular Walkowitz?s exploration of the popular dancer Maud Allan. Rather than considering the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sensationalism of her act and its ensuing media attention, Walkowitz directs her attention at Allan?s body )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and what this represented in regards to ideas of politics, culture and society. Motion, movement and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reception of the female body arrive as an unexpected treat for readers with an interest in gender, sex and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sexuality, who will welcome Walkowitz?s decision to look beyond the expected historical dissection of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dancers and scandal in 1920s Soho.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The methodological approach adopted by Walkowitz is generally effective. She excels at the case study, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with each chapter adding a selection of characters to her narrative of Soho life. It would be expected that a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work on cosmopolitan Soho would feature a cast-list of colourful names; however, in this respect Walkowitz )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(goes above and beyond what would be expected, discussing everyone from Nancy Cunard to black jazz )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(saxophonists bussed-in from Cardiff every weekend to entertain the capital?s crowds. Using a mixture of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memoirs, images, travelogues, press reports and criminal records, Walkowitz is able to bring to life the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people who occupied the spaces of Soho and construct an account of a locale constructed by its inhabitants.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It may, however, seem odd how few experiences are explored through oral history methods, particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when discussing events of the 1940s. In her Introduction Walkowitz admits that she is indebted to Gerry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Black?s work )] TJ ET BT 102.668 558.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Living Up West )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 180.332 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 180.332 557.235 m 194.324 557.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 194.324 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and its oral histories of Jewish people living in London?s West End. She is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equally reliant on material sourced from the Hall Carpenter Archives and History of Jazz in Britain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collection at the British Library. It would have been beneficial for her project if Walkowitz had spoken )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(directly with the people she describes \(for example, the girls who danced at the Windmill Theatre\) rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than depending on the oral histories conducted by others and indirect source material.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To what extent is this a problem for )] TJ ET BT 208.664 475.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nights Out)] TJ ET BT 261.008 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? Taking into account the wide pool of other sources utilised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Walkowitz, her decision not to include more direct, personal accounts of events discussed is not overly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detrimental to her research. Certain sections might have benefitted from first-hand testimonies but generally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this is not overly problematic. Simply because a historical project falls within the reach of lived experience )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does not always presuppose the need for oral histories, a point strengthened by the effectiveness of )] TJ ET BT 510.920 418.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nights )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Out?s)] TJ ET BT 62.684 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( use of source material)] TJ ET BT 171.320 404.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The importance of the night to )] TJ ET BT 183.332 377.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nights Out)] TJ ET BT 235.676 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( cannot be overstated and it is clear that Soho exhibits itself most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fully under the cover of darkness. The means by which the character of a space shifts according to the level )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of light is a fascinating observation and it would be interesting to imagine what type of work Walkowitz )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have produced had she focused only on people?s experiences of Soho before the sun had set. )] TJ ET BT 515.240 335.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Days )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Out )] TJ ET BT 55.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would unquestionably be a less interesting read.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet, Walkowitz is correct to confidently trample upon any claims that Soho should be understood as space )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that somehow stands beyond the march of time or the natural world, illustrating that the cosmopolitan nature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the area is ?the outcome of mental and material processes converging? \(p. 286\). )] TJ ET BT 432.584 266.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nights Out)] TJ ET BT 484.928 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a book, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(above all, about people and their importance in the historical construction of this exotic pocket of central )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Critics may take issue with an American historian, based at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempting to discuss the minutiae of a community far-removed from her own background or life history. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Matthew Sweet, writing for )] TJ ET BT 169.664 182.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Guardian)] TJ ET BT 237.332 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, comments upon the ?strangely Martian quality? of )] TJ ET BT 488.300 182.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nights Out)] TJ ET BT 540.644 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questioning whether this could be ?because its author is based on a campus in Baltimore? )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 466.292 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 466.292 167.091 m 480.284 167.091 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 480.284 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, seeming to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hint at the inability of foreigners to write accurately on the history of Soho. The irony of this critique should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be clear for all: Soho?s history is rooted in the rootless and Soho has prided itself on its mlange of the new, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the different, the foreign and the cosmopolitan. Who better, therefore, to write the history of Soho, than a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writer penning her work from beyond the borders of London?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.563 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 180.3317 557.5495 194.3237 569.4295 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 466.2917 167.4055 480.2837 179.2855 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R 51 0 R 53 0 R 55 0 R 57 0 R 59 0 R ] /Contents 36 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Length 5030 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 48.816 796.474 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frank Mort, )] TJ ET BT 125.012 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Capital Affairs: London and the Making of the Permissive Society)] TJ ET BT 442.004 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New Haven, CT, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 780.819 m 149.000 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 767.962 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Matt Houlbrook, )] TJ ET BT 147.680 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Queer London: Perils and Pleasures in the Sexual Metropolis, 1918?1957)] TJ ET BT 504.992 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Chicago, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(IL, 2008\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 112.340 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 112.340 752.307 m 166.328 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 739.450 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mort, )] TJ ET BT 94.016 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Capital Affairs)] TJ ET BT 165.704 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 201.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 204.704 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 204.704 738.051 m 258.692 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 725.194 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gerry Black, )] TJ ET BT 128.996 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Living Up West: Jewish Life in London's West End )] TJ ET BT 375.896 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1994\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 454.220 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 454.220 723.795 m 508.208 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 710.938 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Matthew Sweet. ?)] TJ ET BT 150.332 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nights Out)] TJ ET BT 202.676 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( by Judith R Walkowitz ? review?, )] TJ ET BT 371.984 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Guardian)] TJ ET BT 439.652 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 18 May 2012.)] TJ ET 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